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^ ^/V^'</yv/^. '/y . /,y/,,,' 






» -t- 




The firtt RcAdn* and Prokwor of Anthropology 
in ihe Uatventty U Oxford. 

Presented to the Raddiffe Tnutea 


Dame Anna Rebecca Tylor. 

Jhm, 1917. 













tktmm nf tjit jUmastti ^qsttm. 




To yeytvyrifUyov Ik tjIq aapKOQf adp^ larC 

I. H. S. 





1 .- 


It hm been computed by Professor Neumann that there are 
in China, Tibet, the Imlo-ChineBC countries, and Tariaiy, 


The laws and regulations of the priesthood belonging to a 
religion 80 extensively professed as the system of Gotama, 
must necessarily be an object of great interest. But whilst 
Itrahmanism has been lately elucidated, comparatively little 
is yet known of Budhism by Europeans. 

In the month of September, 1825, 1 landed in the beautiful 
ixland of Ceylon as a Wesleyan Missionjuy, and one of the 
first duties to which I addressed myself was, to acquire a 
knowledge of the language of the people among whom I was 
appointed to minister. After reading the New Testament in 
Singhalese, I began the study of tho native books, tliat I 
might aBcerlain, from authentic sources, the character of the 
religion I was attempting to displace. From the commence- 
ment, I made notes of whatever ajipeared to me to be worthy 
of remembrance in the works I read ; and about ten years ago 
determined to pursue my researches with more of method, 
from the intention I then formed of publishing the result, if 
permitted to return to my native land. 

Ill preparing the present work, it has been my prineipal 
aim lo afibrd assistance to the missionaries who arc living in 

oounlriM wlipre Budliisin is professed; but as I enter ui«ii 
a field of speculation that Las hitliertu been Uttlc cultivated, 
I truBt that tny labours will be regarded as of some interest 
by students of all classes. I have also endeavoured to apply 
the great lesson herein taught to a practical purpose. In 
my illustrations of the manners of the western monks, I liave 
taken the liberty to indulge the bias of early association ; but 
if this has been done to too great an extent, with all submis- 
siveness I crave the reader's pardon. 

A residence of twenty years in Ceylon, and several thou- 
sands of hours spent with the palm-leaf in my hand and the 
ex-pricst of Budha by my side, to assist me lu eases of diffi- 
culty, entitle me to claim attention to my translations us a 
faithful transcript of the original documents. Further than 
this, I speak of my ability for the undertaking with sijieere 
diffidence. During my residence in Ceylon, I was not con- 
nected with any scholastic institution ; I resided, for the most 
part, in the midst of the native population, and had to attend 
to the usual engagemcniJt of a missionary, in preaching, ex- 
amining native schools, visiting the sirk, instructing the people 
from house to house, distributing tracts, and preparing other 
publications for the press, which left me no leisure for literary 
pursuits not immediately connected with my position. Since 
my return to England, about two years ago, I have been in- 
rcKsaiilly engaged in llie work of the ministry, scarcely a day 
having ]>assL>d over, in which I have not had either to preach 
or to deliver an address. It is, therefore, out of my power to 
make any pretension to western learning or general erudition. 
To add to my other disadvanla;^, my residence is in a village, 
where I have access In no public libiruy ; and I have had no 

UtcniTy friend whom I could ask to correct my MSS. or with 
whom I could consult in cases of perplexity. I am aware 
that the apologies of authors sometimes mean, that they do 
not coasider the work they are publishing to be a fair specimen 
of their real ability ; but disclaiming this idea, and willing to 
be corrected wherein I am wrong, as it is my wish to know 
and leach the truth, I mention these circumstances that my 
defects may not be charged to negligence, when they are the 
result of necessity. 

In my illustrations of Budhism 1 have not received much 
assistance from any European author, with the exception of 
the late Hon. George Tumour, translator of the Mahawanso, 
and the Rev. D. J. Gogeily, General Superintendant of the 
Wesleyan Mission in South Ceylon, who has been pronounced, 
by competent authority, to be the best Pali scholar in exist- 
ence, and whose intellectual powers I have long regarded wilh 
the most profound veneration. When I first determined upon 
making myself acquainted with this extensive system, there 
were two courses open before mc; either to commence the study 
of Pali (the language in which the most sacred records of the 
Budhtsts were originally written), or to content myself with 
the more mediate authority of the Singhalese, The former 
course would have been the most satisfactory, if I could have 
assured myself of the time and assistance that would have 
been requisite ; but as it appeared to me probtiblc that I should 
in this way be able to study only detached parts of the system, 
which would not have fulfilled the principal design I had in 
new, I resolved upon continuing ray Singhalese studies, and 
by this means have succeeded in forming an outline of the 
most prominent features of the religion taught by Gdtama. 

I would not, for a moment, depreciate the more honourable 
labours of those wbo have chosen the anluons tHsk of stuJyiug 
the system in the language in which it was originally promul- 
gated. I am like one who has met with individuals that liave 
\Tsited some Terra Incognita, and are able to describe it ; tliey 
have presented before me tlieir stores of information, and 
I have examined them with all the accumcn I possess ; and 
the result of my scrutiny is recorded in these pages. But 
they who study the original canon may be regarded as actually 
entering the land, and winning here aud there a portion of 
territory more or less eitensive ; and by and bye the whole 
region will be gained ; when the initiator}' labours I am now 
pursuing will be forgotten, as they will have been succeeded 
by more authoritative investigations. Nevertheless, in the 
present state of our knowledge of BudhLsm, authenric trans- 
lations from the more modern lauguagcs are of great import- 
ance ; and tliey have an a^lditional interest, pecubar to tliem- 
selves, as they reveal the sentiments, and illustrate the man- 
ners, of the present race of priests. The writings of the Sin- 
ghalese authors abound with <]uotalions from the Pali, of 
which language they have a competent knowledge ; and as 
they regard the works they translate or |>araphrase as a divine 
record, we have every reason to believe that a correct idea 
of the original code may be gained through this medium. 

As some of the names herein inserted have never previously 
t>eeii printed in KngUsh, 1 trust that the oriental scholar will 
fuqfiive a want of unifonuity in the sjielling. It will be 
noticed that some of the words liave a Sunskrtt, and others a 
Fall or aSiughalesp, form. 1 have endeavoured to avoid tliiis 


confusion, but have not succeeded to the extent that is to be 
desired.* There are slight discrepancies in some of the dates ; 
but in each case I have followed the author whose work I 
was translating. 

I send forth my treatise to the world, aware of its numerous 
imperfections, but cheered by the consciousness of integrity in 
its preparation ; and I ask for no higher reward than to be an 
humble instrument in assisting the ministers of the cross in 
their combats with this master error of the world, and in 
preventing the spread of the same delusion, under another 
guise, in regions nearer home. 


Hbbdbn B&idob, Near Halifax, 
May Ut, 1850. 

* I hare been under the necessity of reading some of the proof-sheets in 
the railway carriage, which will account for some oversights. The reader 
is requested to correct the following, in addition to the errors inserted in the 
errata :~Page 190, lin« 18, for Tabular Raica read Tabula Ilaica ; page 292, 
Une 40, for nirw&wa read nirwCina, and dele the space between dhannm& and 
bhisamaya ; page 308, line 4, for facultiycs read faculties ; page 379, line 28, 
for by read of; page 386, line 16, for intelligibiles read intelligibilis ; page 
387, line 18, for interiorum read intcriorcm ; page 388, after the word things, 
Une 3, ineert aa a note, •* Morcll's History of Modem Philosophy ;" page 389, 
linet 27 and 28, for delusion read illusion ; and for anhatamisra read and- 


Prefactb V. 



The Laws and Regulations op the Priesthood 

Names and Titles 10 

The Noviciate : 17 


Ordination 44 

Cbliract 47 

Poverty 62 

Mendicancy 70 

The Diet 92 

Sleep 106 

The Tonsure 109 

The Habit 114 

Tub Residence 129 



Obbdibnce 138 



M18CBLLANXOU8 Rboulations 148 

Thb Obdbb of Nuns 159 

Thb Sacbbd Books 166 

MoDBS OF Worship, Cb&bmonibs, and Festiyals 198 

Mbditation 243 

Ascbtic Rttbs and Supbrn atv&al Powbbs 252 

NiRWANA ; ITS Paths and Fruition 280 

Thb Modbrn Priesthood 309 

The Voicb of the Past 346 

The Prospects of the Future 427 

About two thoiiaand years before the thunders of Wjrcliffe were 
rolled against the mendicant orders of the west, Ootama Biidha 
commeDced Lis career aa a mendicant in the east, and established a 
religious system that has exercised a mightier influence upon the 
world than tbe doctrines of any other uninspired teacher, in any age 
or country. The incidents of his life arc to be found iu the aacred 
books of the Budhists, which are called in Pali, the language in 
which they arc written. Pilakattayan, from pitakan, a basket or 
cheat, and tiyo, three, Ibe test being divided into three great classes. 
Tbe instructions contained in the first doss, called Winaya, were 
sddtessed to the priests; those in the second class. Sutra, to the 
Isiiy: and those in the third class. Abhidharmma, to thed^wasand 
brahmas of the celeatial worlds. There is a commentary, called the 
Attbakatha, which until recently was regarded as of equal authority 
with the text. The text was orally preserved until the reign of the 
Singhalese monarch Watlagamani, who reigned from b. c. 104 to 
B. c. 76. when it was commilted lo writing in (he island of Ceylon. 
The commentary was written by Uudhagosha. at tbe ancient city 
of Anuridhapura, in Ceylon, a. n. 420. In this interval there was 
ample space for the invention of the absurd legends that are inserted 
therein relative to Budba and his immediate disciples, as we may 
leatn from the similar stories that were invented relative to the 
western saints, in a period less extended. 

The father of Gotama Budha, Sudbodana, reigned at Kapilawoslu, 
on tbe borders of Nq)anl ; and in a garden near that city the future 
nge wu bom, b. c. 624. At the moment of his birth he stepped 


upon Ihc ([Toimd, and after looking around towards the four qaartera, 
tlio four lialf-quarlcrs, above, and below, without seeing any one 
in any of these ten directions who was equal to himself, he 
eicl&imcd, " Aggo hamasmi lokassa; jetlho hamasmi lokaasa ; 
soltho bamasmi lokassa ; ayamantitnajuti; naltbidani punabLhawo ; 
I am the most exalted in the world ; I am chief in the world ; I 
am the most escellent in the world ; this is my last birth ; hereafter 
there is to mo no other existence." Upon his person were certain 
signs that enabled the soothsayers to foretell that he wonld become 
B tecluse, preparatory to his reception of the supreme Budhaahip. 
Five days after his birth he received the name of Sidhiirtln, but he 
i* more commonly known by the name of Sakya or Gotuma, hoth 
of nhich are patronymics. When five months old he sat in the air, 
without any support, at a ploughing festival. When sixteen years 
of age he was married lo YasodhnrA, daughter of Suprabudha, who 
reigned at Koli. The father of the predicted Budha having heard 
that it would be by the sight of four signs — decrepitude, sickncBs, a 
dead body, and a recluse — he would bo induced to abandon the 
world, commanded that these objects should be kept away from the 
places to which he usually resorted ; but these precautions were all 
in vain. One day, when proceeding to it garden at some distance 
ftom the palace, he saw an old man, whose trembling limbs were 
supjioTted by a staff. Attracted by the sight, he asked his charioteer 
if he himself should ever be similarly feeble, and when he was 
told it was the lot of all men, he returned to the palace disconsolate. 
Four months afterwards he saw a leper, presenting an appearance 
utterly loathsomo. Again, after the elapse of a similar period he 
tan a dead body, green with corruption, with norms creeping out 
of the nine apertures.* And a year aft«r the sight of the aged man 
he saw a recluse proceeding along the road in a manner that 
indicated the possession of an inward tranquillity; modest inHilB 
deportment, his whole appearance was strikingly decorous. Having 

*T^ texli* nlmoct a lilcnl parsildim to the wards of the old boUod. 

And bora bii note, u 
The norra* cnnl'd oi 
" llicn she unto Ihc n 

" Then she unto Ihc panon mud, 
ShaU I be to wlicn 1 am d<-iid. 


learnt from his charioteer the choTBcter of this tnterestiiig object, 
he commanded him to drive on rapidly to Uie garden, where he 
remained until sunset, in unbounded magnificence, a vast crowd of 
attendants ministering Ic his jileasiire, amidst slruina of the most 
animating music. In the course of the day a messenger arrived to 
announce that the princess had been delivered of a son. This was 
the last occasion on which he engaged in revelry. On his return 
to the city, the most beautiful altendnnts at the palace took up their 
instruments, upon which they played in their most skilful manner, 
but the mind of the prince wandered away to other objects; and 
when they saw that they could not engage his attention they ceased 
to play, and fell asleep. The altered appearance of the sleeping 
courtesans escited additional contempt for the pleasures of the 
world; as some of them began to gnash their teeth, whilst others 
unwittingly put themselves in unseemly poalurcs. and the garments 
of aU were in disorder, the splendour of the festive hall Beemed to 
have been at once convert,ed into the loathsomeness of a sepulchre. 
Housed by these appearances, Sidhartta called for his favourite 
charger, and having first taken a peep at bis son from the threshold 
of the princess's ajiarlment, who was asleep at the time with her 
arm around the babe, he retired from the city, and when he had 
arrived ut a convenient place assumed the character of a recluse. 
In the forest of Uruwela be remained sis years, passing through a 
course of ascetic disciphne ; hut as the austerities he practised led 
to DO beneficial result, he reduced his daily allowance of food to a 
peppnpod, or some equivalent minimum, until bis body was greatly 
ftttentiBtod, and one night be fell senseless to the ground from cx- 
hanation. After this he went to another part of the forest, and 
under a b6-trec, near which Budba Oaya was afterwards built, 
received the supreme Budhasbip. 

In births innumerable, prci-ious to his present state of existence 
a* a man, be had set the office of a budha before him as the object 
of his ambition ; and in all the various states of existence through 
which he passed, animal, human and divine, bad accomplished 
sotaa end. or exercised some virtue, that better fitted him for its 
reception. Whiiat under the bo-tree he was attacked by a formid- 
able host of demons ; but he remained tranquil, tike the star in the 
midit of the Hlorm, and the demons, when tliey bad exerted their 
ultnost power without effect, passed away like the thunder -cloud 
tetiring from the orb of tlie moon, causing it to appear in greater 

At the tenlli hour of the sttme night, he attained llie 
a by which he knew the exact circumstances of all the heinga 
lat Have ever esisled in the infinite worlds ; at the twentieth hour 
be received the divine eyea by which lie had ihe power to ace all 
thing* within ihe space of the infinite systems of worlds as clearly 
as if they were close at band; and at the tenth hour of the follow- 
ing tnoining, or the close of the third watch of the niKht, he attained 
the knowledge by which he was enabled lo understand the sequence 
of existence, the cause of all sorrow and of its cessation. The 
object of his protracted toils and numerous sacrifices, carried on 
incessantly through myriads of ages, was now accomplished. By 
having become a Budha he had received a power by which he 
could pctfom any act whatever, and a wisdom by which he conld 
aee perfectly any object, or understand any truth, to wliicb be 
chose lo direct his attention. 

At thit time he began the exercise of his ministry, announcing 
himself an the teacher of the three worlds, wiser than the wisest, 
higher than the highest. The places near which he principally 
resided were Benares, R^jagaha, Wesali. and Scwet : but he visited 
many other parts of India, and is said to have proceeded as far as 
Ceylon. The dewas and brahmas were also included among his 
auditors, as be occasionally visited the celestial worlds in which 
they reside. The wonders that be performed were of the most 
marvellous description ; but in those days the possession of super- 
natural power was a common occurrence, and there were thousands 
of hit) disciples who could, with the utmost ease, have overturned 
the earth or arrested the course of the sun. At the age of eighty 
years be died, near KuHiudra, which is supposed by sonto to be in 
Asaam, and by others near DelhL After ibo burning of his body, 
his relics were preserved, and became objects of worship to his 

According to the doctrines propounded by Cjotaraa Iludha. there 
arc innumerable systems of worlds, called sakwalas. which attain 
Iheir prime, and then decay nnd arc dcatroycU, at periods regularly 
recurring, and by agencicH that are eijually rcgutut In the manner 
uf their o])erjtion. Upon the earth (hero are four great continenls, 
which do not communicate with each other, except in specified 
cases. In the centre of the earth is an immense mountain, called 
Maha M^ru, around and above the summit of which arc the dewa 
ftad bnbma Uikas, the abode of those beings who in their different 

1. aoTAMi EL-OHA. S 

stalc!^ of existence have attained a superior degree of meiil. Within 
the earth is a Eoaterial fire, the abode of those who possess a dedded 
preponderance of demerit. Neither the one stale nor the other is of 
permanent duratioa ; though it maj extend to a penod immensely 
gicctt, it is not infinite. 

The Biidhos are beings who appear after intervals of time iacon- 
ceivably vast. Previous to their reception of the Budhnship, they 
pass through countlcsa phases of being ; at one lime receiving birth 
as a d«ira, and al another ns a frog, in which ihey gradually accu- 
mulate a greater degree of incril. In this incipient state they are 
called Bodhisatwaa. In (he birth in which they become Budha 
they are always of woman bom, and pass through infancy and 
youth like ordinary beings, until at a prescribed age they abandon 
the world and retire to the wilderness, where, after a course of 
ascetic observance, at the foot of a tree they receive the supernatural 
powers with which the office is endowed. But their greate^it distinc- 
tion anil highest glory is, that they receive the wisdom by which 
they con direct sentient being» to the path that leads to nirwana, or 
the cessation of existence. At their death, they cease to exist; 
they do not continue to be Budhas. nor do they enter upon any 
other state of being. Expositions of the doctrines of Budha, whe- 
ther orally delivered or written in books, are called bana, or the 
Word ; and the system itself b called dhannma. or the Truth. 

According to Budhi«m, there is no Creator, no being that is self- 
existenl and eternal. All sentient beings are homogeneous. The 
difference between one being and another is only temporary, and 
residls from the difference in their degrees of merit. Any being 
whatever may be a candidate for the Budhaship ; but it is only by 
the uniform pursuit of this object throughout innumerable ages that 
it can be obtained. 

The power thai controls the universe is karma, literally action ; 
consisting of kusala and akusala. or merit and demerit. There is 
no such monad as an immaterial spirit, but at the death of any 
being, the aggregate of his merit and demerit is transferred to some 
olliet being, which new being is caused by the karma of the 
previoos being, and receives from that karma nil the c 
of its existence. Thus, if the karma be good, the ci 
fisTonrable, producing happiness, but if it be bud, ihey are unfa- 
toonble. producing misery. 

The manner in which being first commenced cannot now bo 

6 £A3TEB?« MONACIII§lt. 

■scertatned. The cause of the eonlinuanee of existence is ignorance, 
&om nhich merit and demerit are produced, whence comes con- 
BciousnesA, then body and mind, and afterwards the nix organs of 
sense. Again, from the organs of sense comes contact ; from 
contact, desire ; from desire, sensation ; from sensation, the cleaving 
to esisting objects ; frora this cleaving, reproduction ; and from 
reproduction, diaeaae, decay, and death. Thus, like the revolutions 
of a wheel, there is a regular succession of death and hirth, the 
moral cause of which is the cleaving to existing objects, whilst tlie 
inslrumcntal cause is karma. It Ja therefore the great object of all 
beings who would be released from (he sorrows of successive birth 
to seek the destruction of the moral cause of continued existence, 
that is to sajr, the cleaving to existing objects, or evil desire. It is 
possible to accomplish this destruction, b; attending to a prescribed 
course of discipline, which results in an entrance to one of the four 
paths, with their fruition, that lead, by different modes, to the 
attainment of nirwana. They in whom evil desire is entirely 
destroyed are called rahats. The freedom from evil desire ensures 
the possession of a miraculous energy. At his death the rahat 
invariably attains nirwana, or ceases to exist. 

But this review must be regarded as containing only a brief sum- 
mary of some of the principal doctrines of Uudhism. intended tu 
assist the reader of the following pages ; the system is so vast and 
complicated, that many volumes must be written lieforc it can 
receive a perfect elucidation. 


About two months aflcr tlic prince Sidhartta had attained (he 
dignity of a supreme Budha, he went to the city of Benares, and 
there delivered a discourse, by which Kondanya, and aftenimrds 
four other ascetics, were induced to become his disciples. From 
that period, whenever he preached, multitudes of men and women 
embraced bis doctrines, and took upon themselves certain obliga- 
tions, by which they declared themselves to bo prawarjila, or lo 
have renounced the world. From time to time ndea were made, 
and afterwards enlarged or modified, and escoptJona allowed, by 
which the code wo* gradually completed. It is evident that all 

luwg rerening to uotried Bituutions and circumstances must ariso :□ 
this manner; and tliuugh the Budhists maintain that their founder 
declarpd at nn early period in his career that tliis would be his rule, 
the atalement whs most probably invented to avoid the imputation 
th»t might otherwise have been made against his omniscience. It 
is necessary to remember that these modifications took place, or the 
student of Budhism will meet with many anomalies for which be 
cannot account. 

Milinda, the king of Sagal, when conversing with the priest 
Nagasfna, objected to the mode in which Budha instituted the 
priestly discipline, and said, " If the rishis, by their own intuitive 
knowledge, were able to tell at once the nature of all diseases, and 
lo prescribe remedies for them, why did not Budha, who by his 
divine eyes must have seen beforehand the faults of his disciples, 
forbid the commission of such and such things previous to their 
occurrence ?" Nagasena replied that it was forseen by Budha, at 
the commencement, that there were 130 precepts it would be proper 
to enforce ; but he reflected thus, " If I at once enforce the 
ubaeivance of all these precepts, the people will aay, ' In this religion 
there are a great number of things that it is necessary to observe; it is 
indeed & most difficult thing to be a priest of Budha,' and be afrud ; 
those who might think of becoming priests will hesitate ; they will 
not listen to my words ; they will not learn my precepts ; they will 
despise them, and thus be bom in a place of torment. It will 
therefore be better, when a fault has been committed, to bane a 
precept forbidding it to be repeated." At subsequent periods, nine 
kelafl (each kela containing ten millions), one hundred and eighty- 
five Ucs, and thirty-six precepts, were promulgated by Budha.* 

The manner in which the code was gradually perfected may be 
leaxnt from tlie circumstances under which the precept relative to 
continence arrived at the stole in which it was promulgated in its 
complete form. There was a priest named Sudinua, who was so- 
liciled by his mother-in-law to lie with the woman who was his 
wife previous to his embracing the life of an ascetic, that there 

■ Milinda Fnuina; a wnrk in Pali, of which there is u Singhalese truula- 
llon. that conUini an uwuunl of confcrautioiu Ihst took uluce between 
HUiiula, kine of Sbsnl, supposed to be thi! Snn^ula of tbe Greeks, uid Nb^ 
Uta, ■ Budhiit pncit, a short time previous lo the commenccmcDt of Uie 
Cluiitian CTn. lu the following rhnptcn, whenever the nnnic of Nligtl*t)i>i 
U intioducnl, it is to be utulctntooa that the inibmuition is tnkcn from thi« 


might be a rightful heir to the family possessions. At that time 
there appears to have been no law prohibiting eueh a course ; but 
when Sudinua yielded to the solicitations by which he was assailed, 
and was afterwards led, from a conviction that be had done wrong, 
to declare to his fellow priests what bad taken place, Budha, after 
leproring him for his conduct, enacted the following law. and 
declared that it was universally binding upon those who would 
renounce the world. " Yo pana bhikkhu niethunan dhamman 
patbewcyya parajiko hoti asanw^ao : What pricat soever eball have 
intercourse with a woman ie overcome and eicluded." L'nder the 
plea that intercourse with women alone was prohibited by this law, 
another priest acted improperly in a forest frequented by monkeys, so 
that it became necessary to introduce the clauiie " antamaso tiratch^- 
nagatayapi : Even with an animal." At a ^ubsei^uent period, some 
priests of Wajji, without a formal renunciation of asceticism, were 
guilty of improper conduct. Though they then laid aside their 
robes, yet, as they met with many ai&ictions in the world, such as 
the loss of relatives, they requested readmission to the priesthood. 
This request was not granted ; but a clause was added to the form 
of prohibition, by which any priest who was unable to maintain a 
►late of continence might receive permission lo become a laic, 
without any bar to his readmission to the priesthood at a future 
period, if he so willed il. The entire prohibition was then to this 
effect : ■' Any bhikkhu who has engaged to live according to the 
law* given lo the priesthood, if he shall, without having made con- 
fession (if his weakness and become a laic, hold intercourse with a 
female of what kind soek'er, is overcome and excluded." * 

Of the five sections into which the Winaya Pttaka is divided, the 
first and second, Parfijik& and Pachiti, contain a code of ordinances 
relative to priestly crimes and misdemeanors ; the third and fourth, 
Maha Waga and Chula Waga, miscellaneous rules and rcgalations, 
relative to ordination, the ceremony called wass, &c. ; and the fifth, 
Pariw^nap^ta, contains a recapitulation of the preceding books. 

The precepts and prohibitions contained in the I'fir^iki and 
Puchiti, 227 in number, are collected together, apart from the de- 
tails and explanations by which they nre accompanied, in n work 
called P&limokkhari, or in Singhalese, PrAtimoksha, which is to be 
r«cite<l twice every month in an assembly of prieils consisting of 


not fewer than four persons. The subjecia of investigation are 
urranged in the following order: — 1. I'ar^jika, four in number, 
referring to crimes that are to be punished by perm<meDt exclusion 
from the priesthood. 2, Sanghadisesa, tliirleen in number, that 
require suspension and penance, but not permuncnt exclusion. 
3. Aniyala-dhanuna, two in number, that involve exclusion, sua. 
pension, or penance, according to circumslaneea. 4. Nissagiya- 
p&cliitliyi-dhiimma, thirty in number, requiring forfeiture of eucIi 
articles as the priests are permitted to possBss, 5. Pachiltiya- 
dhamma, ninety-two in number, requiring confeBaion and absolu- 
tion. 6. Patid^sani-dharomii, four in number, involving reprimand. 
7. S6khiya-dhamma, seventy-five in number, containing various 
prohibitions, and inculcating certain observances ami proprieties. 
B, Adhikarana-eamata-dhamma. seven In number, the rules to be 
observed tn conducting judicial investigations relative to the con- 
dnet of the prieats.* 

The four crimes that involve permanent exclusion from the priesl- 
liood are sexual intercourse, theft, murder, and a false profession 
of the attainment of rohatsbip ; but as the whole of the rules con- 
tained in the Patimokkhan appear in tbcfollowing chapters, under 
Ihc heads to which they respectively belong, it will not be necea- 
aary to insert them in the order in which they are recited in the 
bi-montlily convention of ecclesiastics. The various rules and ob- 
ligations of the priest have been divided into nn almost numberless 
arrny of classes i but their tedious minuteness must ever tend to 
deler any one from prosecuting their examination, who does not 
trust iu the three gems as an object of religious confidence. 

There Is, however, one division, called the Teles-dh£itanga, from 
teles, thirteen, dhuto, destroyed, and anga, ordinance, meaning the 
ihirlceo ordinances by which the cleaving to existence is destroyed, 
loo important to be omitted. These ordinances enjoin the following 
obncrvonces on the part of the priest by whom they are kept. I. To 
reject oil garments hut those of the meanest description. 2. To 
puBHeHH only three garments. 3. To eul no food but that which 
hot) been received uniler certain restrictions. 4. To call at all 
housed alike when carrying the alms-bowl. 5, To remain on one 
•cat, when eating, until the meal he finished. 6. To eat only from 

* OoKOrljr's Gaaay ui 
NmtIt Uiv wtiulu of m, 
makknaii ban bvirn dtrired from this sourer. 



one vessel. 7. To cease eating when certain thingR occur. S. To 
reside in the forest, 9. To reside at tLc foot of a tree. 10. To 
reside in an open apace. 11. To reside in a cemetery. 12. To lake 
imy seat that may be provided. 13. To refrain from lying down 
under any eircumstance whatever. The three principal observ- 
ancee are the 4th, 5th, and 10th; and be who observes these three 
may be said to prncliae the whole series. The entire number may 
be kept by priests, eight by priestesses, twelve by novices, seven by 
female novices, and two by the lay devotees called up-isakas, whether 
male or female. Thua there are in all forly-two divisions. The 
live observances that the priestessea are forbidden to keep are the 
7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and 11th; the last three cannot be observed by 
ihera under any circumstances, as it would he highly improper 
for the priestess to remain in a solitary place. The novice may 
keep all except the 2nd. The lay devotee can keep only the 5th 
and 6th.* 

Nearly the whole of these observances are included in the code 
that ia known among the Chinese by the name of Chi cul theou tho 
king, or The Sacred Book of the Twelve Observances, quoted in 
the San taang K sou, lib. xliv. p. 10. Cf. Vocabulure Penlaglottc, 
sect, xlv.f 


The priests of Budha have received various names, of which ihc 
following arc the principal: — 1. Srfiwakas, from the root sro. tu 
bear, answering to the aKovaruoi of the Oieeks. 2. Sarmanas, from 
srama, the performance of asceticism, answering to the ianiiTtii, 
ciereisers, of the ancient church. By the Chinese the word is 
written Cha men and Song men, and is said by Klaprolh to mean 
" cclui qui reslieint scs pens6es, ou celui qui s'efforce et se re. 
streint." It is probable that the epithet Samauean, as applied to 
the religious system of Torlary. is derived from the same word. 
It is to the priests of Budha that Strabo (lib. xv. cap. i.) refers, 

* Uilanda Prama : WuuiUii MwEga Sannf. 

t FoC Kou£ Ki, ou H<'UtJon Jra lEoTSume* Bouddhlquea : Voyngc dans 
laTiitarie, duu rAf^baniitui ft dsiu rlndc, exfcnti} a In ISu du ii' Si^lc, 
par C'hf n tiian. Traduit du Chinou ot comment^ par M. Alid Rrmuanl. 

vnux, par MM. KUpnitli el 


when he speaks of tbc Oarmaiias of India. By Clemens Alesan- 
drinus (Stromal, lib. i.) they are caUed Sannanaa, though he after. 
wards mentions the foUowers of Butta (Budha) as belonging to a 
separate community. In other works of the fathers they axe called 
Semnoi. Porphyrias (De Abst. lib. iv.) calls them Samanaeanl. 
3. Th^rfis, or elders, answering to the 0^3pT* of the Old Testa- 
ment and the npiajivTCfioi of the Now. 4. Bhikshus, or in Pali, 
hhikkhu, trom bhikslia, to beg, literally a mendicant. The bhikshu 
is said to be so called "because of ihe fear he manifests of the 
repetition of cxislence; because he goes to seek his food as a 
mendicant; because he is arrayed in shreds and rags : and because 
he avoids the practice of whatever is evil," The eastern etymo- 
logists, wilh their usual ingenuity, find all these ideas in the root 
of the word, either by addition, elision, or transposition. When 
Budha addressed the priests, it was usually by this appellation. It 
is said by M. Abel Remusat that the Chinese word Pi khicou " is 
the equivalent of the Sanskrit bhikchou, mendiant.'' They are 
called in Tibetan, dGo slong. '* When the four rivers fall into the 
sea they no longer retain the name of river : when men of the four 
castes become Sumaneiins, tlicy receive the common name of sons 
of Sakya (synonymous with bhikchou). The Tsun ching king calls 
them Pi ihsiu (the name of a shrub that grows upon the Hima- 
laya»)." \ 

In Ceylon, the novices, as well as the priests who have not re- 
ceived ordination, are called ganinnans^s, from gana, an assemblage 
or association ; and the superior priests are called terunnanses, 
from the Pali thero, an elder. Their collective name is mahonanse, 
literally, the great one. In the hooks they are reptesenlod as being 
nrtdrcssed by the name of ayusmat, ancient, venerable. When any 
one embraced the priesthood he was said to he prawarjika, from 
wrajn, to abandon, one who has abandoned the world, answering 
to a name of the ancient monks, ATroTala/Atroi, apotactatcs, rc- 
uouDccrs. In Nepaul ihc priests are called bandaya (whence also 
the Chinese bonze), which, in Sanskrit signifies a person entitled 
to reverence, hom the word bandana. They are there divided into 

■ In like msnoOT, Arab. Sheikh, an old man, and then '■ cliicf of a tribe i" 
klMlul. SiKBor.Fr. Scignpur, Spnu. Sefior, Engl. Sir, all of which eome from 
tlic Lai, Si-iilor, dilcr; aim, Germ. Graf, count, is pp. i. q. gt»w, kiawo, 
gtFy.beodcd. Gencnius, sub voce. 

i Relation dc8 Koyaumes Buuddhiques, p. 60, qaotod from San taang (1 
wu, Uv. xxii. p. D. 

12 eastkbs MOKiciiisM. 

four orders; bhikshu, ortnendicanU; ariwaka, ot readers; cliailaku, 
OT strantily robed ; and athanta. or arhala, adepts.* Among the 
Burmese the priests, or tahipoins, of Ihe superior order, are called 
ponghis, and of the inferior pazens ; they are all subordioate to 
the rarado, who resides in the capital,! 

It has been doubted whether Budhism allows of any such dis- 
tinction as that which is ioforred in the use of the words clerus 
and Inicus ; hut all argumenls founded upon the meaning of terma, 
when these terms can be used in a sense different to their primitive 
signitication, or when that signification has not been authoritatively 
defined, are inconclusive. Thus the word clergy, though wc allow 
that it is derived from KAqpoc, may either mean that the ministers 
of tho church were chosen by lot, or that they were the lot and 
heritage of the Lord. The word priest is generally aupposed lo 
be derived, through the Sazun ])reost, from the Greek trptelivTipoc, 
an elder, hut by otliors it is said to be an ancient Saxon word, in 
use before the introduction of Christianity; and if we look away 
from it* original meaning to its conventional use, it may represent 
the sacerdos of the Latins, the itpEuc of the Oreeks. the fm of the 
Hebrews, or the minister of any other religion ; and its significa- 
tion will he altered according to tlif office that it represents. The 
rites of religion could only be performed among the Greeks and 
Romans by members of the sacerdotal class; but those persons were 
not thtrcby incapacilAted, by any positive law, from engaging iu 
duties and offices that by ourselves would be regarded as utterly 
imsuitcd to the clerus. But this is the less remarkable when other 
circumalanccs are taken into the account ; as their duty consisted 
principally in the performance of certain ceremonies, or the in- 
structing of others in their proper mode of observance, whilst no 
traces arc presented of their publicly addressing the people upon 
moral subjects. Hence the importance of the position maintained 
by* the philosophers, who in some measure supplied this defect; 
but their auditors ware comparatively few ; oiul as he who appeared 
to understand the deepest mysteries wotUd b« regarded as Ihe most 
wise, there wo* a continuul tendency in all the schools to dwell 
upon vubjccU that bewilder, rather than upon thodc that are con- 
nected will) practical instruction. Xlie iramanus of Budha unite 

* lI«l);Hn'ii Uliutrationsof tho lilnalun and Reltgion uf the Buddhists; 
Hpnini-urF. IHll. 

t Hsnitanuui<i'> UiinnMC Empire: Rnme, IS3). 

Ilie characters of priest and philosopher, as they were presented 
among the nations of classic antiquity ; but. from their possession 
of a record that they consider to be divine, the reverse of that which 
look place among the ancienis of the west is presented ; individual 
Bpeculation is almost entirely discountenanced, and the baie reading 
of the record too commonly usxirps the place of hortatory teaching. 

The apostle Paul tells ua that the priest b " one who is ordained 
for men in things pertaining to God, that he may offer both gifts 
and saerilices for sins," Hcb. v. 1 ; but thb definition i» confessedly 
inapplicable to any order of men among the Budhists, as the system 
knows nothing whatever of " sacrifices for sina." 

When compared with the priest of Eomanism there is a greater 
resemblance between the two orders. Both are separated from the 
world ; both profess to instruct the people ; and both perform cere- 
monies that are supposed to confer merit upon those in whose name, 
or in whose presence they arc conducted. I have therefore retained 
the word priest to designate the sramanas of Budha ; they are 
mo[ika as to the economy of their own lives, but priests as to the 
world without ; clerici rcgularcs. 

The innovations made by St. Francia in the monastic institute 
weio of great importance. Until that period the monks had been 
insulated from the world. Even the pastoral duties were forbidden 
them. It was ordained by Cone. Pictav. c. 1 1 , that no monk should 
perform tlio work of a parochial minister, i. e. " to baptise, to 
preuch, and to hear confession." He was not allowed (Cone, Lat. i.) 
to Ttsil the sick. But whoa Francia received the impression that it 
waa his duty to renounce the possession of gold, silver, and money ; 
to have neither wallet, nor satchel, nor bread ; to travel without a 
etttff, and without shoes, and with a simple tunic ; he was at the 
tame time moved to the resolution to preach repentance and the 
kingdom of God. When monachism commenced, the ascetic re- 
nounced all trust in the vicarious acts of a more favoured order ; 
he himself worked out his own salvation ; he was himself a priest, 
though without investiture or ordination ; and it was not until the 
monks had degenerated that individuals sought admission to the 
priesthood, and combined two otRces that were at first distinct. 
But the rule of Francis did not contemplate merely the occasional 
election of a monk to the pastorate or episcopate, or the appoint- 
ment of an ordained abbot to rule over " the chuich in the house" 
of some separate fiatemity ; his mendicant followers were Ihrowa 


upon the world ; from it they were to receive tlieir subsistence ; 
and it was only by the persona] activity of each individual member 
that tlie order could be preBorved in ila integrity. In the history 
of Budhism there are cridences of a similar departure from the first 
principles of Mcelieism ; but when it commenced, or in what manner 
it WAS effected, cannot now be ascertoined. It appears to hare been 
the orif^nal intention that the sramana. during the greater part of 
the year, shovdd reside in aolilude ; but the injunction to carry llie 
alms-bowl to the houses of the people would tend to produce an 
unfavoutahte consequence, as it would continually present to bis 
mind the advantages of social existence, and tempt him to take up 
bis residence as near the dwellings of men as was possible without 
an entire change of the system. Then, as he was dependent u] 
the people for every comfort he enjoyed, it was natural that 
should endeavour to magnify his office, and place as immense 
distance as possible betn'een himself and his supporters, by i 
vincing them that whilst he received from them the temporal 
tlittt he needed they were indebted to him, and the power wi 
which he was officially clothed, for their present prosperity 
their e^tpectation of a future reward. Thus, although be offered 
no sacrifice in the literal sense of the term, he became virtually 
invested with the character of a priest. Tliis change in the eco- 
nomy of Budhism has been carried to so great an extent, that the 
true ascetic, or one who renounces the world for his own soul's 
good, without regarding the souls of others, is now almost un- 

Then is undoubtedly a great difference between the sramana 
and the graliopati ; the receiver of alms, who by that reception 
confers merit, and the giver of alms, who by that gift opccts to 
gain merit : the man who lives (to use a distinction of Pythagoras) 
irrtp ^v«ir. oliove nature, and him who lives nara ifivirir, according 
to nature ; and the higher attainments of the systemcan only be 
uquircd by one who bas abandoned the world either in the present 
or some previous birtli ; hut the householder is not rejected as 
being without the pale of privilege, ond is far from being elapsed 
among unbelievers. Even at the commencement of Budhism the 
bona WBR publicly recited, so that from the beginning a distinction 
«t have existed between the teacher and the taught, which 
wotdd cause th« pitett to be regarded a« a mediator, or intervcnient 
. btctnimentility, botween the householder and the consequences of 

his demerit. The benefits received from listening to iha buna were 
not prospective or conditionEil ; they were not dependent upon some 
be pursued in consequence of this 

a that \s 

new course of ai 

iustniciioD : it was an opus operatmn ; and the householder retired 
to his home, after listening to the word, with the conaciousness 
that he hod thereby acquired merit, and that if be continued in the 
wise exercise of the privileges placed within his reach, without 
taking upon himself (he more arduous practices of (he ascetic, he 
would be enabled to attain a reward th«t was wortliy of his ambi- 
lioQ. We therefore conclude that Budbism has always recognised 
the two classes of mendicant and householder : and that both the 
one and tlie other is regarded as recipient of (he blessings it im- 
parts to ita disciples. 

In the gospel there is a distinction between the clems and laicus 
as to matters of discipline ; but the child, the woman, the slave. 
the lowest member of the church, whatever his condition, has an 
eqna] freedom of access to the throne of the heavenly grace with 
tlie mitred ecclesiastic or the most privileged priest, and may aspire 
(o an equal inheritance of glory in the world to come. But in Bud- 
bism the distinction is more essential, as no one who has not in some 
state of existence, either present or past, observed the ordinances 
of asceticism, can obtain nirwana. This may be learnt from a con- 
Tcnation ^ha,l took place between the king of Sagal and Nagas^ua. 
One day, when Millnda was reclining upon his royal couch, reflect- 
ing upon religious subjects, he wondered how it was that, if house- 
holders could enter the paths leading to nirwana, any one should 
lake the trouble to observe the Tbirteen Ordinances, the practice 
of which is so exceedingly difficult ; and he tliercfore went to 
Nngos^nn, that bis doubts upon the subject might be removed. 
"Can the householder," said he, "attain nirwana; he whose mind 
u occupied by (panchakama) that which is apparent to the five 
flonaes ; who lives In a fixed habitation, procreates children, enjoys 
possessions, uses ointments and perfumes, receives money, and 
puts on the crown adomed with jewels and gold?" Nagasena re- 
plied, " Not only one himdrcd but myriads of householders have 
atuuned nirwana. But as to the Thirteen Ordinances, it is a sub- 
ject most extensive ; however many things I might say relative to 
the religion of Budha they would all belong to them. As all the 
rain that falU runs into the rivers, and thence into the sea, so all 
that iho most learttcd person might say teUtive to religion would 


be dircrWii to Ihem. Ail the knowledge I poane^s is includeil in 
them ; they are, in ihe most eminent degjee. profitable, beautiful, 
and complete. At Sewot there were many myriads of upasakaB, 
both male and fomalp, who entered the paths, of whom 356,000 
entered the third path ; and at other places, when Budha preached 
different siitras, conotiesa companies of men and dewas received the 
same privilege, ell of whom were gihi, householders, and not jin- 
warjita, those who have abandoned or renounced the world," 
Milinda : — " Then to wliat purpose is it that men obKerve with ho 
much strictneso ibc Thirteen Ordinances, if they can enter the city 
of peace without it ? If a sick man can be cured by simples, he 
does not torture bis body by taking emetics or violent purgatives ; 
if the enemy can be warded off by a slight blow wo do not use 
clubs or formidable weapons ; the high ladder ix of no use if the 
tree can be ascended without it ; when a man can sleep soundly 
on the ground he need not seek a splendid couch and coverlets ; 
when the fearless man can traverse the wilderness alone he does 
not require an armed escort ; he who can swim across the river or 
l&ke does not look out for rafts, boats, or bridges ; he who has 
food of bis own need not, in order to satisfy his hunger, go bcg^ng 
from his friends or the rich, flattering them and running hither and 
thither ; if water can be procured from a natural fountain, it is to 
no purpose to dig wells or tanks : in like manner, if the house- 
holder, who enjoys worldly possessions, can also enjoy the pros- 
pect of nirwana, of what benefit are the Thirteen Ordinances ,*" 
Nagas^na : — " The Budha« have set forth twenty-eight advantages 
as connected with the observance of these rites : such as fcatlese- 
neas, protection, freedom from evil desire, the patient endurance of 
affliction, confirmed attachment to reli^on, an entrance into the 
paths, i(c. When the Thirteen Ordinances arc observed, there are 
eighteen virtues that are brought into exercise, such as, that the 
tliought i> extinguished. That this is mine, or me ; hatred is avoided ; 
much sleep ia shunned ; no fixed habitation is required ; solitary 
meditation is exercised ; and there is oppositiun (o all evil. There 
«rc at>o ten other virtues that must be possessed : such as faith or 
purity, great diligence, freedom from all thai tend* to deceive, res- 
pect for the precepts, equanimity, &c. When the householder 
attains nirw^a, it is becaune he has kept the Thirteen Ordinances 
is tome former state of existence : just as the bowman, after team- 
ing the scioQco of archery in the hall of inntructlon and becoming 


perfect, tben goes lo the king and receives the reward of hi:t skill. 
No one who has not observed the Thirteen Ordinances, either in 
the present birth or o former one, can enter the path ihat leads to 
the city of peace. . . , Men eat food that they may receive strength, 
take medicine that they may drive away disease, exercise friendship 
(bat they may secure assistance, enter a ship Ihat they may cross 
(he sea, and use flowers and perfumes that a fragrant smell may be 
emitted : the pupil who would receive inslruction places himself 
nnder a preceptor ; he who would have honour seeks it from the 
king ; and he who would have anything that he can wi^h for. gains 
pof session of the magical jewel : in like manner, he who would re- 
ceive the full benefit of asceticism, practises the Thirteen Ordi- 
nances. As water for the nourishment of grain, fire for burning, 
food for imparting strength, withs for binding, women for conten- 
tion, water for removing thirst, treasure for independence, u ship 
for navigation, medicines for imparting health, a couch for repose, 
ft place of refuge for safety, the king for protection, weapons for 
giving confidence, the preceptor for Instruction, (he mother for rear- 
ing children, the mirror for seeing the countenance, jewels for orna- 
ment, garments for clothing, scales for equality, the mantra for 
apeUs and charms, the lamp for dispelling darkneBg, and the pre- 
cept for restraining the disobedient; so is an attention lo the Thir- 
teen Ordinances for the Dourlsbing of asceticism, the burning up of 
evil desire, &c."* 


For the rapidity of its early extension, and its subsequent popu- 
larity, Budhiam is in a great measure indebted to the broad basis 
npun which admission to the priesthood has been placed ; and in 
llua respect it stands in perfect contrast with the system to which 
it is tho greatest anlagonist. No one can become a Brahmun. ex- 
cept by birth ; but the privileges of the ascetic are offered to all 
who will receive ihem upon the condition implied in their accept- 
ance, unless the candidate be diseased, a slave, a soldier, or unable 
lo ahtnin the permission uf his parents. This comprehensive rule 
luu been disregarded ; but the system ilsctf is nut to be charged 
* Milinda Prwiu. 


with tlic innoTatioDS that Lare been made in ita original constitu- 
tion. The slave is inhibited from becoming a recluse ; but the 
name is not to be taken in its modeni acceptation, as implying a 
Btnle of degrodalion. The bar lo admission does not arise from iho 
inferioritj of the condition, as even the outcast is received ; but as 
the peculium belongs to another, no elave is thought to have the 
ri^bt to place himself in a situation that may for ever deprive his 
master of his Berviees. In the reign of Justinian (Nov. v. c. 2) 
slaves iverc allowed lo enter convents without leave of their masters ; 
but among the Anglo-Saions the candidate for ordination was 
required lo prove that he was not of spurious or servile birth. 
That the priest should be free from disease has been generally 
insisted on in all ages. The Jews, in their comments upon Levil. 
xsi. 17, have enumernted 142 blemishes that produced unfitness to 
minister before ihe Lonl. " Saeerdos integer sit," was a law of 
the Romans ; but among the aneients the discaae or the blemish 
was not a bar (o the reception of the office from its unsighlliness 
alone ; it was regarded as uupropilious. and it was therefore said, 
" vitiutduB est," Hs it was supposed that it would render the sacritico 
coming from such a source of no avail. This idea, though not 
expressed in the ritual, is entirely consonant with the Budhlslical 

The novice is called a saman^ra, from sramana, an ascetic. Ue 
must be at least ei^ht years of age, and must have received the 
consent of his parents to his abandonment of the world. He 
cannot receive upasampada, or ordination, until he is twenty years 
of age ; were even the office to bo conferred on him by tlie proper 
authorities, and the ceremony to be performed according to the 
ritual, the proceedings would be invalid if the stipulated age was 
not attained. The novice is not regarded as a member of the 
songha, or chapter ; he can perform any rultgious rite, but is not 
allowed to interfere in matters of discipline or government. Hut in 
China, ordinaliun must be granted at an earlier period, as Bishop 
Smith states that he saw a Utile priest, about nine years of age, a 
pet of the abbot, who looked forward to the age of sixteen, " when 
he would have his head entirely shaven, and be inducted into the 
full privileges of the priesthood."* 

The necessity of some Iftw, imperatively Mtating tlic earliest age 

at which the oblig»tion> of the nclusc can be taken, must be at 

• XoiUh'* ChioL 

once ftpparent. Leo I. required the age of forty in monks before 
their consecratioD, and the Bame age was ordered by several 
counriU. Pius I. recommended the Iwenty-fiflh year, which was 
conftrmed by the third council of Carthage. SjTiods of a more 
recent dale have allowed vows of virginity to be taken as early as 
fourteen years of age in males, and twelve in females. The council 
of Trent teeognises sisleen years as llie age before which vows 
Bhould not be taken,* Among the Anglo-Sasone, the vows of the 
nun were retarded until she had reached her twenty-fifth year. 
In the monasteries of the Greek church belonging to the rule of St. 
Basil, the male novices arc not allowed to take the vows before the 
thirtieth, nor females before the fiftieth year. The mendicant 
orders are accused by Wycliffe of endeavouring to seduce young 
children into their " rotten habit ;" and it was decreed by the parlia- 
ment that no scholar under eighteen years of age should he received 
into the community, t 

There are many circumstances that make the yoke of the saraa- 
nem less onerous than that of the stricter communities among the 
western celibates. The vows are not in any case irrevocable : and 
the constant intercourse that is of necessity kept up with the people. 
afTords opportunities of communion with the exterior world that are 
denied to the inmate of the high-walled monastery or the iron-barred 
convent. It must often cause the deepest sorrow, only passing 
away with the utter scaring of every right affection or with life 
itoeir, when the recluse has to reflect that by the step he has taken 
he has sent the barbed arrow Into the heart of an affectionate 
mother, or stricken to premature age a father whose eye is ever 
filled with the gushing tear, as he looks around upon the social 
circle and sees that the place is vacant where the object of his 
brightest hopes once sat. Yet it was accounted as an additional 
merit by the Nicene doctors when the vow of celibacy was taken 
^minat the wiKh or advice of parents, or against their knowledge. J 
It was also regarded as an act of merit when the mother devolcd 
her OQcouscious child lo the service of the sanctuary, as in the case 
of Gregory Na2iaii;(en, who, before hia birth, was devoted lo God by 
Ilia mother Nonna. This was usually done by taking the child 
before the altar, and placing in its hands the book of the gospels'; 
but at a lat«r period the parents wrapped the hands of their children 

• EUioll'v Roman CittlioUeum. t Vnughnn's Wyeliflii. 

[ Taylor'* Andcnt Chriatinnity. 


in the altar-cloth. By Cod. Juat i. 3, 85, parents were rorbidden 
to hinder their children from becoming monks, if they so wished. 
Even Eunong the Budhiata, it somelimes occurs that a woman towb 
she will dedicate her son to the temple, should the reproach of bei 
unfrnitfulnesa be taken away ; and when the child afterwards 
received pul« on the robe of a recliutc. he may at Qrat, and in his 
youth, be charmed by the honour he receivea. so as to be more than 
reconciled to hia aituulion ; and should there be, at a subsequent 
period, a painful sense of (he constraint under which he livea, from 
B feeling of pride he may never nttcr to onolher the story of his 
woe, or take the liberty that Is presented by ihe institute of returning 
for a time to the stale of a laic. But in all such caseci there will be 
the bearing of a burden that must greatly embitter exiaience ; and 
the spirit will become moody or morose, that under other circum- 
stances might have been cheerful aa the lark at matins, or gentle 
as the lamb as il crops Ihe grasa of the mead. 

The aitmanera usually begins bis connexion with the monastery 
by becoming a pupil in the school kept hy the pricat ; and by this 
means he gains an insight into tbe duties be will afterwards be 
required to perform. The priesthood is lo he sought in order that 
existence may be overcome, and that nirwana, or the cessation of 
existence, may be obtained. It was declared by Nagajiena that the 
henelits lo ho derived from embracing the priesthood are, the 
deittruction of present and the avoiding of future sorrov, ihe pre- 
venting of the occurrence of the birth arieing from evil deaire and 
■ccpticism, and the attainment of nirwdna. "This," said he, " ia 
the end for which the priesthood ought always to be sought ; hut it 
is sometimes sought from a dilferenl intention, as ihe fear of kings 
or of robbers, or because of debt, or to obtain a livelihood." Who- 
ever would enter upon the course of discipline necesBary for the 
attainment of Ihia great object, must be assured that by ihe obaerv- 
ancc of the prescribed rules of asceticism, the cleaving to exialence, 
which ia regarded aa ihe source of all evil, will he eitinguiahed. If 
poaaible, tlie novice mual live in the same monastery aa his preceptor, 
but if not cunveoieiit. he may live in onolher place, at the distance 
of four, eight, or sixteen milca. Wlien ho thua lives at a diatance, 
ho must riiic early in the morning, perform what is Deccaaary to be 
done at his own dwelling, then go to the monastery of his precc]>tor, 
and return Ihe following day to his own abode. And when lie 
cannM live within ihe dialnne« of tixteen milea, he must learn as 


well an be can from his preceptor, and afterwards meditate at his 
leisure on the instruction he has received. In Ceylon, there are not 
at present any instances in which this privilege is accepted, as the 
aamanera invariably resides at the moDast«ry; and from the com- 
meacement of his noviciate he is regarded as a priest. 

When the pupil becomes an accepted novice, it ts required of 
him that he be careful as to [he character of the monastery in which 
he intends to reside. There are elghleen kinds of places that it will 
be well for him to avoid: 1. A large wth&ra (the monastery or 
temple in which the priests reside), as in such a place many persons 
will meet together, and tliere will be much talking ; the enclosure 
round the bo-tree not being swept, and no wtiter brought either to 
drink or for bathing, these things will have to be done, and thus 
lime will be lost; the novice, after performing this, must go with 
the alms-bowl, but as be will have been preceded by othera, the 
food intended for the priesthood will all have been given away. In 
a large wihara, the noise of the novices repeating their lessons will 
cause a disturbance. But if all the work be properly attended to, 
and there be nothing to distract, a large wihara may be chosen. 
2. A new wihara. as there will be much work to do, which if not 
done may cause tlie displeasure of the senior priests ; but if there 
should be others to do the work, so as to leave the novice free, he 
may remain in a new residence. 3. An old wihara, aa it will 
retjiiire much reparation ; if this be not attended to, it will bring 
down the rebuke of the senior priests ; and if it be, it will leave no 
time for meditation. 4. A wihara near a high roud, as stranger 
priests will be continually calling, who will require attention. 
5. A wih^ near which there arc muny tanks and much water, as 
people will resort ihither, and the disciples of the learned men con- 
nected with the court will come from the city to dye their garmenta, 
and will want fuel, vessels, and olher things. 6. A wihara near 
which there is an abundance of herbs, as women will come to 
gather them, singing all hinds of foolish songs, the hearing of which 
is Ml poison ; and though tbcy should even not be singing, the voice 
of a woman heard in any way is an enemy to the ascetic. 7. A 
wihara near which there arc many Rowers, as there will be the same 
danger. 8. A wihara near which there arc m;;iny frull.trces, sucb 
aa mango, jamhu. and jack, as people will come to usk for them, 
and if col given they will hecomo angry or tuke ihem by force ; and 
when the priest walks to and fro at night, to subdue the mind. 


they nill see and ridicalc him. 9. A wihara that persons are 
accastomed to viitit, such as Dakkhina-giri, Attikuchi-lena. Chetiya- 
giri, and Cblttala-pabbata ; to tbesc places the faithful resort that 
they may worship, because they were formorly the residences of 
rahats ; hut the priest may dwell near these places, if he can make 
eoeh arrangements as will enable him lo he absent during the day. 
and return to them only at night. 10. A wihara near a city, as 
there will be many things to attract the eyes ; the women will not 
leave the road when they are met, and ihey will make a noise with 
their earthen vessels ; and the place will be resorted to by great 
men. 11. A wihara near ivhich there is much fuel or timber for 
building, as women will come to gather the iiiewood and artisans 
to fell the trees ; at night, when they see the priest walking in the 
place of ambulation they will ridicule or otherwise molest him. 
12. A wihara near a rice-field, as the cultivators will have to make 
the platform on which the oxen tread out the rice, and a diatiirhance 
will be caused. 13. A wihara near which cattle are accustomed to 
graze, as they will break into the rice-fields, and the owners will 
accuse the priests, and make complaints to the magistrates. 14. A 
wihara in which the resident priests are not on friendly terms with 
each other ; they wlU quarrel, and if told to be at peace, they will 
say that they never prospered since this rigid ascetic came who now 
gives his advice. 15, IG, 17. A wihara near a seaport, a river, or 
a forest; the mariners will request assistance, and these men are 
not believers in the truth. 18. A wihara on the borders of a 
country,* as the resident will bo exposed to wars, will be now und«T 
one king, and then under another, and will be liable to be accounted 
as n spy. f 

All iheiie places ate to be avoided, as though they were inhabilcd 
by *a many demons ; and the dangers arising from these non-liumnn 
beings are represented as being by no means small. Tliere waa n 
priest residing in a forest, who one day hearing a female demon 
ting near the door of his residence was (^improperly) attracted lo 
the place ; but when he came near she caughl bim and hurried him 
away that ahc might eat him. The priest insisting upon knowing 

roanks of CKrislcndom, on tume occOfiiiniSi maiiifi-sled adiffcTcnl 

thn! wTtlrh <• Vicrc inculcatnl. (hi the (MlgC (rfSpaliling Moor, ia 

■, iIlit. 11. .' I. . .11 i<ii iwo monk-i, whixe nuployment wa» lo ^iiido 

trmviilli ^ ■ ''■ upon whiih Iheir hen' entered. WhilM una 

BPti'') '!• < implored by prayer the proteftkni of heaven 

I li« dangm eftha Tuxl. 


f w,. 

wliat she was about lo do, she said that she had cuien many such 
priexU as he, and that she should reckon it to be a great miBforttme 
if the time should come when she would be uoable to secure some 
member of the Bacred community. 

The novice must choose a residence that is not far from the 
village to which he has to go to procure alms. Budha has said that 
it must not be more than four miles distant, nor nearer than the 
length of 500 bows. It must be a place easy of access ; free from 
dcmgLTS ; where the people offer no interruption ; at night subject 
lo no nuise ; at a distance from tlie hurrir of the multitudes ; not 
infested by flies, musquitoes, or snakes, nor subject to an excess of 
wind or aun ; where the requisites of the priest can be obtained 
without difficulty ; and where there are superior priests to nhom he 
can resort, that he may ask questions, and have his doubts solved. 

The place of residence having been chosen, the novice must 
declare hie intention to a superior priest ; or he must take a robe, 
and after having shaved his head and bathed, give it tn n priest, 
requesting to receive it from him again, that he may ihus be able to 
commence his noviciate. He must then ask the priest to imparl to 
him the tun-sarana, or three-fold protective formulary, which is us 
fallows : — 

Budhang-saranang-gach' li nm i 
Dhammong- saran ang-gach'hai 
Sanghang- saranang-giich ' ha mi 

; Associated 

n that case 

m, and say 

He must 

I lake refuge in Budha. 
i I take refuge in the Tri 
I lake refuge 
or the same formulary may be repeated by himself; but 
he muHt change the ng at the end of each word into 
Uudham saranam, instead of Budhang saranang, &c. * 
then repeat the dasa-sil, or the ten obligations. 

1 . P^natip^taweramanlsikkhapadangsamadiyamL 

2. Adinnadanaw6ramani sikkh-a padangsani adiy ami . 

n . A brabmach any a weram ani s ikkha padan gsamadiyami . 

i. Mnsawad/iw^amaniaikkhapadangsamadiyami. 

h . S uram eray amajj apam adatthana weiaman i sikkhapadan gsom a di < 

0. Wiki'ilablK'yanaweramanisikkhapadangsamSdiyiLmi. 
7. Nachagltuwadilawisuk adassana ncram an isi kkh&padon gsam^dj - 

8. Malngandliawilepanadbaranamandanawibhusanuttaii^n-eraina- 
n i sikk hapndnngsam&diy ami . 

9, Uch'lmsayanamahasayanaweramanisikkhapadangsaniadiy^mi. 
1 0. JutaTiipamjalapatiggahanaireramaniaLkkb^padangsamiiiiiyaini- 

ordinance, that forbids the 

. that furbids the 

ordinance, that fotbids eesuul 
r ordinance, ibat forbids the 

1. ! will observe the precept, c 
tolling of life. 

3. 1 will observe the precept, a 
UkiDg of that which has not been gi 

3. 1 will observe Ihe precept, or 

4. I will observe the precept, c 
saying of that which is not true. 

5. I will observe the precept, or ordinance, that forbids the UM 
of intoxicating drinks, that lead to indifference towards religion. 

fi. 1 will observe the precept, or ordinance, that forbids the 
eating of food after mid-day. 

7. I will observe the precept, or ordinance, that forbids attend, 
ancc upon dancing, singing, music, and masks. 

8. I will observe the precept, or ordinance, that forbids the 
adorning of the body with flowers, and the use of perfumes and 

9. I will observe the prec^l, or ordinance, that forbids the use 
of high or honourable scuta or couches. 

10. I will observe ihc precept, or ordinance, that forbids the 
receiving of gold or silver. 

The principal duties that are to bo attended to by the novice are 
set forth in a manual called Dlna Chariy4wa, or the Daily Observ- 
ances of the Priest : — " He who, with a firm faith, believes in the 
religion of truth, rising before day-light, nhall clean his teeth, and 
shall then sweep all the places that are proper to be swept, such as 
the court-yard, the platform near the bo-liee, and the approaches to 
the witiara ; after which he ihull fetch the water that is required for 
drinking, filler it, and place it ready for use. When this is done, 
be shall retire to a solitary place, and for the space of ttircc hours* 
meditate on the obligations, considering whether he has kept them 
OT not. The bell will then ring, and he roust reflect that greater 
than the gi^ of 100 elephants, lUU bonus, and 100 chariots, is th« 
Tcwtrd of him who lakes one step towards the place where worship 
* I'berr sk iUtjr luiur* in one liaj. 


is offered. Tlius reflecting, he shall approach the dngoba (a conical 
erection under ivliich some relic is placed) or the bo-tree, and per- 
form that which is appointed; he shall offer flowers, just as if 
Budha were present ia person, if flowers can be procured ; meditate 
an the nine tirtues of Dudha. with a flxed and determined mind ; 
and having worshipped, seek absolution for his negligences and 
faults, just as if the sacred things (before which he worships) had 
life. Having risen from this act of reverence, he shall proceed to 
the other places where worship is offered, and spreading the cloth 
or skin that he is accustomed to place under him, he shall again 
worship (with his forehead lo the ground, and touching the ground 
irith hia knees and toes). The next act that he is required to per- 
form ia to look at his lita, or calendar, in order that he may leam 
the awach'hawa (the length of the shadow, by which according to 
rules regularly laid down, varying with the time of the year, the 
hour of the day may be known), the age of the moon, and the years 
that have elapsed since the death of Budha ; and then meditate 
on the ndvanlages to be derived from the keeping of the obligations, 
currying the ttbns-bowl. and pulling on (he yellow robe. Il will 
BOW be lime for him to lake the alms-bowl, and when going his 
round, he is to bear in mind thi? four kiirniaslb4nas, not to go too 
near, nor to keep at too great a distance from, his upfkdya or pre- 
ceptor ; at a convenient distance from the village, having swept a 
small apace clean, he is properly to adjust his robe. If going with 
his upadya or preceptor, he is lo give the bowl into his hands, and 
nccomptny him to the village, carefully avoiding the sight of women. 
Dim, elephants, horses, chariols, or soldiers. According lo the 
rules contained In the Sekhiya, he is to proceed along the rood ; 
and ofter the alms have been received he is to retire from the 
village in the manner previously declared. Taking the bowl and 
uuter robe of hia superior, he shall then proceed to ihe wih^ra. If 
there be a place appointed for the robe, he Hhall put it there after 
folding it ; then place a seat, wash his feet, enquire tf he is thirsty, 
place before him the tooth -cleaner, and bring the alms-bowl, or if 
lbi« be refused, a small portion of rice. The stanzm must be 
repealed that are appointed to he said before eating, after culing, 
and when the things are received that may be used as sick diet ; 
and ihe food is to be eaten in the manner laid down in the Sekhiya. 
Then taking the bowl of bb superior he shall wash it, put it in the 
sunshine to dry, and deposit it afterwards in its proper place. Tbis 

being done he is to wash his own face, and putting on his robe, lie 
is first to worahiji his superior, and Ihen Biidha. The iic\t act is 
tn go again to some solitary place, and there repeat the appointed 
stnnuis, considering whether he has omitted the practice of any 
ohligalion. or in any nay acted contrary t« them, after which he 
must exercise maitri-bhawana. or the meditation of kindness and 
affection. About an hour oflerwards, when his weariness is gone, 
he is to read one of the sacred boohs.'or write out a portion of one ; 
and if he has anything lo ask IVom hiH preceptor, or to loll him. 
this is the time at which it should be done. In some convenient 
place the bana is to be read ; and when this is concluded, if there 
be time before the setting of the sun, he is ognin to sweep the 
cowrt-yard, kc. aa before. 

" One by one each day, in regular order, the samantra novicei 
shall kindle a fire, light a lamp, make all ready for the reading of 
the bana, call the priest who is appointed to recite ii, wash his feet, 
sit down in an orderly manner and listen to the bana. and then 
repeat the pirit, or ritual of priestly exorcism. Having done what' 
ever is necessary to be done for the gum, and offered him worship, if 
the novice bos doubts respecting any matter he must ask to have 
them solved ; or if aceuatomcd to read the sacred books as a lesson, 
it must now be done, and he must repeat the Sekhiya and Cbatu- 
parosudhi-silo. If there be in the game wihiira a prie^it older than 
himself, he is to render him all necessary assistance, such as lo 
wash his feet, and anoint them with oil, and after offering tu him 
worship, he must ask permission to retire. Iteclining in Ihe place 
where he intends to sleep, he is again to repeat the four stanzaa 
and the four kannastbanas, as before, and reflect that in the morn- 
ing he will have to rise. Having slept, he is to rise in the morning 
before day-break, and after again repeating the four stanxas and 
the four karmoilhanas, lie most repeat the pirit taken from the 
Ratana-Bulra, exercise mailri-bh&wana, and do all that is requiied 
to be done. In the morning, ns well as at night, he is to reflect on 
the eight things that produce sorrow, on the infirmities of the body, 
on death, and on all that Es declared in the Dasa-dharmma-Bulra. 
Not giving his mind to the four things that lead to hell, tiz. evil 
dcMtrc, anger, fooT. and ignorance, should ho know that any priest 
in Iho community has committed an error, he mu»t go and declare 
it lo hira in a friendly roann<T, by which he will derive the heiioGt 
that follows right speech. If there be a priest who lives according 


lo (he precepts, and Is obedient thereto, he ia like one who Joes 
pcrHonn! service to Budha ; he honours Budha, acknowledges that 
he is supreme, and offers lo him that which is the most excellent 
p*y&, or oblation. The samanera is then to reflect whether he has 
righclj' attended to the Dina Chariyawa ; if he has done so, he must 
remain silent upon the subject, saying nothing about it; but if he 
finds that he has neglected obedience in any one particular, and is 
csnmined by the guru, be shall confess his fault. ^V^len anything 
has been done without due consideration, inadvertently, he is to bring 
a measure of sand, and sprinkle it in the sacred court. He must 
at all times be ready to do that which is necessary to be done for 
his preceptor, and to the more aged priests he must be respectful 
and obedient, washing their feet without any pride. With the four 
articIeH that he has received as a novice, of what kind soever they 
may be. whether good or bad, he must rest contented ; nor must he 
covet to have anything more than the allowed requisites of the 
prieithood. Maintaining a course of good behaviour, he must keep 
under the five senses, with matured wisdom, and without any 
haughtiness of either body, speech, or mind. He must not associate 
wilh those who are not ascetics, nor follow their customs ; and he 
must he careful lo avoid the commission of the leaat crime. By 
this means he will render an oblation worthy of Budha, the ruler 
of the world. This is the Uina Chariyawa." 

In addition to the works read by the lay student, which will 
afterwords be enumerated, the following formularies are lo be learnt 
by the sSmantra novice. 

1. Horanasikha: from hcrana, a novice, and sikha, rule or pre- 
cept. It is written in Elu, a dialect of the ancient Singhalese, and 
contains the dasa-sil, the dasa-sikha, the dasa-pariji, the dasa- 
n&sand. and the dasa-dandu. The dasa-sil, or the ten obligations, 
have already appeared. The do-sa-sikha relate to the same rules as 
the daia-Htl, as do also the first five of the dasa-pariji, with the 
uddition of the word "knowingly" to each; and the other five 
forbid— 1. The speaking disrespectfully of Budha. 2. The speak- 
ing disrespectfully of the truth. 3. The speaking disrespectfully 
of thi! associated priesthood. 4. The entertaining of heretical no- 
tions. 6, Sexual intercourse with a priestess. The dasa-nasani 
make known Uiat after expulsion for committing any of the first five 
of the pariji there may be restoration to the priesthood, but after 
eipulsIoQ for any of the second five there can be no restoration, 


The dasa-dandu forbid — I. The eating of food after mid-dajr. 3, 
The seeing of dances or the hearing of muiic or singing. 3. The 
UBc of omamentB or perfmnes. 4. The use of n seat or couch more 
than a cubit high. 5. Tlie receiving of gold, silver, or money. 
6. Practising aonie deception lo prevent another priest from reccif- 
ing that to which he is entitled. 7. Practising some deception to 
injure another priest, or bring him into danger. 8. Practising 
some deception in order to cause another priest lo be expelled from 
the community. 9. Sjieaking evil of another priest. 10. Ultcring 
•landers, in order to excite dissension among the priests of the 
wune communitj'. The first five of these crimes may be forgiven, 
if the priest bring sand and sprinkle it in the court yard of the 
wili^ra, and the second five nrny be forgiven, after temporary ex- 

3. Dina Chariyawa. This work is also written in Elu. 

3. Satara-ksmalahan, in Pali and Elu, from salora, four, and 
kamataban, abstract meditation, contains rules for meditation on 
the four important subjects, Budha, kindness, evil desire, and 

4. Dammapadan, or the Footsteps of Budha, in Pali. This work 
contains a number of moral precepts, apparently selected from 
Tarious ports of the Tun-Pitakas. It is one of the fifteen books 
belonging to the &hh at last section of the discourses of Budha. 
It contains 423 verses, in each of which there are four or six lines 
of eight syllables each; but other measures ore occasionally used. 
It is divided inlis chapters, with such names as Yamaka. or double- 
answering Verses ; Appamado, or Religion ; Chitian, or Mind ; and 
Puppham, or l-lowars. There is a paraphrase of this work in Sin. 
ghnlese, called Dhampiyawa, which is much valued by the people. 
About 350 of the verses have been translated by the lU-v. D. J. 
Gogcrly (Ceylon Kriend, vol. iv. Aug. 1840, itc.); and the selec- 
tion gives a mor« favourable idea of the morality of Budhism 
(though its principal defects are equally apparent) than any other 
w(-rk I have necn. The first chapter is thus rendered in M>. Qo- 
gerly's translation : — 

"Mind precedes action. The motive is chief: actions proceed 
from mind. If any one speak or act from a corrupt mind, suffer- 
ing will follow ilie action, as the wheel follows the lifted foot of 

" Bfiad precedes action. The motive u chief: actioni proceed from 


mind. If any one speak or act with a pure intention, enjoyment 
will follow the action, ns the Bhaclow attends the substance. 

" Their anger is not subdued who rccal to mind — he abused me, 
he struck me, he conquered me. he plundered me — 

" But their anger is subdued who do not recal to mind — he abused 
me, he struck me, he conquered me, he plundered me, 

*■ Anger will never be appeased by anger, but by gentleness. 
This ia the doctrine of the ancients. 

" Persons do not reflect. We shall epeedilj- die; if any do thus 
reflect, their qtuirrels speedily lermlnalc. 

" He who lives regarding the pleasures of existence, wilh nn- 
reatmined passions, immoderate in food, indolent, un persevering, 
Mnra;a Qasi) will certainly subdue hira, as the feeble tree is over- 
tamed by the blast. 

"He wLo Uvea meditating on the evils of existence with re- 
strained passions, temperate in food, religious, and persevering, 
M4r«ya will certainly not overpower him, as the solid rock alonds 
unmoved by ihe storm. 

" He who wears the yellow garment with a polluted mind, re- 
gardless of true doctrine, and destitute of a subdued spirit, is un- 
worthy of the yellow robe, 

" He is worthy of the yellow robe who is purified from lusts, 
established in virtue, of a subdued spirit, and conversant with true 

" Those who regard evil as good, or good as evil, will never 
attain to excellence, but arc nurtured in error. 

" Those who know good lo be good, and evil tn be evil, will attain 
to excellence, being nourished by truth. 

** As the rain completely penetrates the ill-thatched roof, so will 
lust completely subdue the unmeditative mind. 

•' As the rain cannot penetrate the well-covered roof, so lust can- 
not overcome the contemplative mind. 

" The sinner mourns in this world, and be will monm in the next 
world. In both worlds he has sorrow ; he grieves, he is tormented, 
perceiving his own impure actions. 

" The virtuous nian rejoices in this world, and be will rejoice in 
the next world. In both worlds he has joy ; he rejoices, be exults, 
perceiving his own virtuous deeds. 

" The sinner suffers in this world, and he will suffer in the next 
world. In both worlds he suffers ; he suffers, knowing — sin has 



been committed by me ; and dreadfully will he suffer in the regi 
of torment, 

"The viituous man is happy in this world, and he will be h 
in the next world. In both worlds he is happy; he is 1 
knowing — I have acted virtuously, and greatly will he rejoin 

"The worldly-minded man, who understands much^^of religion, 
and talks much concerning it, without keeping its precepts, is like 
a herdsman of other men's cattle, who is not a partaker of the flocik 
he tends. 

" The pious man, who though he understands but little. I 
talks but little of religion, is an observer of its precepts; who 4 
moves lust, wrath, and folly far from him ; who is consideratiTe, 
possessed of a mind free from evil and without attachments ; he, in 
this world and thai to come, is a partaker of the buits of piety, 

" End of the Yamaka. or the chapter of double -an n we ring Verses." 

5. Ftruwan^-pota. This work contains a Manual of Exorcism. 
It is written in Pali, and consists of extracts from the sncred books, 
the recital of which, with certain attendant ceremonies, ciillcd in 
Singhalese, pirit, is intended to ward off evil and bring prosperity. 
TTie whole of It has been translated by the Rev. D. J. Oogerly, 
and appears in the Ceylon Friend, vol. ii. April, 1839, &c. 

6. Sekhiya. In this work, which is also written in Pali, there 
are seventy rules, by which the priest is to be guided in such mat- 
ters as the putting on of his robes, the manner in which he enlers 
a house or village, &c. The rules ore incoriwraled in the following 
chaptera. The work is referred to in an inscription at Mihintala, 
near Anuradhapura, recorded about the year A.n. 262 : " The priests 
resident at this wibira shall make it a constant practice to rise at 
the dawn, meditate on the four preservative principles, perform the 
ablution, and then, having attired themselves with the chiwara 
probes}, in the manner prescribed in the Sekhiya, they shall resort 
to the M\, wili&ra. and having there performed the religious offices, 
aft«rwarda putake of rice-gruci and rice, and shall duly adnunislcr 
to the priests who could not attend on account of sickness, such 
thing*, at their respective cells, aa the physicians had prescribed.*' 

7. rilikul-bhiwan^. This Manual, written in Pali, contains ia. 
formation relative to the manner in which the priett is to medita 
on the cormptioD of his own body. It is divided into thtrty-|| 
put*, coiTesponding with the principal members. 

IT. THE NOriCI4TK. 3t 

B. Sstara-SBDgTai^-sila', from satara, four, sangwara, self-conlrol. 
niid HJla, precepts. Thsf are — 1. Piatimoksha, the obEervance of all 
the preccpta contained in the FTatimoksha, from the fear of break- 
ing even the least of them. 2. Indriya, the entire freedom from 
any affection for sensible objects, as when the beautiful figure is 
seen, it is as though it were not seen : when the pleasant sound is 
heard, it is as though it were not heard. 3. Ajiwapiirisudhi, the 
keeping of such precepts, as that when the priest goes to receive 
olma he must not by word or gesture make known that food or rai- 
ment IB desired by him. 4. Prat'yasannisrata, the observance of 
such precepts as those that inculcate that when the robe U put on, 
it ia not for beauty or ornament, but to ward off the heat and cold, 
musquitocs, flies, snakes, the rays of the sun, and the wind. 

These treadses are to be learnt by the novice ; and in the works 
that he is afterwards required to read, he is frequently reminded 
that great diligence and exertion must be nsed, if lie would succeed 
in effecting the object for wliich he has become a recluse. On one 
occasion, Budha said to the priesia by whom he was accompanied, 
" Were a man, who wishes to make a small fire into a large oue, to 
take wet grass, wet cow-dung, and wet fuel, and blow it with a wet 
ttiiinowing fan. you would say that be is unskilful. In like man- 
ner, the mind of the being who Is idle and indifferent cannot be 
brought into the paths that lead to nirwana simply by abstract me- 
ditation ; be must investigate causes and exercise energy even as 
tlie fire is increased by applying to it fuel that is dry-" It b said 
a.gain. "The bowman seeks out good weapons, plants his foot care- 
fully, and when he has succeeded in cleaving a hair with the arrow, 
marks the manner in which it was done, and tries the same method 
on other occasions. The skilful cook seeketh out condiments that 
u« Mvoury, and makes such food as he thinks will be agreeable to 
his mailer ; and when he finds that his master has enjoyed this 
lUsh or ealen plentifully of thai, he prepares the same kind of food 
again, and so gains credit with his master, receiving many presents. 
In like manner, the priest who would enter the paths meditates 
carefully on the precepts, puts them to the test, and repeats the 
practice of those by which he is assisted."* 

The norice ia taught that there are eight benefits to be derived 

from becoming a recluse: — 1. Deliverance from wastu-kama, the 

love of wealth, and klcsa-kama. the love of pleasure. 2. The ro- 

* Wisuilhi Margga ^ann£ 


ception of food in n proper manner. 3. The custom of eating any 
food that conies to hand, of what kind soever it may be. 4. De- 
livenuice from the oppression of wicked men and of kings. 5. Free- 
dom from all anxiety about such things as gardens, fields, aod 
cattle. 6. Deliverance from the dicad of thieves. 7. Deliverance 
from the dread of persons in authority, and release from the neces- 
sity of rising up when they approach. B. Deliverance from fear, in 
whatever place.* 

There aro alHO ten things that cause men to neglect the aasump- 
tiou of the yellow robe, or tempt them to cast it off after it has Iteen 
assumed:— 1. The mother. 2. The father. 3. The wife. 4. Cbil- 
dren. 5. Poor relations. The thought will come that these relatives 
ought to be provided for, which cannot be done by the rocluse. 
6. Friends. 7. Property. 8. The desire of obtaining wealth. 9. The 
desire of worldly honour. 10. The love of pleasure. f 

The precepts mnat be obeyed from a pure motive. Were any 
one to practise the Ten Obligations merely •' to fiU the belly," this 
man, deceiving the laity, greedy of fame, destitute of virtue, and un- 
worthy to enjoy the privileges of the priesthood, will receive a dou- 
ble punishment ; after death he will be bom in the Awichi heQ, 
whore he will have to reside myriiMls of years, in the midal of 
flames, hot, fierce, and overpowering, in which he will be turaed 
upside down, and in every possible direction, covered with foftnt. 
When released from this hell, he will be bom in the hell of sprites, 
where he will have a body estremely attenuated, and most loath- 
some in its appearance, whilst he will have to endure the severert 
privations, and will have to walk upon earth in misery, the speetie 
of a priest. J ust as when a man of ignoble appearance and taferior 
family, by some deception succeeds in being anointed king : but h« 
is afterward* punished : his arms, legs, nose, and cars are cut off; 
the scalp is torn away, and boiling grvtel poured on his head ; his 
skuit is rubbed with gr«vel until it is while as a sea.shetl ; a L'ghled 
brand being put in his mouth, his body is rubbed with oil and hI 
on fire ; his frame is hacked ; he is tlirown down, and a t^pike being 
driven from cor lo car be is pinned to tlic groimd ; his flesh is lom 
with hooks, and cut with small pieces of metal like coins ; the body 
Is tmufixcd to Ibo ground, and turned round and round by the Ieg», 
the pin BCrring as a pivot ; ho is flogged, until his body is of ^ 
eonsistencc of a whisp of straw; he is eaten by hungry-do^s; his 
■ Fi^tw^ya. t MUlndnPniiiB. 

any M 

tongne is fastened to a stake. Mid fae remains there until lie dies ; 
nr he is beheaded.* By these terrible allusions the novic-e is 
waroeil against becoming a recluse merely that he may secure a 
livelihood ; and they may be received as illuBtrative of the modes of 
punishment then used. 

The priest who does nol obey the precepts ia represented as being 
like a man who daubs himself all over with the moat disgusting 
lillh in order lo render himself beautiful : he is bke an ass among 
cattle ; he is shunned by all ; he is like the fire of a cemetery where 
bodies are burnt, or like one blind, or an outcaste.f 

Upon Bnolher occasion it was declared by Dudha, in the Aggik- 
khnndn-pariya-sutra, that it is better for a priest to embrace the 
flame than to approach a woman, however exalted her rank ; that 
the consqoence of the one act would be only temporary pain, or at 
most death ; whilst the consequence of the other would be long-con- 
tinued torment amidst the flames of hell. He said further, that it 
were better for the priest who does not keep the pteci'pts to be 
bound with a cord made of hair, and dragged from place to place 
until his flesh is torn off, and his bones are laid bare, even lo the 
marrow, than for such a one lo receive worship from the faithful of 
any of the three great castes : that it were better for him to be 
cruelly pierced in the body than lo receive service from the well- 
dispoHcd among the laity : that it were better for him lo have mol- 
ten metal poured down his throat, until his lips, teeth, tongue, 
stomach, and intestines were all burnt, than for him lo receive an 
offering of food given as alms : that it were better for him to be put 
in a red-hot iron chair or bed, or to be put into a caldron of molt«n 
metal with fais head downwards, than for him to receive the gift of 
a residence. The misery in the one case is merely temporary, but 
in the other case it will endure long. The receiving of honour or 
assistance by the ])Tiest who breaks the precepts is like the eating of 
food upon which the serpent has left its poison : it is no bencUl to 
bim, and will be attended by intense aufiering.I 

The course of asceticism upon which the novice enters is in- 
tended, not only to overcome the evils of the passing moment, but 
also to prevent the afflictions of the future. This is he taught from 
one of the conversations that took place between Milinda and Na- 
gas^na. The king said lo the sage. " Are the pains tltat you take 
intended to drive away past sorrow? " and when he answered that 
• nimidU MatiEga ifann^ t Ibid. 1 tbicl. 


they were not, the king again asked, '■ Are they to drive away pre- 
lent sorrow ? " but the answer waa the same. Milinda : — " ITien if 
it be neither to drive away past sorrow nor present, why do you lake 
pains at all?'' Nagaseoa: — "We thus exert ourselves that we may 
destroy present sorrow and drive away future sorrow." Milinda : — 
" Is there future sorrow r " Nagaaena : — " No." Milinda : — "Voo 
are wise and learned, and yet do you take pains to destroy a aorrov 
that does not exist .' " Nagasena : — ■' When the kings that «re 
your enemies come to fight against you. do you jast at that time 
dig the ditches of your fortifications, baild the walls, place the 
guards in the watch-towers, and lay in provigion^ for the siege? " 
Milinda: — "No: I should prepare all these things before the day 
came." Nagaaena : — " Would you on that day begin to train the 
elephants, the horses, the charioteers, the archers, the swordsmen, 
and the mace-men?" Milinda: — "No : all this is done beforehand." 
N&gasena : — " Why ? " Milinda : — " To ward off future fear i^^or fear 
of the future.)" N^gasena: — " Is there future fear?" Milinda: — 
"No-" Nagascna : — *" You are a wise and prudent king, and do 
you prepare nl! things ticcessary for the battle in order that you 
may drive away a fear that in reality has no existence ? " The 
king requested further information. N^gasena proceeded and said, 
" When you are thirsty, and wish to drink water, do you tell your 
•erranta to dig the well or open the fountain ? Do you not cause 
these places to be prepared beforehand ? And thus you give orders 
relative to a thirst that has no esistence. Again, when yon are 
hnngry, and wish to eat rice, do you tell your servants to plough 
the field and sow the grain ? Do you not cause the rice to be cul- 
tivated beforehand ? And yet you, a wise and prudent king, do all 
this relative lo the driving away of a hunger that is slill future, and 
has therefore no existence. In like manner Ihc priest acts in rela- 
tion to the future ; that which ho docs is in order lo drive awxy 
future sorrow." 

It escited the wonder of Milinda that the priests should hare any 
regard wbalerer to the body ; but the novice is to bear in mind that 
this is done, not from complacency or pride, but that it may be the 
better adapted to carry into effect the ascetic rites he is called upon 
to eicrcise. The king said to Nagasena, " Do the priests respect 
the body? " and when the sage replied in the negative, he agun 
asked, " Then why do they take so much pains to pre8er%e it ? Do 
they not by this meiULs say, this is me, or mine ? " Nagasina : — 


" Were you ever wounded by an arrow in battle ? '' Milinda: — 
" Yes." Nagaa^na : — " Was not the wound anointed ? Was it not 
tubbed with oil ? And was it not covered with a soft bandage } " 
Milinda ; — " Vea." Nngasena ; — " Was this done because you 
respected the wound, or took delight in it?'' Milinda; — "No; 
but tliat it might be healed." N^gas^-na : — "^ In like manner, the 
priests do not preeerve the body because they respect it ; but that 
they may have the power required for the keeping of the precepts." 
There are some priests who throw off the robe and return to the 
state of a laic. This might be brought as a charge against the sys- 
tem of Budha; it may be said that it is without power, or they 
would not have acted in such a manner. But the novice ia taught 
to reason thus, There is a tank full of water ; now if a man have 
his body covered with dirt and dust, and his garments all soiled, 
where is the fault ^ Can it be charged upon the water ? Again, 
there is a ekilful physician ; now if a man labour under a severe 
disease, and does not apply to the physician, the disease may in- 
crease in malignity, but is the skill of the physician thereby im- 
peached ? Is it not rather the fault of the man ? Again, there is 
plenty of food provided, and plenty of water, and men are invited to 
partake of them ; but if tbey refuse, and will rather suffer hunger 
and thirst than come, caA blame be attached to the food or the 
water ? In like manner, when the priest, without attaining nirwana, 
leaves lus robe and becomes a laic, it is not the fault of the system 
hut of the man ; he is not sincere ; therefore the system has no 
bold upon him, as the lotus does not allow tlie water to adhere to 
it« pelals. or as the sea casts upon the shore any body that may be 
thrown into its waves. When the warrior sees that he has to en- 
counter an armed host, he becomes afraid, and runs away ; he can- 
not face the enemy ; so the priest who does not keep the precepts, 
by which he might be preserved, is overcome by evil desire, os he 
is without any defence or protection. When there are flowersupon 
a tree, thoie that are worm-eaten fall down and rot : whilst those 
th«t are not thus eaten continue to flourish, and send forth their 
perfume on every side; and again, there may be grass and rushes 
in tbo field where the best rice is sown, but whilst the rice ripens, 
the graas and rushes will wither and die. Now the priest who does 
not keep the precepts is like the worm-eaten flower, or the grass of 
the rice field.* 

* Milinda Prnmii. 


Respecting soine of Ibe advantages thut are expected to be g^ned 
by embracing the priesthood, tbe teachings of Biidhi»<in are not uoi- 
form. Il is sometimes said that the sins of the man are to the priest 
as the sins that liavc been committed in a former state of eidstence, 
and are no bar to Ihe reception of nirwana. Thus Anguli-mals, a 
student, who at the instigation of his preceptor committed 999 mur- 
dcn, became a ruhat. But on another occasion it is said bj N4ga' 
sena tliat certain priests were prevented from attaining nirwana by 
s the; had unltnowingl; committed before they abandoned 

i afterwards embraces the 
committed the sin, endea- 
le succeed in attaining tur- 
n previously to the cotnraii- 

world. Milinda said lo him, " 
commits one of the five deadly sins ; 
priesthood, and sUll unaware that he h 
voura to become a rahat ; can such a 
wana?" Nagasenareplied. "No; ife 

Bion of the crime be had the merit whereby he might bave attained 
nirwana, it would be destroyed, cut off, by his sin." Milinda: — "You 
bare said on a previous occasion that when a man knows be bM 
committed a deadly crime, he is in doubt ; when he is in doubt his 
mind is prevented from rightly attending to the obligations and the 
other ordinances ; and because his mind is thus a^^italcd, he is un- 
able to attain nirwana ; but in this instance the crime is not known, 
and there is therefore do doubt." N^gasf^na : — " A man takes good 
seed, and sows it in the fertile soil of a field that has been ploutched 
and prepared for its reception ; be takes the same kind of seed, and 
sows it upon the bare rock ; in the one case it is productive ; in th« 
other it is not : for tbis reason ; that upon the rock there is no bttu, 
that which is necessary for the fructifying of tbe seed is not there. 
Again, when slicks and stones are thrown upon the ground, there 
they remain ; but when tlie same things ore thrown into tbe sky, 
they du nut remain there ; tbey fall down ; fur this reason, that ia 
the sky there is nu hetu, nothing by which they can be supported. 
Again, when u fire is lighted upon the earth, it burns ; but a fire 
cannot be kindled upon the water ; for this reason : the water ia 
ahftu as to fire, there is nothing in it upon which the fire can Iftjr 
hoM." Milinda ; — " But explain to mc how it is that when tho 
crime is committed unwittingly, and there is therefore no doubt, no 
agitation, arising from it, still nirwana should not be obtained ? " 
Nigas^na : — " When a man takes poison unknowingly, does it not 
ii\iure him } V^en ho treads upon fire unknowingly, docs it not 
bum him ? When a nay& bites him during sleep, or when in any 


Other way unconscious, will he not die ? There was a ehakrawartti 
(a imjversal emperor, who also possesses preternatural powers], wLo 
with his army was one day pasfting through the sky ; unknowingly 
he happened to approach the ho-tree near which the prince Sidhartta 
became a aupeme Budha ; but he was not able to pass over the 
sacred pince ; his progress was nrrested, though he knew not from 
what cause. In like manner, when a priest who daring the time he 
was a laic has committed any of the five deadly sins, attempla to 
attain nirwana, he is unable to accomplish the object at which he 

It will be said by the fiudhist tlint though Anguli-mMa committed 
so many murders, bo did not commit any of the five deadly sins ; 
which are, I. Matricide. 2. Palricide. 3. The murder of a rahat, 
4. Wounding the person of a supreme Budha (his life cannot pos- 
sibly be taken). 5, Causing a schism among the priesthood. But 
thoogh this reply may seem to prove the uniformity of the system, 
it lays it open to a serious charge upon moral grounds. In the 
arguments brought forward by Nagasena, the dangerous extent to 
which imagery may be carried, and the manner in which the opera- 
tion of moral causes is confounded with that of physical causes, are 
too apparent to require specific indication. The advantages that 
may he gained by the sincere notice are, however, here represented 
as very great ; by becoming a recluse the way to nirwana is opened 
before bim, and there can be no harrier to its attainment, if he be 
free from the five sins. 

That considerable attention is yet paid to the conduct of the 
novices may be learnt from what is said in an epistle sent by the 
sangha rSja of Banna to the priests of Ceylon in 1802, " As some 
erroneously think," he says, •' that certain obBervances are not 
enacted for llie novices, but are only obligatory on the ordained 
priests, [ quote the following passage from the commentary on the 
Makawaggo, to show how nnfounded is their assertion — ' As long 
as a priest is ignorant of the discipline to be observed by him ; un- 
skilful in the adjusting of the robes, in the manner in which he 
ought to carry the alms-bowl, in the modes of standing and sitting, 
eating and drinking; ho ought not to he sent to any of the alms- 
houses where food is distributed lo the priesthood at large, nor to 
any place where food is daily distributed to a select number of 
priesbi, nor to the forest, nor to any public assembly ; but he should 
be kept near the senior priests ; he should be nourished tike a little 

child ; he should constantly be informed of what is allowed ajxA 
what is not ; and he should he duly trained up in the modes of 
wearing and covering the robes, and in the other parl« of the disci- 
pline he is required to observe.' .... Some assert that whatever 
is sanctioned by the preceptor becomes binding upon the novicea. 
and is legalised by his dictum alone. But hear what is said upon 
this point in the Sanghiti Khandaku. ' ^t is allowable to a pupil U> 
observe some things, saying. My preceptor has enjoined it, or. My 
teacher ha« enjoined it ; therefore I observe it ; — but of the matters 
thus sanctioned some may be legal and some may not.' The com- 
menlary explains the espression, ' some arc legal,' by saying that ot 
course it is meant of those things that are in themselves good, and 
do not militate against the laws of Budha." * 

The difficulties tbat have sometimes to be encountered by the 
youth who wishes to renounce the world, and the reasona that are 
supposed to induce him to lalie this important step. may be inferred 
from the legend of Kathapfda, as it appears in tlic Rathapila-sutta- 
sann£. Though somewhat long, as it abounds with illustrative in- 
cidents, and contains a moral from which even the wisest may Te< 
ceive instruction, I insert it in its original form, with scarcely 

When Ootama Budha visited the different places in the provinott 
of Kuru, that he might confer benefits upon the people, he came to 
the brahman village of Thullakotthitan, so called on account of the 
numerous castles it contained, that were filled with all kinds of 
trcnauics. The people of the village had embraced the doctrines 
of Budha. Among the rest there was a brahman of a respectable 
family called Rathapfda, who came to Ootama when he visited the 
village, and requested that he might be admitted to the priesthood, 
E U ho said that it was difficult for him to act aright so long its he 
■ wntinuod a luc, Budha enquired if his parents bad given their 
consent, and when Rathapala said that he had not requested their 
permission, the sage made known to him that it was not bis custom 
to receive any into the priesthood who had not gained the consent 
of their pai«ul«. Tlie brahman then went to his parents, and lold 
thorn that since he had heard the discourses of Budha it was his 
wish to become a priest ; and he now requested their permission to 
carry this wish into effect. But his parents replied, " You 

hhIhU-iI by L. lie Zoyia. I 

e to ' 

belored son, our only son ; we have none older than you, none 
youitpjr ; you have lived in all bappiness ; you liave enjoyed your- 
self; you knon notliing of sorrow; remain contented; «at and 
drink whatever is cherishing or delicious ; take to yourself a retinue 
of beautiful maidens ; have dancing girls to amuse you ; remain a 
householder ; and gain merit by giving alms tu the three genu. 
We cannot give you permission to embrace the priesthood ; we do 
not wish you to become a priest even after we ate dead, and cannot 
therefore give our consent whilst we are alive." Ralhapala then 
•ud, "Unless I receive your permission, I will die here;" and 
having said this, he lay down upon the bare ground. The parents 
repealed their former declarations three several times, and entreated 
him to rise ; but as he still continued silent, they went to some of 
his friends, informed them of the determination of their son, 
and asked them to come and try to persuade him to change it. 
The friends accordingly came to the place where he was, and ihricc 
urged the same reasons as his parents to induce him to remain a 
Uic : but he still remained silent. They then went to his parents, 
and telling them it was in Tain to attempt to alter his resolution, 
said it would be belter to give their consent ; they would then be 
able to see him at intervals ; but if they still refused their permis- 
sion he would die. To this advice ihey agreed, on condition that 
the person who ordained him would allow him to pay them a visit 
from time to time. When the friends informed Ralhap41a that his 
porrnls gave thinr consent, he arose, took some refreshment, and 
went ta the residence of Budha, who admitted him to the priesthood 
on learning that his parents had granted their permission. 

Not long after Rathapala had thus renounced the world, he 
attained rahatship, and became indeed one of the chief of the rahats ; 
after which he went to Budha, who was now resident at Rnjagaha, 
and requested permission to go and see his parents according to the 
promise he had given. As bis request was granted, he went to his 
native village, near which he remained in a garden called MlgachiiM. 
belonging to the king Eorawya. At the proper time, taking his 
abns-bowl, he went to the village (o receive alms, after putting on 
his robe in such a way as to conceal his person. As he approached 
his own residence, in going regularly from house to house, his 
fiithcr was standing in the centrnl door-way of the mansion, which 
hod in nil seven doors. When bis father saw him in the distance 

he said, " This is one of the priests who took away from u 

ir only 

laic 01 


* thsM 

beloved son.'' No attentions were jiuid to him by any ot tim 
lily ; nor were any alms presented ; abuse was all thut he received. 
that time the female slave of one of his relatives wna taking 
made of barley, which had been boiled llie previous night 
me Blale. in order to throw it away. When Rathapala perceiw 
intention, he told her it would be better to put it in his bowLJ 
Lgly did HO ; but when he held out his bowl to receive il 
she had the opportunity of seeing his hands and feet, and from tlus, 
well aa frutn bia voice, she knew that it was Halhapdla. 
ahu Weill and inrormi'd his mother, who was overjoyed at teceiTtng 
this intelligence, and promised the slave that if it were true aba 
fchould receive her freedom. The mother went bjkI imparted the 
news to his father; and in the mean time Bathapfila eat the stale 
food he had received. The fatht-r went to the place whither he had 
retired, and eaid to him, " Would it not be better to cume and 
reside al your own hoiwc, than to eut food that lias become stale ? " 
llathapala replied, " Householder, the priests are houseless ; we do 
not reside in houses ; I have already been to your house ; no alms 
were given me ; not even a kind word did I receive." The father 
again entreated his son to return ; but he said it was needless, aai 
he had already pertaken of food. He was then invited to come on 
the following day ; and though he remained silent, his father knew 
hia intention. The mansion was fitted up fur bis recepti 
most splendid manner, and the wife ot Kathapida was commanded' 
tu put on her must beautiful ornaments. 

The next day, Rathapdla was informed that all was ready and he 
wont lo bis former dwelling. Uia father displayed before him all 
hi* wealth, and said to him, " 7'his is the property of your mother ; 
this belongii to your father ; the rest was inherited from our ances- 
tors. Ulustrioua Ratliapala, take possession of all this, become a. 
once more, and gain merit by the giving of alms." But ha 
ted, " If my advice were followed, all this gold, and all theao 
rels, and this wealth, would be placed upon waggons, token to the 
Viiniuiia, and tlirown into the stream; for they cause 
sorrow, lameulntion, grief, distress, and disappointment." Ilia 
then held him by tlie foet and said, '• Have you abandoned the 
for the sake of nome celestial nj-mph ! If so, tell mc, what 
manner of her appearance ? " He replied, " Yes ; it is for 
the Koke of a celestial nymph that I have abandoned the world." 
On hearing this she fell down in a fit, from the exceas of her grief. 


lUlhapala Ihcn said to his father, " If I am to receive food, let it be 
given ; do not distress me by showing me wealth, or by the approach 
of women." Ub lather informed hiro that all was prepared, and 
presented the food with bis own hand, until he was satisfied. He 
thea took the bowl, and preparing t« depart, said, "The body is 
arrayed in garments and ornamented by jewels ; ii ia like an image 
beautifully painted ; it has hands, feet, and various members, is 
built about with flesh, and is subject to disease and decay ; think 
about it well; if it were not for the manner ib which it is ornamented, 
it would be loathsome ; men and women have affection for this vile 
and perishing body, and none for nirwana. The body is washed 
in perfumed waler ; the hair is braided in eight difi'crenl ways, and 
ornamented with coronets ; and the eyes are anointed with coUyrium ; 
but nirw4na is despised. Householder ! you are like a man who 
places a gin made of withs to catch deer ; you have displayed before 
me this wealth that I might be ensnared ; but I am like the deer 
that cats tlie grass and escapes the snare ; I have partaken of your 
food, and now depart." Having spoken these words he went 

About this lime Korawya, the king, called Migawa. the gardener, 
and commanded him to prepare the MigachSra garden for his recep- 
tion. When the gardener was about to carry this command into 
eflect, he saw Ratbapala at the foot of a tree ; upon which he went 
to inform the king, who said that he would visit the place without 
delay. When leaving the palace, he sat in his chariot; but when 
nt a proper distance he alighted therefrom, and approached the 
priest on foot. The king requested him to mount the royal elephant ; 
hut he refused, saying that they had both better remain as they then 
were, each on his own proper seat. " There are four causes of 
affliction;" the king proceeded to say; " ou account of one or 
other of iliose causes men most frequently embrace the priesthood ; 
they arc, decay, disease, the loss of property, and the loss of friends. 
A man becomes old ; all his powers have begun to fail ; he thinks 
thiw : 1 am now old ; I can acquire no more properly, or if I acquire 
It I cannot keep it ; it will be better for me to become a recluse. 
But you, most noble Rathapala I are not old ; you arc yet a youth ; 
youf hair is like that of Krishna : you arc yet in the beginning of 
your ptrength ; what, then, did you learn, or sec. or hear, that 
iadocod you to become a priest : There is the affliction arising from 
diseue; men are subject to coughs, ulUma, diabetes, and other 


; and they therefore embrace the priesthood. Bat you arv 
in perfect health ; the digestive faculty ia imitnpaiied ; why then 
did you embrace th'is ascetic course? There is the affliction arising 
from the loBH of property ; men lose their poSBeasions and n-calth ; 
I they therefore embrace the priesthood. But you belong to a re- 
' apectable family in this brahman village ; you have not suffered any 
loss of property ; then why do you endure these privations ? There 
is the affliction arising from the loss of frictids ; men lose their 
children and other relatives ; they therefore embrace ihe priesthood. 
But you are a stranger to this affliction. Then, tell mc, why dida 
you become a priest ? " 

Rathapala replied, " O king I four aphorisms have been declare 
by Budba, and it was because I understood them, saw and hcard'^ 
them, that I became a priest. They arc: I. The beings in this 
world are subject to decay, they cannot abide long. 2. They have 
no protection, no adequate helper. 3. They have no real posses- 
sions ; all that tliey have they must leave. 4. They cannot arrive 
at perfect Batisfaction or content ; they are constantly the slaves of 
evil desire." The king enquired what was the meaning of these 
nphori«ms, and Bathapala explained them thus : " Wlien you, 
Korawya, were twenty or twenty-five years of age, were you not 
able to subdue the horse, drive the chariot, and bend the bow ; and 
were you not then a powerful warrior?" The king replied in the 
affirmative ; but when Rathapaia asked him if he was the same 
now, he confessed that his former energy had passed away; and 
when the priest further enquired bow this had come to pass, ho 
said, " I am now old ; I am eighty years of age ; if 1 think to place 
my foot here, it goes there ; I am feeble." " It waa on this account," 
said Rathapaia, " that Budha declared : the being who is resident 
in this world in carried away by decay, or old age; he cannot 
rvmnin long." The king said, " What Budha has declared u true ; 
but he htui also said that though there may be as army to defend 
the monarch against his enemies, there is no protection against Ihe 
approach of itickness ; what is the meaning of this?" The priest 
enquired, "Are yuu subject to any incurable disease?" and the 
kii](t said. " Yea ; I am subject to such a disease ; sometimes my 
aons and other relatives assemble around mc and exclaim : The 
king K6r8wya will now die." " WcU then," asked the priest, " 
at such a time you were to aay to your Telatlves, or lu the nobles ti 
attendance. Help me to endure my pain ; divide it among youraelvt 


and lake part of il La my stead ; — would they be able thus to aasiat 
you?" The king declared that ihey would not. "Therefore," 
said the priest, " Budha baa declared that man has no protection, 
no adequate helper." The king agalo said, " Budha has declared 
that though a man may have much wealth, it ia not his oim ; 
though he may possess it for a lime, he must leave it ; what Is the 
meaning of this ?" " You, O king," said Rathapala, " have abun- 
dance ; much wealth and many attendants ; when you enter the 
other worhl, will you still possess them, or will they be the property 
of another?" The king confessed that he must leave them. Mid 
that they would belong to another. " It was on this account,'' 
Rathapala sud, "Budha declared that man has no real possessions.'' 
The king continued, "You have told me that Budha has said: 
The mind is not satialied, or contented ; it still covets more ; what 
does this mean ? " " Suppose" said the priest, " a man worthy of 
all credence were to come boin the eastern part of Kuni. and say 
that in that part of the country he had seen many nations, with 
cities, armies, wealth, and maidens beautiful as the celestial d^wis, 
what would you do?" The king said, he ehould go and conquer 
them. The priest put the same question relative to each of the 
other quarters ; and upon receiving the same reply he said, " It was 
on this account Budha has declared that the mind is never satisfied ; 
it is always wanting more ; and it was because I learnt these truths 
that 1 embraced tbc priesthood." 

Rothnpalu then repeated these stanzas : — " There are some men 
who have much property; but on account of the false medium 
through which all things appear to them, it seems as if it were 
little ; they are covetous of more, and are continually trying to add 
to their possessions. There are kings who subdue the whole of 
the four quarters, even to the borders of the sea ; but they are still 
not content; they wish to cross the ocean, that they may find out 
more worlds to conquer, hut they are never satisfied with what they 
acquire, and the craving continues until death. There is no means 
of talisfying the desire of the worldling. When he dies, his friends 
go about with disordered hair, and weep ; they exclaim. He is gone, 
he is dead, — and they then enwrap the body in cloth, and hum it 
upon the pjxe. He cannot take with him either property or wealth ; 
even the cloth in which he is enwropped is burnt. When about to 
die, neither relatives, friends, nor companions, can aflbrd him any 
protection. He who dies b accompanied only by his merit and de- 


merit ; notliing else whatever goes with him ; he cannot take witti 
him children, or women, or wealth, or lands. Decay is not prevented 
by wealth, nor is old age ; the life continaee only for a little time. 
The rich and the poor, the wise ajid the unwise, men of every c 
dition. must equally encounter death ; there is no 
embrace does not come. Tlie unwise man trembles at the appro 
of death ; but the wise man is unmoved. Wisdom is thcrefMO 
better than wealth : of all possessions it is the chief; it is the prin- 
cipal moans by wbich evil desire is destroyed, and purity is attained. 
The cleaving to sentient objects is the cause of many dangers, and 
prevents the reception of niiwana. For these reasons I have em- 
braced the priesthood,'' 


Il has been said that " ordination is nothing but a. word boiroi 
tnm the Roman empire, in which it is the legitimate and custoi 
mode of designating the institution of a person to some honourable 
office ; and this was the original church meaning, as both Eichhom 
knd Uotho have shown.'' * The act by which admission into tlic 
priesthood is received among the Budhists may therefore not im- 
properly bo termed ordination. It binds the recipient to obeervo 
certain ordinances or rules ; but it is to be regarded ns conveying 
an obligation to refrain from certain usages, rather than as 
jMsing a class of duties that he is to perform. On ihe part uf 
candidate it is an acknowledgment of the ciiccllence uf asccticiai 
with un implied divloration tbat its obligations shall be obsorvi 
and on tlie port of the priests by whom the ceremony is conduct 
it is nn ticknowledgment that the candidate is eligible to the 
tion of the office, and that, so long as he fulfils its duties, he will 
received as a member of the ascetic community, and be entitled 
partake in all its rights und privileges. 

The mode in which tlie ceremony is conducted 
ainiplu, OS appears from the formulary of admission contained 
the work called Kammaw4chan, of which there is a Singhalt 
Iniudalion. A songha, or chapter, having been called, the 
due is aalusd If the requisites of the priest (as the alms-bowl, rul 

* OutWDn's Cbimli of the Futim. 




&c. that have been previously prepared and deposited in the place 
of assembly) belong to him. On answering in the affimative, he is 
commanded to remain in a place that is pointed out ; and he is then 
asked if he is free from certain diseases that are named, including 
the leprosy, epilepsy, be. ; if he is a hiimnn being, a man, and a 
freeman ; if he is out of debt ; if he is free from the king's service ; 
if he has the consent of his parents ; if he has attained the age of 
twenty years ; and if he ia provided with the priestly requisites. He 
is (hen asked his own name, and the name of his up^dya (the priest 
hy whom he is presented for ordination). These things being ascer- 
tained, the moderator commands him to advance ; and the candi- 
date, addressing the assembly, says respectfully, thrice, " 1 request 
upaaampada." The rooderatoi then makes known that he ia free 
from the impediments that would bar his admission to the priest- 
hood, that he possesses the requisites, and that he requests upasam- 
pada ; and thrice calls out, ** Let him who assents to this request 
be silent; let him who dissents, now declare it I" If the assembly 
be silent the moderator infers that consent Is given ; upon which 
be repeats to the candidate the more Important of the rules by 
which he wIU have to abide — relating to the food he may receive, 
the garments he may wear, the place in which he may reside, the 
medicaments he may use in case of sickness, and the crimes that 
involve expulsion from the priesthood. It is declared that these 
ordinances arc worthy to be kepi unto the end of life ; to which the 
candidate ussenls, without, however, making any promise or taking 
any vow. From this lime he is regarded as an upasamtada, from 
upa, exceeding, and sampada, gain, advantage. 

It is not unusual for the candidate to put off the robe he had 
worn as a novice, and to rcassume fur the nonce the dress of a 
layman ; his body is anointed with aandal and other fragrant sub- 
stances ; and with banners and music his friends accompany him to 
the place of ordination. It is said that u[>on some occasions the 
monarch of Ceylon, the two adigars, and the four nobles next in 
rank, accompanied the procession through the principal streets of 
Kandy. In like manner, the nun ia arrayed in her gayest attire on 
the day when she finally abandons the world, and becomes what is 
called, though the name is too often a solemn mockery, " The 
■pouse of Christ.*' 

The ceremony of upasampada ia sometimes called by Europeans 
the superior ordination, implying thai there are Iwo orders in the 

I I 

Budhist priesthood ; but this mode of speaking is incorrect, as ihe 
Baman^ra is regarded only as a candidate or novice, and requires no 
other permission for the wearing of the yellow robe than 
tion of an upaeampada priest. 

In Ceylon, ordination is seldom conferred by the established o 
mimily in any place but the city of Kandj, where the maha-nijn 
or arch-priest, and the anu-nayaha, his deputy, reside ; but this is an 
innovation similar to the taking away of the power of ordination ^om 
" the hands of the presbytery," and confining it to handa episcopal, 
and has no sanction whatever from the earlier uRages of Budhiam. 

Upasompada confers no mystic power, nor Is it regarded as an 
indelible order. The instances are numerous in which the priest 
returns to the state of a laic, frequently remaining in this state until 
death ; but at other times returning to the profession ; which he Li 
permitted again to assume without being regarded m having com- 
mitted a breach of the law by his temporary retirement. Indeed, it 
must be evident, upon a consideration of the subject, that no office 
or authority conferred by man, in that which relates to matters that 
demand the consent of the will, and righteousness of life, for Iheir 
right fulfilment, can be properly indelihlc. The master may coerce 
hiii slave ; and the liege lord, Siis subjects ; and an unwilling ser- 
vice or a constrained obedience may as effectually carry into effect 
the command of on earthly superior as the most affectionate sub- 
mission ; but the bad man, or the mnn who after ordination ba« 
received conscientious scruples relative to the ministry, cannot be 
coerced into a right discharge of the duties of this sacred office. 
This conclusion does not at all affect the case of man's res|>onsibility 
to Ood ; when " a dispensation of the gospel*' has been committed 
to any one, it is at his peril if he " entangteth himself with the 
affairs of this life;'' he may not be imperatively confined to any 
particular course of dbcipUne ; he may modify his creed or change 
his community ; but the work of the Lord is not to bo negloc 
nor the miniatry of the word forsaken, bo long as there b t 
to fulfil the exercise in an efficient manner. 

By an express ordinance of Budha his disciples arc permitted to 
retire tiata the priesthood under certain circumstances ; such ■ 
their inability to remain continent ; Impatience of restraint; a wish 
to enter upon worldly cngogemcnls ; the love of parents or friends ; 
or donbla u to the truth of the system propounded by Budha. 
Tbia peimiwlon would, however, open the way for the practice of 


all kinds of evil, as the priest might do wrong under tlic suppositian 
that, if detected, he had only to declare that he had renounced the 
obligations ; by which DieanH he would be saved from the penalty 
that must otherwise be enforced, and his character be preserved. 
But to prevent these perversions it is ordained that no priest shall 
be allowed to throw off the robe without express permission had 
and obtained from a legal chapter. 


In all ages, and among all nations, in which i 
away from the laws of the Lord, and attempted to t 

1 have brolten 
tablish their 
n righteousness, the practice of celibacy baa been enjoined upon 
those who are called upon to perform the more sacred rites of reli- 
gion. The echo of the voice of God, •' It is not good that man 
should be alone ;" first heard by man m innocence, was still carried 
on when the visions of Paradise had faded from his sight ; and its 
tones were sullicienlly distinct many centuries after his expubion 
from [hat scene of beauty, to exercise an influence the most power- 
ful. The divine revelations with which he was afterwards favoured. 
&8 we may clearly learn from the comparatively few of these inter- 
positions that are recorded in sacred writ, contributed to produce 
the eftmc efi'cct; with the caution, however, that the help-meet 
should not be taken promiscuously from among women ; " the 
daughters of men," the maidens of Heth, were to be avoided. But 
etill the wife was to be sought ; and domestic relations were en- 
tered into by the most holy of the patriarchs, not e:icepting even 
the one who " was not, for God took him."' At what period a dif- 
ferent opinion began to prevail we have no evidence ; but it pro- 
bably commenced at the same time as polytheism, and spread 
co-cxtensively with that error. Wlien the idea has gone forth that 
man poBscsscs the power to offer a sacrilicc, that as a natural con- 
sequence, irrespective of any ulterior arrangement, will bring to 
him merit, it is thought that in proportion to the value of the sacri- 
fice will be the increase of the treasure of righteousness acquired 
by its presentation ; and as it is only an expansion of the same 
thought, that the giving up of the will must be equally meritorious 
with the resignation of the substance, it follows that the more rigid 


the course of self-denial that is entered upon, nnd the more crnel 
nnd comprehensive 1(3 require meals, the greater will be the amount 
of gnin to the ascetic. The same comtequences have been produced 
by luiolhcr error, of separate origin but correlative effect. It has 
been supposed (hat in all matter there is an evil principle, and that 
the body of man is an avafiir, or impersonation of this principle in 
il9 most malignant type ; hence all that ministers to its gratification 
must be avoided ; the appetites and pulsions must be overcome ; 
and the man who neither eats, nor drinks, nor sleeps, who has no 
covering to his nakedness, no wife, and no home, is in a high state 
of preparation for extinguishing his existence for ever, or hecominf; 
absorbed in the ocean of the divine essence. 

It were needless to multiply inslanees in proof of the prevalence 
of these sentiments. The priests of Isia were obliged to observe 
perpetual chastity. The persona who wore initialed into the Kleu- 
sinian mysteries were obliged to keep themselves unpolluted during 
nine days ; and the high priest was never permitted to marry at 
all, as he was regarded as being given up entirely to the service 
of the gods. The neophytes admitted to the Bacchic myatcriea 
were obliged to abstain from sexual intercourse during the ten days 
of initiation. The vestal virgins were hound by a. solemn vow to 
preserve their chastity for the space of thirty years. The more 
alrict of the Essenes avoided marriage, and extolled the virtue of 
continence ; in this, as in other instances, being opposed to the re- 
ligion that their forefathers had received from God. 

At an early period of the church, celibacy was represented na the 
principal of the Christian virtues ; and it seemed lo be the general 
supposition thai no corporeal shrine desecrated by marriage wna 
wnrtliy of receiving the inhabitation of the Holy Spirit, according 
to the promise granted to the elect of Ood. Hence such declara- 
tions as that of Jerome (Adv. Jov. i. 4) : " Qamdiu imploo marili 
offlcium, non imptco Chrtstiani ;" and such ordinances as that of 
Con. Carthag. iv. 13, that the newly married " cum boncdictioncm 
occcpcrint, cadem node pro rcvcrentia ipsius bcncdictionis in vir- 
ginitatc permnncunt." At first the clergy were only forbidden to 
marry a second time; then they were not ollowcd to marry at all 
after their ordination, unless at the time they put in a spt-cial claim 
la be ciomplcd from the law, from having a previous engagement. 
Aflor this BO clergyman was allowed to marry, under nny circum- 
(Uncca ; and hut of all. ordination was conferred ut»on no one who 


Lad previously entered into the marriage stale. By the ancient 
canons no priest was allowed to have any female in his house, nn- 
leaa she were his mother, hb sister, his aunt, or some person above 
suspicion. Bui the celibacy of the clergy, though first prescribed 
by law in the western church a.d. 385, was never enjoined in the 
eutem church ; and even some of the boldest advocates of mo- 
nachiam rejected the notion that it was necessary for the clergyman 
to be unmarried. It was openly declared at the Council of Con- 
stance thai no remedy could be devised for stopping the licentious- 
ness of the clergy hut that of (panting them permission to marry. 
Not long afterwards it was proposed that each church should have 
two married priests who were to do duty upon alternate weeks, and 
during the week of their ministration to preserve continence. Even 
nt the Council of Trent, when the stroke fell that so welded the 
mighty felter as to have rendered it hitherto proof against all at- 
tempts to break it asunder, the question was agitated, that if settled 
in a different manner would have brought a sweet serenity into 
■nany a circle that has only been brooded over by the worst pas- 
sions of hell. By the lOlh canon of ihc 24th session it was de- 
creed, " St quia dixerit, statum conjugalem antcponendum esse 
statu! Tirgbitatis. vel caoiibatus. et non ease melius ac beatiua 
manere in virginilale, aut eaclibatu, quam jungi matrimonio ; an- 
athema sit:" L e. " Whoever shall affirm that the conjugal state is 
to be preferred to a life of virginity or celibacy, and that it is not 
better and more conducive to happiness lo remain in vir^nity or 
celibacy, than lo be married, let him be accursed." 

The legends of the Budbists agree with the records of the western 
historians in presenting the existence of a sect of religionists in India 
colled gymnosophists, who were either literally naked, or had no 
clothing worthy of the name. One of the epithets by which they 
■re designated is equivalent lo " air-clad." Some of these ascetics 
retired to the woods, whilst others resided among men, in order that 
Ihey might give the most eonvincing proof that their passions were 
entirely subdued. In the age of Gotama they appear to have been 
held in high honour, and to have been regarded as possessing a vir- 
tue that raised them to superhuman pre-eminence. They could 
only perpetuate these honours by a strict observance of their pro- 
fessions ; but at limes there were indii-iduals who disregarded [he 
precepts of the community, and emulated the extravagancies of the 
Gnostics ; teaching, like them, that as everything outward is utterly 


and entirely indifferent to the tnwaid man, the outward man mnj 
give himBclf up to every kind of excess, provided the inward man 
be not thereby dbturbed in the trantjuilUty of his contempUtion ; 
and Tcpxeseoting themselves as like the ocean, that receives every- 
thing, but \3 still, from its own greatness, free from pollution, whilst 
other men are like the small collection of water that is defiled by a 
single carth-clod. The Brahmanical system could only be kept up 
by procreation, and it was therefore expressly ordained (Alanu, v. 
45) that " if a brahman have not begotten a son. yet shall aim at 
final beatitude, he shall sink to a plae« of degradation. " By the 
procreation of children (Inst. ii. 28] the human body is renderad fit 
for a divine slate." In more mature age a course of aKceticism was 
commenced ; and then he who could most complclcly assimilate 
himself to the denizens of the forest around him was the most ex- 
alted sage. 

In the dasa-sil binding upon the priest of Budha, the precept that 
enjoins the practice of celibacy is the third in order. The depravity 
of the people among whom it was promulgated is seen in iho strin- 
gency of its requirements. It was not an intact virginity that was 
held up to honour ; but true conlinenco during the period in which 
any one professed to be prawarjita, or to have renounced the world. 
Gotama was a married man, and had a son, Ruhula, previous to his 
entrance upon the course nf asceticism by which ho became a su- 
preme Budha. This feature of the system opened the privileges of 
the priesthood to a greater number of postulants ; but it must often 
have brought deep sorrow into the domestic circle. Yet in this it 
was only in conniBtence with the habitudes of a more recent period, 
as we sec in the instance of Paul the Simple, who resigned his wife 
and children to another with a smile, when be departed to embrace 
the monastic life. By Justinian (Novell, cxsiii, c, 40) it was or- 
dained that when a married person, whether it were the husband 
alone or the wife alone, entered a monastery, the marriage was 
diaaoWed; but this taw did not meet with univcnuil approval. 

Among the practices forbidden in the Piilimokkhan* the fnllow- 
tng are included : — Sexual intercourse with any being of whate%'er 
kind, or in whatever form ; wilful pollution ; contact with the por- 
aon of a woman ; impure conversation with a woman ; the commen* 
dation of acts of imparity in the presence of a woman ; acting the 

■ Oogerly'aTruuilatiaDorihoI'acinokklian, C«ylonFrioi>(l,Ort.l839,*o. 


part of a procurer ; sitting on the same seat as a woman in any 
private place ; giving the robe to a priestess, who is not a relation, 
to be smoothed or wasbed : receiving a robe from a priestess ; 
procuring a fleece of wool to be prepared by a priestess who is not 
a relation ; sleeping with any one not a priest more than two or 
three times ; reclining on the same place as a woman ; preaching 
more than five or six sentences to a woman, escept in the presence 
of a man who understands what is said ; delivering exliortations lo 
the priestessea, without permission of the chapter, or when per- 
mitted, after sunset ; except in case of sickness, going to the resi. 
dence of the priestesses to deliver exhortations ; giving a robe to a 
prieslcas who is not a relation ; sewing, or causing to be sewed, the 
robe of a ptiestess who is not a relation ; except in a caravan, and 
when danger is apprehended, travelling in company with a priestess ; 
sailing on the water with a priestess by appointment, escept in 
passing from one bank to another ; receiving food given on the re- 
quest of a priestess ; sitting in private with a priestess ; sitting 
with a woman on a couch in a secluded place ; being alone with 
a woman ; tickling with the fingers ; sporting m the water ; ac- 
companying a woman on a journey, though it be only to the 
end of the village ; entering the harem of a king without giving 
previous notice ; taking food from a priestess, unless she be a rela- 
tion ; and allowing a priestess to prescribe what food shall be given 
at a public meal. 

The priest is told at hia ordination that when the head is taken 
off it is impossible that life can be retained in the body ; and that 
in like manner the priest who holds sexual intercourse with any 
one, b thereby incapacitated from contbuing to be a son of Sakya, 
or a iimmana.* 

In adiUtion to the ordinances that refer to the outward conduct, 
the priests are directed to live in a state of entire abstraction from 
the world, ao that when in the midst of enticements to evil, all im- 
purity may be avoided. The door of the eye is to be kejit shut. 
When the outer gates of the city are left open, though the door of 
every separate house and store be shut, the enemy will enter the 
city and take possession ; in like manner, though all the ordinances 
be kept, if the eye be permitted to wander, evil desire will be pro- 
duced. ... It is better to have a red-hot piece of iron run through 
the eye, than for the eye to bo permitted to wander, as by tliia 

• KHIDBWbchtUl. 

K 2 


means evil desire will be produced, and the breaking of all the 
precepts will follow. The mind will then be like a field of grain 
that has no hedge, or a treasure-house with the door left open, or « 
dwelling with n bad roof through which the rain continually falls. 
The same maj- be said of aU the other senses ; and it is therefore 
requisite that they be kept under strict realraint. 

Numerous examples are given of priests who are said to have 
attended to these adTicea, and gained therefrom the benefits they 
are intended to impart. On a certain day. when Maha Tiasa resided 
in the rock Chetiya, he went to the city of Anuradhapura to receive 
alms, and in the way met a female who had quarrelled with her 
husband, and was returning in consequence to her parents. She 
was a beautiful woman, and arrayed in a very splendid manner. 
Wialiing to attract the attention of the priest, she smiled ; but by 
BO doing she showed her teeth, and on seeing them he thought 
only of the impermanence of the body ; by which means he attained 
rahatship. Soon afterwards he met her husband in the street, who 
asked him if be bad seen a woman ; but he replied that he had seen 
only a loathsome skeleton ; whether it were that of a male or fe- 
male he could not tell. 

A priest who had recently taken the obligations, on going to 
receive alms saw a beautiful female, by the sight of whom his mind 
was agitated. On this account he went to Ananda, a relative of 
Gotama Budha, and informed him of what had occurred. Ananda 
told him that he must rcHect upon the subject in a proper manner, 
and that he would then see that the form he had looked upon was 
in reality utterly destitute of beauty ; that it was filthy, defiled, un. 
real, and impermanent ; by this means the agitation of his mind 
would pass away. This evil arose from the wont of caution, as the 
priest had not kept a guard over the sense of sight. 

There wa« another priest. Chittagutta, who resided in the Ka- 
randa-I^na, a cave in the southern province of Ceylon, upon the 
walls of which were painted, in a superior manner, the stories of 
the Budhos. The cave was visited by some priests, who greatly 
admired the paintings, and expressed their admiration to C'hitta* 
gutta ; but ho replied that he had lived there aiily years and bad 
never seen them, and that he should not now have known of their 
existence if it had not been for their infonnalion. There was near 
the door of the cave a large nd-trce ; but he only knew that the 
tree was there from the fall of the pollen and flowers. The tree 


itself he never aaw, as he careTuUy observed the precept not to 
look npwaids or to a distance. The king of Magam having beard 
of his sanctity, invited him to come to his palace that be might 
worship him ; but though he seat three messages, the priest was 
not willing to leave his cave. The king therefore bound up the 
nipple of a woman nho ivas giving suck to her child, sealed it 
with the royal seal, and declared (hat it should not be broken until 
the priest came. When Chictagulta hcurd of what the king had 
done, out of compassion he went to the pukce. The monarch wor- 
shipped him on his arrival, and told him that a transient sight of 
hbn was not sufficient, as he wanted to keep the precepls another 
day. This he did in order that he might detain the priest ; and in 
this way seven days passed over. At bis departure the king and 
bis queens worshipped him, and the king carried his almS'bowl 
■ome distance ; but he merely said in return, " May you prosper !" 
When some other priests expostulated with bim. For not being more 
respeclful, and told him that he ought to have said, •' May you 
prosper, great king! May you prosper, illustrious queens!'' he re- 
plied that he knew not to whom he was speaking ; he had not 
even noticed that they were persons of rank. On arriving at the 
cave, he walked at night to exercise the rite of meditation, when 
the dewa of the n^-trec caused a light to shine, by which the great' 
nesB of his abstraction was perceived, and the deities of the rocks 
around called out in approval. During the same night he became 
a rahat. From this may be learnt the benefit of keeping the eyes 
from wandering ; they must not be permitted to roll about, like 
those of a monkey, or of a beast of the forest when in feat, or of 
a child ; they must be directed downwards.* 

The monks of the Greek and Roman churches have seen, in a 
aimilai manner, the necessity of placing a guard over their eyes, and 
of being circumspeet in their intercourse with women. Aphraatcs, 
the Persian anchoret, would never speak to a woman but at a dis- 
tance, and always in as few words as possible. When the sister of 
Pacbomins, the Egyptian ascetic, went to his monastery to see him, 
be eent her word that no woman could be allowed to enter the en- 
eloanre, and that she ought to he contented by bearing that be was 
alire. The Roman anchoret. Arscnina, wonld seldom see strangers 
wbu cnme to visit him, saying that he would only use his eyes to 
behold the bearens. Bernard is said to have walked a whole day 
■ Wiaudhi Xtxggt Btaai. 


along the lake of Lausanne without perceiving it. In the rules 
laid down by Auguslin he ordains that no one shall ever Bteadrutly 
fix her eyes upon another, even of the aame sex, as this is a mark 
of immodesty ; he would never suffer a woman to converse in his 
bouse, not even his sister, as he said that she might somelimes be 
attended by other females, or be visited by them ; and he never 
spoke to a woman, unless some of his clerks were near. Simeon 
Stylitea never suffered a woman to come within the endoaure in 
which his pillar stood. It was Basil's rule never to speak to, to 
touch, or to look at, a woman, unless in case of necessity ; after a 
ycar'fl noviciate he did not know whether the top of his cell had 
any ceiling ; nor whether the church had more than one window, 
though it had three. Thcodorus enjoined his monks not to open 
the gate of the monaslery to any woman, nor ever to speak to a 
female, except in the presence of two witnesses. The sainted 
founder of the Franciscans kept so strict a watch over his eyes, 
that he scarcely knew any woman by sight. When some one fixed 
his eye too steadily, and for too long a time, upon Ignatius Loyola, 
he was enjoined to make the government of his eyes the subject of 
particular examination, and to say every day a short prayer tar 
fifteen monthi'. The Jesuits were not permitted by their founder 
to lisit women, even of the highest quality, alone ; and when they 
conversed with them, or heard their confessions, it was l« be so 
ordered that a companion might see all that passed, though be did 
not hear what was said. The monks of La Trappc usually ke«p 
tbeir eyes cast down, and never look at strangers. Women are not 
only excluded from the second enclosure of the Carthusians, but 
even their church ; and no one is permitted to go out of the bounds 
of ibe monastery, except tbe prior and procurator, and they only 
upon the necessary affairs of the house. In some of the monas- 
teries il was the almoner's ollice either to enquire himself, or pro- 
cure proper persons to enquire for bim, where any sick or infirm 
persons resided who had not a sufficient support ; but if he himself 
undertook this office, he was to take two servants with him, and 
before be entered any house, he was to cause the women, if there 
were any in it, to leave the house ; nor was he allowed to enter 
any bouse in which sick or infirm women lay. 

As wo approach our own times, this state of abstractedness from 
nil things earthly, or these precautionary measuies against tbe 
entrance of evil, appear to have been carried to the greatest ex- 

VI. cELiBicr. 55 

cc»a ; but to assimilate more to the practices of the Budhista. 
Peter, of Alcantara, who died in 1562, in order that bis eyes might 
be " more easily kept under the government of reason, and that 
Ihoy might not, by superfluous curiosity, break in upon the interior 
recollection of liis mind, put them upon such restraint that he had 
been a considerable time a religious man before he knew that the 
church of his cunycnt was vaulted. After having had the care of 
serving the refectory for half a year, he was chid by the superior 
for having never given the friars any of the fruit in his custody, to 
which the servant of God humbly answered that he had never seen 
any. The truth was, he bad never lifted up his eyes to the ceiling 
where the fruit was hanging upon twigs, as is usual in countries 
where grapes are dried and presen'ed. He lived four years in a 
convent, without taking notice of a tree that grew near the door." 
He told St. Teresa that he had lived three years in a house of his 
order without knowing any of the friars but by their speech, as he 
noTor lifted up his eyes ; if be did not follow the other friars, he 
was unable to find his way to many places that he frequented. It 
is said of Lewis Gonzoga, 1^91. that although he every day availed 
on the infant of Spain, Jame.'t, and had to pay his respects to the 
empress, he never looked at her face, or took notice of her person.* 
The permission to retire &om the priesthood under certain cir- 
cumstances was an important feature in the monastic institutions of 
Budfaism. In thb it resembled the usages of the church when 
celibacy was first enjoined among Christians. Even Cyprian (Epist. 
62), after extolling the merit of the virgins who had taken the 
vows, says, " but if they are unwilling to persevere, it is better 
that they marry.'' They who broke the vow were commanded 
{Cone. Aneyran. can. 19j to fulfil the same term as the bigamist. 
" Wherever (at the commencement of monachism) there dwelt a 
monk of superior reputation for sanctity,'' says Lingard, " the de- 
•ire of ptoliting by his advice and example induced others to fix 
their habitudons in his neighbourhood : he became their abbas or 
spiritual father, they his voluntary suhjecte ; and the group of sepa- 
rate cells which they formed around him was known to others by 
the name of his monastery (so that the word which originally aig- 
niticd the single mansion of one solitary, now denoted a collection 
of such mansions). To obtain admission into their societies no 


other qualification was required in the postulant than a spirit of 
penitence and a. desire of Chrislian perfection. As long an thin 
spirit continued to animate his conduct, he was exercised in the 
several duties of the monastic profession ; if be repented of his 
choice, the road was open, and he was at liberty to depart ... It 
was not till a much later period, and after the decline of the original 
fervour, that irrevocable vows were enjoined by the policy of sub- 
sequent legiglators."* It was by Benedict (Reg. c. 58) that the 
law was first peremptorily made that all who entered a convent 
should remain for life. This system was soon adopted in other 
convents besides the monaslerium Cassinenae in which he resided ; 
&nd these several convents, becoming united under one form of dis- 
cipline, gave rise to the first monastic order.f In some instances 
among the Romanists the abbots have retired upon pensions, be- 
come monks deraigne, and then quitted their profession and mar- 
ried.! Among the Nestoriana there are monks who are forbidden 
to marry whilst they remain in ihc fratcniity. but they are at liberty 
to leave the convent when they wi?h to enter into the marriage 
state. § In the Abyssinian church the monks nre generally mar- 
ried, except the abbot. They do not live in reguliu moniisteriea. 
but in solitary places near the church. They maintain themselves 
and their families by agriculture, and their only duty as monks is 
to read certain passages and psalms, so that the monastic life is 
properly speaking one of ascetic rustics. 

In some countries where ltudhi»m is professed it is usual for all 
persons to take upon themselves, during some period of their lives, 
the obligations of the priest; but (his is probably only an entrance 
into the noviciate. In Ceylon it is less common for any one thus 
to assume the yellow robe who does not intend to devote his whole 
life to the profession. Nearly every male inhabitant of Siam enters 
the priesthood once in his life. The monarch of this country every 
year, in the month of Asarha, throws off his regal robes, shaves lus 
head, adopts the yellow sackcloth of a novice, and does penance in 
one of the wiharos, along with nil his court. At tlie same time 
slaves are brought to he shaved nnd initiatod, as an act of merit in 
their converter. The some practice prevails in Ava. Among the 
Burmans, instead of the expensive mode of putting away a husband 

• linEsnrB IIi«lory of the Anglo-Si^on Church, cop. Iv. 
t OiwItT'* Tvit-Book of Ecclniiutical Ilitlory, ( 3>- 

iFu*bmk«'« llritiah Monuchum. 
Cdndot's Analytical View nf all lUUsloiu, 

Vr. CKtlBACT. 


or wife, wtich Ibe common law (urnishes, a much easier is often 
lesortcd to with complete success. The parties aggrieved merely 
turn priests or Duna, and the matrimonial bond is at once dissolved. 
Thej may return to a secular life at any time, and marry another ; 
hut, for the sake of appearance, their return to the world is usually 
deferred some months.* It is the custom in China to serve three 
years as abbot, and after this period to retire into privacy. 

The true ascetic is enjoined to renounce all carnal indulgences ; 
but this is only an inferior requirement of the institute. There 
must be a complete annihilation of the affections ; he must forget, 
so far as the most determined effort can accomplish this object, that 
he has now, or ever has had, any connexion with the world of men. 
Regarding himself as if thrown into eiistence immediately from the 
hand of God, without the intervention of any material instrumen- 
tality, or looking upon himself as the temporary incarnation of some 
■eraph. nhoae native abode is the blue empyrean, he reUres within 
the mystic circle of his own purity ; and though the affection mani- 
fested by his parents will at times start up in vivid imagery, and 
the cadence of the hymn with which his sweet sister was wont to 
soothe him in his little troubles will sometimes seem to be repeated 
in the wind's low tone as it passes in its softer mood, it is only like 
the (Up of the swallow's beak into the water of the placid lake, oi 
the gentle falling of the withered leaf upon its surface, a slight im- 
pression, in a moment gone. Intercessory prayer is a practice that 
he disdains to follow, as such an exercise would he a confession of 
weakness ; a spectre of earth in the shrine where angels only 
ought to enter. And if we were lo question the correctness of this 
courae. the advocates of the system would probably reply, that he 
prays for none but himself on earth, in order that he may have the 
more power to pray for others when he enters heaven. 

These reprehensible sentiments have prevailed, with more or leas 
intensity, in all places where monachism has been established ; as 
they arc a legitimate, and almost necessary, result of its institutions. 
The EsseneB were forbidden to assist any of their relativea who 
might be in need, unless under the inspection of others, lest they 
should favour them above that which was their due. Alipius, 
bishop of Adrianople, forbade the nuns to receive visits from their 
parents, even though they might be at the point of death. f When 
n South-Eastcm Asia. 


Fulgentiuii, pTOCurutor of ByuiceDU, embraced Ihc monastic profeg- 
bion, hia mother went to the eunvcnt, anil, Jii Iruueportii of grief, 
cried out to the abbot to rcatore her soa, and not rob u desoUle 
widow ; but the aon was deuf to her cries, and refused lo return to 
bis paternal residence. When Paula, a Roman lady in whom was 
the blood of the Scipios and tlic Uiacchi, had resolved upon taking 
n similar step, and fur this purpose took her passage for Syria, her 
relations attended bcr lo ibe water-side, striving with tears to in- 
duce her not to leave tbem. Kven when the vessel was ready lo 
Bnil, her little son Tosotiua, with uplifted hands and bitterly weep- 
ing, begged ber not lo leave him. The rest, who were scarcely 
able to speak from the poignancy of iheir grief, entreated her nt 
least to delay her departure a little time ; but the mother " turned 
her dry eyes to heoTen," and was soon away from thiis touching 
scene. One of the works written by Chrysostom, entitled "On 
Providence," was addressed to Stagirius, who had exasperated his 
father by turning monk, and was afterward seized (as well he 
might) with a dreadful melancholy that the usual paUiatives were 
unable to subdue. In another of his works, entitled " Against the 
Impugncrs of the Monastic State," be addresses lirsL a pagan father 
whose son had irritated him by becoming a monk, and afterwords a 
(.liristian father, whom he threatens with the judgment of Eli, if 
be withdrew his children from the monastery, lelling him that in 
Ibis profesNon " they would have become suns in heaven : whereas, 
if they were saved in the world, their glory would probably be only 
that of the stars."* 

It was demanded of the monk by Basil, tiiough he did not per- 
mit tbc novice to be received without the consent of his parents, 
Ihal after reception he should, as far as possible, break connexion 
with his nearest relatives, and literally cease henceforward lo know 
lib parents, brethren, and sisters, according lo the flesh. "Il is 
the devil's craft," said he. " to keep alive in the mind of the monk 
« recollection of his parents and natural relatives, so as that, under 
cover of rendering them some aid, he may be drawn aside from bis 
heavenly course." A monk when urgently entreated to visit u 
dying Bister, at la»t consented ; but as he had vowed never to see 
my of hia relatives, and, in common with others, never to look 
opon a woman, he, after a long journey, presented himself al the 
duor, and, resolutely shutting his eyes, called tu his sister, " Mere 
■ Alban Itutler, pauinl. 


am I, your brother, look at me !" and then, refusing to enter, re- 
tiimeil to hia wilderness.* *" According to the scriptural declara- 
tion, He that hath ftaid to his father and mother, I Imow ye not. 
and to his brethren, I know ye not, and hatli not known his chil- 
dren. Ihcy have kept thy word. The monks were to foi^et filial 
affections, and this not of any stiffness or hardness of heart ; for if 
a mere stranger with them be in misery, they mourn aa easily for 
him aa for another; but the sword is it that we spake of that b in 
their heart, and hath cut them away from their wonted acquaint- 
ance and affinity, not for that they have to love them still, that love 
also their Tery enemies, but because they have cast away all carnal 
lore which growcth to mere dotage, and hare converted the same 
wholly to spiritual charity." t The monks of La Trappe never 
write to their friends in the world after their profession, nor hear 
anything respecting them ; they only know that there ia a world in 
order that ihey may pray for it. When the parent of any monk 
dies, the news is sent lo the superior only, who tells the community 
that the father of one of them is dead, and enjoins them to pray for 
hia soul. It ia at present a rule in Italy, that when a monk meets 
any of his relatives in the street, he is not to raise his eyes to their 
countenances, but to give them a slight token of recognition, by 
raising the hat from the head. 

There were, however, some eieeptions to this general disregard 
of filial duty. There was a regulation of St. Augustine's Abbey, at 
Canterbury, that " if it should so happen that the father, the mother, 
the fiater, or brother of any monk in the monastery should come to 
mich great want and indigency as that (to the reproach of any of the 
brethren) he or she be forced to ask at the gates the alms of the 
fraternity, then, such of them so asking should be provided for in 
the hospital attached to the monastery of sufficient sustentation, 
according to the ability of the houae." J There is a sentence 
written by the stem Jerome (Epist. ad Eustoch.) relative lo the 
monks of Egypt, that speaks volumes, wherein he tells us that the 
ftick monk was well attended to, " ul nee delitias urbium, nee matria 
quaerat affectum." 

We shall perhaps be reminded, in defence of the monastic usages, 
of the command of Cbrisl, Luke xiv. 26 ; hut we think that these 

• Taylor's Ancient Chri«ti[uiity. 

t Fosbmke'B British MoBBchiain, quoted bom the Uailcion US. 

t Somnur'e Antiquities of Canterbury. 

words refer lo the Kiluation of the individual who must either dis- 
please his relatives or cummit sin ; and ihat they hare no reference 
whatever to the vowg of the monk. Hence we admire rather than 
condemn the resolution of Phileos, an Egyptian nobleman, whose 
martyrdom is recorded in the same work as many of the preceding 
narratives,* As ho refused to offer sacrifice, the governor, Culcion, 
endeavoured to overcome him by appealing to (he grief of his wife, 
children, brother, and other relations, who were present at the 
trial ; Iml he, like the rock unshaken by the impetuous waves that 
dash around it. stood unmoved, and raising his heart to God, pro- 
tested aloud that he owned no other kindred but the apostles and 
martyrs ; and that he would die for Christ rather than deny him. 

The eastern ascetic presents a similar insensibility to the impor- 
tant duties that are disregarded by the western monk. It i» said 
hy Manu (Inst. ii. 205), " Let not the Brahman student, unless or- 
dered by his spiritual father, prostrate himself, in his presence, 
before his natural father." The writings of the Budhists abound 
with maxims and legends illustrative of the same type of charncler. 
Kula, the family or relationship, is called a hindrance tu the exercise 
of s4madbi, which consists in the collecting of the thoughts, and 
the fixjog of them upon one object, so as lo be free from all wan- 
dering or perturbation of mind. The aramana recluse who enters 
into an intimacy with any other person, though it should even be a 
priest, will be prevented from acquiring the tranquillity at which 
he ought constantly lo aim. He will be indisposed, by other 
calls upon his attention, to enter upon the exerctves it is necesary 
for him to perform. But there are some priests who arc superior 
to the attractions ihat would ensnare ihem, and are even indifferent 
respecting their parents, so that, when communicating with them, 
the relationship is entirely disregarded. We have seen that Katha- 
pUa called his father merely " Householder," and that he paid no 
regard to his wife or mother when in their presence. A pricft 
who resided at Koronakura hod a nephew who was a priest in the 
aame wihara ; hut in the course of time the nephew wont to reside 
U Ruhuna (the aoulhcrn province of Ceylon, whilst the uncle's 
Tillage must have been somewhere in the north). -■Vfter this his 
parents were continually asking the older priest if he had heard 
■nj atvn of their son. At last, as they were ■□ impurlunute, he 
Kt out for Ruhuna, that he might raquire after the welfare of bis 
" AIb«n Sutler, Feb. 4. 

Ti. cELiBAcr. 61 

neplicw, and be able lo satisfy the wishes of his pareats. By this 
time the nephew thought it would be well lo go and see his uncle, 
as he had been absent from him a considerable periud. The two 
priests met on the borders of the river Mahaweli : and, after mutual 
explanations, ihe uncle remained near the same place to perform a 
rerttdn ceieraony, and the nephew proceeded onward to his native 
Tillage. The day af^er his arrival his father went to invite him to 
perform wass at hb house, as he hnil heard that a stranger had 
come to the monastery. The priest accordingly went every day, 
for the apace of three mouths, to his father's house lo aay bana; 
but he was not recognized by any of his relatives. ^^^Jen the cere- 
mony was concluded, he informed his parents that he was about to 
depart ; but they entreated him to come the nest day, and they 
then gave him a cruse of oil, a lump of sugar, and a piece of cloth 
nine cubils long. After giving them his blessing, ho began his 
journey to Ruhuna. The two priests again met on the borders of 
the river, when the nephew informed his uncle that he bad seen 
his parents, and at the same time washed his feet with the oil, gave 
him the sugar to eat, and presented him with the piece of cloth. 
He then proceeded on his journey, and his uncle set out to return 
to Koraoakara. From the time that the son began to perform wass 
at his parent's house, his father went out every day in the direction 
□f Ituhuna, to see if the priest was returning with his child ; but 
nhen he saw him alone, as he concluded at once that his son was 
dead, he threw himself at the feet of the priest, wept, and lamented 
aloud. The priest saw the error into which the father had fallen, 
and made known to him what had taken place, convincing him of 
the reality of what he said by showing him the cloth he had re- 
ceived. The father then went in the direction hia son had gone, 
fell on his face and worshipped, saying that his son was without 
an equal, as he had visited his parent*' house every day during 
three months, and yet never discovered himself to any of his rela- 
tives. To such a priest even parents arc no palibhoda or hindrance 
to the reception of tranquillity.* 

> Wiaudhi Margga Sanni. 



The TOW of poverty is a natural result of asceticisni, so that we 
expect to meet with it aa a matter of course wherever men have 
been taught that to save their souls it is necessary for them to 
abandon ihe world. The monks of Christendom suppose that they 
have an additional motive for thin rule in the example of Christ and 
his apostles. Thus, Chaucer's Wife of Bath. v. G761, exclaims, 
" And lliCT u yc of povcrte me reprove, 

'riio hiRhc Goil, on whom that ve beieve. 

In wilful pQTcrtc choc to Inlc hin lif : 

And cciii'B, every nuuti muden, or wif 

Uay undcntimd, that Jisiu hcvcn king, 

Be wold not chese b vicious living." 

The universal tendency there is among all ascetics to the breaking 
of this law, as well as the difficulty of framing regulatioaa that mny 
not be set aside by the ingenuity of those who wish to transgress 
them, may be seen in the fact, that nearly every order has been in- 
tended at its commencement to repress the style of luxury in which 
the precedin": communities have lived ; whilst it has only required 
ttic elapse of a reasonable time before the new order has been drawn 
into the vorlex of the very extravagancies it was intended to put 
down, and for which purpose it was originated. By Jerome (Ep. 
05) complaint is made that some who called themselves solitorii 
lived in the midst of a crowd, and had the attendance of scrvanU ; 
they bad all the conveniences requisite for a carousal ; and their 
food was eaten from vessels of glass or some other costly material. 
The same author relates (Ep. 18} that a certain anchoret left a hun- 
dred crowns at his ilcatb. When the monks resident in the same 
desert met together to enquire what was to be done with the money, 
some proposed that it should be given to the poor, but it was 
finally resolved that the whole sum should he thrown into his grave, 
with the malediction, " May thy money pass with I hec to perdition." 
Until the rise of the mendicants, the individual members of the 
Ttrioua orders were regarded as denying themselves the enjoyment 
of personal properly, though the community to which they belonged 
might itself pos«ess ample revenues. Even Dominic, though he 
proscribed the most severe poverty, did not forbid the houses of his 
order to enjoy in common small rent« in money. But Francis pro- 


hibitcd his monks from possessing a collective rerenue, and the 
vow of porerty was absolute. The rale was as follows : — " Fratres 
sibi nihil approprient, nee domum, nee loeum, nee oliquam rem; 
sod sicut perigrini ot advenae in hoc aeculo, in paupertate et hu- 
nulilate famulanles Domino, vadant pro elcomosyna confidcnler." 
The bishop of Acco, 1 220, writing of the Ptanciscans, says, •' They 
have neither monasteries nor churches ; neither fields, nor vinefards, 
nor cattle ; nor houses, nor any poasessions ; nor where to lay the 
head.'' ^^'hen a church was bestowed upon Francis hy the Bene- 
dicltncs of Monte Sonbazo, he refused to accept the property or 
dominion, and would only have the use of the ploce ; in token of 
which he scot the monks annually a basket of fish. He would not 
allow any property to be invested in hia order, that he might aay 
more perfectly that he had neither house, food, nor clothes. When 
asked which of all the virtues he thought was the most agreeable 
to God. he replied, *' Poverty in the way to salvation, the nurse of 
humility, and the root of perfection. Its fruits are hidden, but 
they multiply themselves in ways that are infinite," Vet a division 
broke out among his followers as to the precise inlcrpretatioa of hia 
rnle, in consequence of which a mitigation of the requirement as to 
the total abrogation of all worldly possessions was made by Gregory 
IX. in 1231 : and tn 1245 the hull of Innocent IV. allowed them 
to possess certain articles of furniture, with a few utensils, books, 
ice. About a century afterwards a dispute arose between the 
Franciscans and Dominicans respecting the poverty of Christ and his 
apoatlee ; it being argued by the followers of P'rancis thai they had 
no possessions of any kind whatever, either as private property or 
aa a common treasure, whibt the followers of Dominic asserted 
most strenuously a contrary opinion. The pope decided in favour 
of the Dominicans ; and it is recorded that many of the Franciscans 
perished in the flames of the inquisition for persisting in their oppo- 
tition to this decree. It was enjoined by Ignatius Loyola that the 
professed Jesuits should not possess any real estates or revenues, 
either in particular or in common ; but that colleges might enjoy 
rpvonncs and rents for the maintenance of students of the order. 
It is said* to be peculiar to this society, that the religious, after 
their first vows, retain some lime the dominion or property of their 
patrimony, without the administration (the latter condition being 
essential to a religious vow of poverty) till they make their renun- 
• AJban Bntlcr, July 31. 


ciation. Francis of Sales did not allow the nuns belonging to the 
order of the Visitation to have the propriety or CTen the long use of 
anything whatever, even their chambers, beds, crosses, beads, and 
books, were to be changed every year. 

The monastic churches were, however, sometimei adorned in ■ 
costly manner, even when the rule of poverty was personally re- 
garded with all strictness, Benedict long used wooden, and after- 
words glass or pewter chalices at the altar, and if any presents of 
silk ornaments were made to him, be gave them to other churches ; 
but he aflcrwards effected a change in this practice, and built a 
stately church, furnished with silver chalices and rich ornaments. 
It was a nilc among the Cistertians that in their places of worship 
nil unnecessary display should be avoided ; they had neither gold 
nor silver crosses, nor candelabras, except one of iron ; nor a cha- 
lice, escept it were one of copper or iron ; and they reproached the 
monks of Clugny with having churches " immensely high, immode- 
rately long, superfluously broad, sumptuously furnished, and curi- 
ously painted;" so that men were led to admire more that which 
was beautiful than that which was sacred, There were individual 
monks who carried out these ideas to their utmost extent. All the 
furniture in the Utile cell of John, the Carmelite, consisted of a 
paper image and a cross made of rushes, and his beads and breviary 
were of tlie meanest description. 

The words fakir and dervish, so commonly met with in all accounts 
of Mahometan countries, ore said to mean, the one in Arabic, and 
the other in Persian, poor. These devotees ask alms in the name 
of Ood, and are restricted to a life of poverty, relying for their sup- 
port upou the charity of the faithful. Some of them ore indepen- 
dent, whilst others are associated together in communities like the 
monastic orders of Chrislendom. llie monks endeavour to trace 
the origin of their system to the first year of llie Hegira ; and it is 
said that there are now thirty-lwo different orders existing in the 
Turkish empire. Thcj found the reasou of the ascetic lifu upon a 
■aying of Mahomet — Poverty is my glory. 

Tbo priest of Uudha. previous to his ordination, must possess 
eight articles, called ata.pirikara. 1, 2, a. Kubes. of different de- 
acriptions. 4. A girdle for the loins. 5. A p4lara or ulins-bowl. 
6. A razor. T. A needle 8. A perahaakada, or water-strain er. 
The robes will form the subject of a separate aection. The bowl is 
for the |mrpoH of rccdnng the food presented in alms by the 



faitliful. The razor is for the shaving of the hair. The needle, 
which is for the repairing of the priest's robes, is not to have a. case 
niaUe of bouc, ivory, or horn ; if he is found to possess odc, it is to 
be broken, anil (ho fault requires confession and absolution. In this 
resjiect some of the monks carried their tow of poverty to greater 
excess than the Budhists, as Tbeodorus forbade his followers to 
have even as much property as a needle. Among the later monks, 
however, every one had a table-book, knife, needle, and handker- 
chief. It was formerly common for men to carry needle-cases about 
their persons, in order that they might be able to mend their clothes. 
In the time of Chaucer the needle was of silver.* The water- 
stiaincT is considered to he a necessary article, as " if any priest 
fkall knowingly drink water containing insects, it is a fault tliat 
requires confession and absolution;" it is to he a cubit square, 
without a single thread broken. Even the laic who takes upon 
himself the five obligations ia required to possess a strainer, and to 
use it whenever he drinks water. The Jaipa priests, in addition 
to the strainer, carry a broom, in order that they may sweep the 
insects out of their way as they walk, as they fear to tread on the 
minutest being. f 

These articles can be given to a single priest ; but as other de- 
KCriptions of property can only be given to a chapter, they arc the 
only things he can possess in his own individual right. When 
taking upon himself the last of the ten obligations, the priest de- 
cl.ires, " I will observe the precept that forbids the receiving of 
gold or silver." But some other articles, such as chairs, couches, 
curtains, mnbrelliia, sandals, and staves, may be received by the 
chapter. If the priest receives coined gold or silver, or causes it 
to be received, or uses it if deposited for him ; or if he uses any 
kind of btdlion ; it is a fault involving forfeiture. He is also ex- 
pressly forbidden to engage in mercantile transactions. When the 
pricit sees money, jewels, or ornaments in any place, he is not to 
touch them, though they may appear to be lost, unless it be in a 
house or garden, in which case it may be picked up and given to 
the owner. 

It was supposed by the late James Frinsep, from the absence of 
any of the titles of sovereignly on many coins that are evidently of 
Budhist origin from the symbolH that they bear, that tlie Budhist 

86 r*KTEBN KONAcnrsv. 

coinage nns struck in the monaslcrics of tlic priesthood ; but as the 
priest was forbidden to loiich money, under any circura stances, 
the supposition must be incorrect. It has been doubted whether 
Bny native coin, properly ao called, was circulated in India anterior 
to the incursion of Alexander, aa none of the ancient books of the 
Hindus mention coined money ;* hut in the most ancient laws of 
the Budhists, the distinction is recognised between coined money 
and bullion. The monks of Britain were less scrupulous in this 
matter than their eastern compeers. The monastic mint was not 
unfrequentlj an eatabliahmcDt of great importance, and if we maji 
judge from the number of their coins yet in existence, the issues 
must have been extensive. The abbey of Bury had the following 
officers : — custos cunei, or keeper of the mint ; monetarius, the 
moneyer or mint-master ; camhiator, or exchanger ; duo eustodes, 
or keepers ; and duo assaisiatorea, or assayers.f 

Among the easterns generally, the most valuable personal pro- 
perty is that which can be corrupted by " the moth and the rust ; " 
or garments, and ornaments fabricated of the precious metals ; and 
as the priest can only po.ssess three robes, and these of a particular 
kind, and is not allowed lo have rich furniture, or to possess gold 
or silver, it is not In his power to accumulate that which alone 
would in India be regarded as wealth. Even when articles of a 
more valuable description are presented to the commutiity, they 
cannot be used by the priest without being previously disfigured. 
Thus the priest may have a carpet or coverlet, but it must not be 
nude with a mixture of silk ; nor of woollen of a black colour, but 
two parts black, one white, and one brown ; it is to be used sis 
years, and then not given away or renewed, without the consent of 
the other priests ; and the sitting carpet is to be disfigured by 
having part of an old carpet attached to it of a span in siie.J 

The second of the three great ecumenical convocations that at an 
early period wcro held by the Budhists, was assembled in conse- 
quence of Iho unauthorised practices of some of the priests in the 
city of Wusiilj. Among other things it was their custom upon the 
lunar feslivals to fill a golden basin with water, and placing it in 
the midst of the assembly, to say lo their followers, ■* Beloved ! 
bestow upon the priesthood a kahapanan coin, or half, or a 

■ Jonnul Bonfcal A*. Soe. Aug. 1M3, 

t T>f lot'a Indtui Hmuaaku*. 

! Ougctljr'iTriasUcIon of the PttiiaokkhMn. 

vn. POVERTY. 07 

<|uarlcr of one, or oven the value of a maaa ; lo the priesthood it 
will afford the means of providing themselves with the sacerdotal 
reqiiisues I " * 

Bat the rule of poverty, as among the monks of the west, was in 
a great degree nullified by the Bpecions distinction between the 
priest and the priesthood, the individual and the community, the 
STamana and the aangha. The cummusiiy is allowed to be rich in 
lands, and to have splendid edifices dedicated to its use, whilst the 
individual priest is regarded as having renounced all worldly pos- 
sessions. That which is given to the general fund is not to be appro- 
piiated as private property by any member of the community, nor 
given to a laic. No stool or couch belonging to the chapter is to 
be carelessly left out in the open air; by which is to be understood 
that the property of the community is to be taken care of in a 
proper manner. In an inscription cut in the rock near Mihintala in 
Ceylon, it is directed that the lands which belong to the wih4Ta 
shall be enjoyed by the priesthood in common, and not divided 
into separate parcels. We learn from the same inscription, that 
exact accounts, regularly audited, were kept of the revenues of the 
temple. After paying the prescribed wages to those who were en- 
titled lo receive tbem, the rest of the revenues proceeding from the 
lands belonging to the wihara were lo be entered In books by the 
proper officers, that the same might be under inspection. The 
daily expenditure on account of the public alms-bowl, and of the 
hired servants, and for repairs, was to be written in books ; and an 
account was to be kept of the contents of ihe store-room. Everj' 
mouth these several accounts were to be collected into one ; and at 
the end of the year the monthly accounts were again to be formed 
into one list or register, to be produced before a chapter of the 

When possing through the interior of Ceylon, amidst scenery 
HO beautiful thai it almost appears to give reality to the legend that 
it once wa» Paradise, and my attention has been attracted by the 
Highl of lands teeming with more than usual fertility, it has almost 
invariably happened that on enquiring to whom these rich domains 
belonged. 1 have been told that they were the property of the 
priests, Their possessions must therefore be very extensive ; though 
perhaps not equal lo those of the clergy in England, who in the 

* 'rurDiur'B Gxsminatujri of the Pali Bu<lhiiilical .^luialu : Joum. BmKnl 


thirteenth century aic said to have had in their hands 28,000 out 
at the fiS.OOO knights' Tees connected ynlh the landed property of 
the realm. Though the monarch of Ceylon waa considered to have 
been originally the sole possessor of the soil, there were in all limes 
of which we have any atatiNtical accounts a large proportion of 
lands appropriated to private individuals and to the priests. The 
temple lands were principally royal donations, but not in every 
instance. It ia not very clear bow lands came into the possession 
of private individuals, so as to be alienable ; but ne may infer that 
they were originally granted by the kinus for some signal services 
performed, ond that the families thus rewarded, afterwards falling 
into decay, found themselves obliged to look out for nome more 
powerful prelection. Tbey might either become retainers of the 
crown or the church ; but as the temple service was nearer their 
own homes, waa less arbitrary and oppressive, and had moreover 
the recommendation that by this means they might benefit their 
souls, it was natural that thej should dedicate their lands to the 
priest, rather than to the king. Lands thai were newly cleared 
might also be considered as liable to no compulsary custom ; and 
from B similar motive, to ensure protection, they would sometimes 
be given over to the temple ; then, in return for the protection re- 
ceived, certain seri-ices would he promised on the part of the indi- 
vidual who presented the gift, as it would be understood that his 
family was to retain possession of the lands, though the proprietor- 
ship was nominally in the temple. Uf this mode of the transmission 
of property we have many parallel instances in the history of the 
feudal times. AVhen lands were dedicated by the kings of Ceylon, 
the services that were to he rendered by the cultivator of the soil 
to the jiriesthood were very minutely set forth, as la testified by 
many inscriptions still to be traced upon stabs of stone, and occa- 
sionally in the solid rocks, near the temples to which the lands 
were given. 

The temple lands were invariably free from loyol custom or duty, 
the services which in the royot villages were paid to the king being 
here paid to the temple. This system existed in verj- ancient timcw, 
■ome of the grants being nearly m old ns the time of Christ. An 
extract ftom the Account of Ceylon, pnblishcd by Robert Knox, 
will illustrate the usages as they prevailed during his captivity in 
Eandy, which commenced in the year 1659 : — " Unto each of tlic 
psgodoa there arc great revenues of land belonging ; which have 

vri. povEBTY. 69 

bten allotted to them by former kings, according to the state or the 
kingdam : but they have much impaired the revenues of the crown, 
llierc being rather more luwns belonging to the church than to the 
king. Tbeae eatalea of the lemples are to supply a daily charge 
(key are at, which ia to prepare victuals or sacrifices to set before 
tlie idols. They have elephants also, as the king has, which serve 
them for state. Their temples have all sortsof oflicera belonging to 
them, as the palace hath. . . . Many of the vehaia (wiharas) have 
farms belonging to them, and are endowed. The tirinanxes (priests 
who have received ordination) are the landlords, unto whom the 
tenants come at a certain time, and pay their rents. These farmeta 
lire the easiest of any in the land, for they have nothing to do but 
at these set times to bring in tbeit dues and so depart, and to keep 
in repair certain little vehars in the eouutrj'. So that the rest of 
the Chingulais envy them and say of them. Though they live easy 
in ihia world, thcy cannot escape unpunished in the life to come, for 
er\)oying the Buddou's land and doing him so little service for it," 

It ia said, in an official report published ia 1831 :— " The poa- 
sesxions of the temples constitute a large proportion of the culti- 
vnl«d lands in the Knndyan provinces. In the several temples and 
colleges there are registers of the lands dependent on them, hul 
tliese registers not having been examined, their extent has not been 
aecuiately ascertained. At my request, translations were made of 
theregiatersof the principal temples of Kandy; and from these it 
appears that the tenants and proprietors of what are called Temple 
l.and« in the several provinces, are liable, on the requbilion of the 
chiuf> and priests, to render services and contributions of various 
kinds. These are minutely detailed in the registers, and the occu- 
pier of each allotment of land has a special duty assigned to him, 
or a special contribution to make, either for the repairs of the tem- 
ples, the subsistence of the chiefs and priests, and their attendants, 
or on occasion of the annual festivals.''* 

From these documents it is evident that the situation of the 
priests of CeyloQ is at present very different to that which was in- 
Icnded at the commencement of their order by Ootama Budha, as 
they must have degenerated therefrom in proportion to the extent 
of their lands and of their social and political privileges. Professedly 

* ICcjiort ofLtuut. CnU CoU-brooke, onaof His Mqesty'sConunimionen of 
Knqiilrr unun thv Aihuiniilnition cjf the Ooremment of Ceylon, dated Doc, 
24. 1831. 


mendicants, and poaseesing only a few articles that are of no in- 
trinsic Talue, thej are in reality the wealthiest and most honoured 
class in the nation to which they belong. In other countries where 
Budhism is prorcssed, it is prohahlc thai they are less wealthy : 

but in no place can we find the recluse of the primitiTC instilntion. 



The priest of Budha is not allowed to bring within the door of 
bis mouth any food not given in alms, unless it be water, or some 
substance used for the purpose of cleaning the teeth ; and when in 
health the food that he cats must be procured by his own exertions 
in carrying the alms-bowl from house to house in the village or 
city near which he reslden. When going to receive alms, Ihe 
bowl is slung across his shoulder, and is usually covered by the 
outer robe. It may be made of cither iron or clay, but nut of any 
other material. It must first be received by a chapter, and then ho 
officially delivered to the priest whose bowl, after rxamination, is 
found to be in the worst condition. No priest is allowed to pro- 
cure a new bowl so long as his old one has not been bound with 
five ligatures to prevent it from falling to pieces; and he is not 
allowed to use an extra bowl more than ten days without permis- 
sion from a chapter. When pnsring from place to place, the priest 
must not look to a greater distance before liim than the length of u 
yoke ; nor mnst he look on one side, or upwards, nor bend his 
body to look at anything upon the groimd ; he is not to look at 
elephants, chariots, horses, soldiers, or women ; nor is be allowed 
to put out his arms or feet in a careless manner. He may not call 
a woman by her name, nor ask what kind of victuals there arc in 
the house, or what kind will be presented. He may not say Ihnt 
be is hungry in order that food may be given him. Should he sec 
a child driring calves, he may not ask if they slill suck, in order 
that (he child may tell its mother, and the mother be induced to 
give him milk. A certain priest, who was suffering from hunger, 
wrat to a house to receive food. The woman of the house said 
that she had nothing to give him, but she pretended that she would 
go and ask something from h<T neighbour, for which purpose she 
left the house and went U> a. little dixtoncc. Tlir priest took the 

Dpportimity of lookiop; to see what was in the house ; and in the 
comer near the docii he saw a piece oF sugar-cane ; be also saw 
some sugar- candy, salted meat, rice, and ghee, in different vessels ; 
aAer which he again retired to the outer court. When the wo- 
man returned, she said that she bad not succeeded In obloining any 
rice. The priest replied, ■■ It is not a fortunate day for the priest- 
hood ; I have seen an omen." She asked what it was : and he 
proceeded, " I saw a serpent, like a piece of sugar-cane : on looking 
for something to strike it with, I saw some stones like pieces of 
sugar-candy ; the hood of this snake was like a piece of salted 
meat ; its teeth were like grains of rice ; and the poisonous saliva 
falling from its gums was like ghee in an earthen vesset." The 
woman on bearing this, was unable to deny the truth of the infer- 
ence ; so she presented the priest with the whole of the articles he 
had seen. But in this manner to speak of what is near is forbidden ; 
it is samanta jappana. 

It is forbidden to the priest to proclaim his purity, or attainments, 
to the householder, in order that he may gain honour or gifts. 
When persons come to the temple, he may not go up to them and 
address them, asking them why they have come ; and when he has 
ascertained that they have come to make offerings, tell them that 
his name is so and so, and that be is the religious teacher of such a 
noble or such a king; he may not address them with high titles and 
flatter them ; he may not say that during seven generations the 
members of their fomily have been generous to the priests, and ask 
why they do not follow the same excellent example ; nor is he 
allowed to be continually pressing them and urging them to give. 
Should he meet any one with a piece of sugar-cane in his hand, he 
may not ask from what garden it has been procured, in order that 
it may be given him. ^Vten two priests enter a village, they may 
not coll for some noble female, and when she has come, say to each 
other that in such a way her mother assisted them, in order that she 
may be induced to do the same.* 

There are some places to which the priest is allowed to go 
when seeking alms, and some to which he is not ; the former are 
called gocbara and the latter agochara. Among the places that are 
not allowed may be reckoned houses of ill-fame, for though no «n 
might be committed by the priest, either in act or thought, it would 
expose him to ridicule ; houses of widows, or of women whose hus- 
* Wisudhi Morggs tjannf* 


bunds bare gone to some distant place ; places where tlierc are grown- 
up wQmen not given in marriage ; or where there are catamites or 
hcrrniiphrocliies, as in such places obscene words may be heard ; or 
where tbore are priestesses, lest the puiiij of both should be placed 
ia danger : taverns, or places where there are persons in liquor ; 
the palaces of kings ; the mansions of noblemen ; the dwellings of 
tirtiakas or onbelievers ; places where the people bear ill-will to the 
priests or the faithful, and would abuse or ill-treat them ; all these 
places are to be avoided. Among the places that ere allowed may 
be reckoned the dwellings of persons who have shown their charity 
by such acts as the digging of wells for the public benefit ; or of 
persons who treat the priests with respect and invite them to pay 
frequent visits ; or of persons who arc sincere in the faith. 

We also loam from the MJIinda Prasna. that there ore two modes 
of winyapti, or seeking alms. One is called k aya-winyapti, that 
which belongs to the body: and the other wachi-winyapti, Ihat 
which belongs to the speech. Of each of these modes of seeking 
alms there arc two kinds ; the one proper, or permitted ; the other 
improper, or not permitted. Thus, when the priest approaches a 
bouse with the alms-bowl, he must remain as though unseen ; be 
may not hem, nor may he mske any other sign that be is present, 
and be is not allowed to approach too near the dwelling. If he 
falls into any of these practices it is a kaya-winyapli that is for- 
bidden ; he transgresses the precept : and it is equally a transgres- 
sion if he stretches out his neck like a peacock, or in any way bends 
bis head that ho may attract the attention of those who give alms ; 
he is not allowed even to move the jaw, or lift up the finger, for the 
same purjiose. The proper mode is for the priest to take the alms- 
bowl in a becoming manner ; if anything is given, he remains to 
receive it ; if not, he passes on. Budba has said, " The wise priest 
never asks for anything; he disdains to beg: it is a proper object 
for which he carries ibc alms-bowl ; and this is his only mode of 
■olicitntion." When the priest asks for robes, seats, medicine, or 
any other of the sacerdotal requisites, it is a wucbl-winyapti that 
is forbidden ; nor is be allowed to say at nnytbing. that if be were 
to receive it, it would be a benefit to bim ; or to proclaim the benefit 
to be rcceircd from tbe giving of alms, tlint the people may be 
liberal to biiB. But when he is tick, he is permitted to ask for any 
mcdicino that he may require, without being guilty of any trxns- 

* rktimnUthim. Wiiudhl Muj:gB Ssimc. lliluula Prana. 


The fourth of llic Thirteen OTdinancce is called Sapad4iiBch:iri- 
kanga. The word apadana means the breaking, the not keepin); or 
obsening ; and sapadana is the keeping, the observing. The name 
ia given to this ordinance because it enjoins the passing in regular 
order or auccessioD from house to house. Bj this ordinance the 
priest is forbidden to pass by any house when going with the bowl 
to receive alms, on account of its meanness or inferiority ; but be 
may pass by the house if near it there be any danger, as from doga. 
When he visits a village, street or house three succeaaive daya, 
without receiving anything, he is not required to go to the some 
place again ; but if he receives only the least particle, it must be 
regularly visited. When he has gone out with the bowl, and not 
received anything, should he meet a person in the toad who is 
carrying food intended for the priesthood, he may receive it ; but if 
anything has previously been given him, this is forbidden. The 
priest who keeps tbo superior rule of the ordinance may receive 
food only from the house before which he stands, or from the hall 
where food is regidorly given. It is said that no priest ever kept this 
precept like Maha Kasynpa. ile who keeps the middle rule may 
remain only a short time before the house, and must then pass on. 
The Inferior rule oUou-s the priest to wait until the food is given, 
though there may be delay. 

Though the priest b not required to go more than three times to 
the same house to receive alms when none are given, it is regarded 
an tt merit, in certain cases, if he persevere. The priest Rohana 
went to the house of Sonuttara, the father of Kfigasena, for the space 
of aiz years and ten months with the alms-bowl, although in ihe 
whole of this period he did not receive so much as a spoonful of 
rice, nor any mark of respect. Abuse yraa all that was given him ; 
until one day a girl peeped from behind the door, and said that it 
wu early. On receiving this salutation he was greatly pleased. 
It Ko happened that on thu same morning Sonuttara met him ; and 
na he saw pleasure depicted In his countenance, he asked whether 
he had received anything at the house, and Rohana said that he 
bad. S6nutlAra was tn great wrath that his orders should be dis- 
obeyed, as be had charged his household not to give anything to 
tba priest ; but when be enquired who it was that had dared to act 
thus, oil the members of the family denied that they had done any 
such thing. The neit dny, when Rohana came with the alms-bowl, 
the offended master stood near the door of his house, and charged 


the priest with uttering an untruth ; but he said that lie had npuketl 
correctly, ai a kind word had been given liim, and ibiB was what 
he had received. Then Sonuttara toncluded, that if a single word 
hnd given so much picusure. a gift of food would produce much 
more. He therefore commanded that Rohana shoulii biive as much 
rice as he could eat, and that he should receive the same daily in 
future.* The patience of Rafauaa was, however, exceeded by that 
of Isidore, an E^gyptian monk. When asking to be admitted into 
the house, he said to the abbot, " I am in your bonds, as iron in the 
hands of the smith." The abbot ordered him to remain without 
the gate, and to prostrate himself at the feel of every one who 
passed by, begging prayers for his soul as for a leper. This com- 
mand he obeyed, and remained in this humiliating position for the 
space of seven years. The first year he had a violent conflict ; the 
second, tranquillity ; and the third, pleasure.f 

Though the priests ore required to go from house to house, not 
omitting the meanest residence, if the inhabitants be willing to give 
nlms, the spirit of this law is frequently evaded in Ceylon. The 
people of the lower castes usunUy live in houses that are contiguous 
to each other, so that the priest can avoid going near them without 
appearing to break the rule, In the village of Rillcgalle, where I 
sometimes resided, the quarter inhabited by the washers was never 
visited by the priests ; and an entire village at a little distance, in- 
habited by mat-weavers, was equally neglected. 

The practice of mendicity iis a religious observance is of very 
ancient origin ; and its existence may be traced among nations that 
greatly differ in their general eharacler. The rules to be observed 
by the Brahman mendicant are laid down with much precision. 
** Every day must a Brahman student receive his food by begging, 
wllk due care, from the houses of persona renowned for diseliarging 
their duties. If none of those houses can he found, let him go 
begging through the whole district round the village, keeping his 
organs in subjection, and remaining silent ; but let him turn nway 
from such OS have committed any deadly sin. . . . Let the student 
persist constantly in such begging, hut let htm not eat the food of 
ono person only ; the subsistence of a student by begging ts held 
•qnil to fasting in religious merit. . . , This duly of the wise is 
ordained for a Brahman oiUy ; but no such act is appointed for n 
warrior or a morchaat." — Mann, InsL ii. 183, 1B5, 188, 190. The 
• MiliiiiU Pnuua. t Albui DhUct, Maivh 30. 


sanyasi is also enjnioed (Inst. vi. 58) to refram from receiving food 
after humble reverence, since by taking it in consequence of a 
liumblc ealutation, though free, he becomcR a sceptic. The house- 
holder (Inst. iv. 32) ia to make gifts, as far as he has ability, to 
religious mendicAnts. though helerodos. The iiyvprai were mendi- 
cant priests among the Greeks, who went about &om place to place 
soliciting alms in behalf of the gods whom they adored. It is sup- 
posed that their origin was eastern. They were connected with 
the worship of Isi.s, Opis, and Aige. Their character was not good, 
and they were ready to inflict injuries on the enemies of those who 
paid them for that purpose.* The same priests among the Romans, 
bound by vows of temperance and abstinence, were supported on 
the charity of the public. They went their daily rounds to receive 
alms with the sislrum in their bands. But by their avidity much 
opposition was excited against their order. " Stipes aereas immo 
rcro ct argcnteas, multis certatim oflerentibus sinu recepere patulo ; 
nee non ct vini cadum et lactis et caseos avidia animis cortadentes 
el in sacculoH huic questui de induslria preparatos furcientca. Sic." — 
Apuleius, Metam. i. viii. It was proposed by Cicero to restrain 
their extravagance. " Stipem sustulimus nisi cam quam ad paucos 
dies propriam Idaeae Martis excepimus. Implet enim superstitione 
animos; exbaurit domos." — Cic. de Legib. l, ii. 9, IS.f 

The mendicant orders among the Romanists came into notice 
in the thirteenth century ; but the practice existed among the monks 
at a much earlier period. Jerome complains (Ep. 18) that men 
with hair like women, beards like the goat, a black cloak and bare 
feel, entered into the houses of nobles and deceived silly women, 
laden with sin. The friars differed from (he monks only in being 
mendicants by profession. Even the ascetics who were not pro- 
fesHedly mendicants were sometimes obliged to beg. The monks 
who founded Fountains' Abbey, about 1137, were at one time re- 
duced to BO much distress that the abbot went round the neigh- 
bourhood to ask alms, but without success, and they were reduced 
to feed on the leavcB of trees, and on herbs gathered in the fields, 
boiled with a little salt. J According to some writers, there were 
three kinds of poverty among them ; some had nothing, either of 
theii own or in common ; others bad something in 

* Smith's Dictionary nf Greek and Bomon Antiquities 
t Mitldlpton'n Letter from Romp. 
J Burton's Munaatieon E" 


books, clothes, food, &c., but notliing of their own ; and oth^ra had 
B little of both kinds of property, but only necessaries, as food and 
clothes. It was requisite that the quest«r, whose office it was to 
collect tlie daily alms for the subsistence of the community, should 
be a man of great virtue and circumspection, as he was constantly 
exposed to temptAtions that to a monk must have been of the most 
formidable chaructcr. Such a one was the Capuchin, Felix of Can- 
talicio. Il is said that Laurence Justinian, the first patriarch of 
Venice, when he went about the streets begging alms with a wallet 
upon his back, obtruded himself into the presence of the nobles, 
on purpose that he might meet with derision and contempt. Fre- 
quently did he stJind before the door of bis own house, and cry out, 
•' An alms, for the sake of God !" but he would not enter in. nor 
ever took more than two loaves. The storehouse in which the pro- 
vbions of the community were laid up for the year, having been 
burnt down, a certain brother lamented the loss, but he said cheer- 
fully, "Why have ye embraced and vowed poverty? God baa 
granted us this blessing that we may feel it." Ftencis called the 
begging of lUms from door to door, " the table of the Lord." Many 
of tbc cities of Europe were divided or cantoned out into four parts, 
the first being assigned to the Dominicans, the second to the Fran- 
ciscans, the third to the Carmelites, and the fourth to the Auguslinee. 
The towns of Norwich, Lynn, and Yarmouth, appear to have been 
quartered In a similar way ; and in some instances the convents 
derived considerable revenue from the privilege of confessing, 
preaching, and begging in their respective districts. At tbe crossea 
in cities and other places sermons were detiveied on Sundays and 
liolydays, at which time money was collected from the audience.* 
There are also instances upon record in which the sole right of 
frequenting particular circuits was purchased by individuals, who 
appear to have been not at all diffident in trying to turn tbeir privi. 
lego to the best account. Thus Chaucer speaks of his " merry 
Frero" in the following terms : — 

"Hct n'M nn man nowhcr m vertuou* : 
He was tha bnte bc^Rcr in all liiii bcnis i 
And navo ■ ecrtaino ieime for the gruil, 
Non of hii bTcthercn nune in hii hsunt i 
Kor though n widcwe hsdde but a bbon, 
tlte Jilnuunl wu hin In pritititiio) 
Vot woldho luiTc»frrihingor he wool." 

■ Taylor's Index Honaitica*. 


The appearance of ttie mendicant orders was hailed with ratis- 
factioo, as it was supposed that it would be a means hy whicli the 
cornipcions of monachlsm might be avoided ; bat the rapacity of 
the members soon excited general disgust. Kichard Fitz Ralph, 
archbishop of .'Umagh, objected to the pope and cardinals, rela- 
tive to the mendicant orders, that " scarce could any grettt or mean 
man of the clergy or the laity eat his meat, but such kind of beggars 
would be at his elbow ; not like other poor folks humbly craving 
nlms at the gate or the door (as Francis did command and t^ach 
them in his testament) by begging, but without shame intruding 
themselves into courts or houses, and lodging there ; where, with- 
out any inviting at all, they eat and drink what ihey do find among 
them, and, not with that content, carry away with them either 
wheat, or meal, or bread, or flesh, or cheese, although there were 
but two in the house, in a kind of an extorting manner, there being 
none that can deny them, unless he would cast away natural 
shiune." * The corruption of these orders was fearlessly pro- 
claimed by Wjcliffe, who wrote " Of the Poverty of Christ," 
"Against Able Beggary," and "Of Idleness in Beggary;'" and 
maintained : " sith open Begging is thus sharply damned in holy 
Writ, it is a foule Error to meyntene it. but that it is more error to 
Mio that Christ was such a Beggar." f In the famous petition 
callr<l "the Supplication of Beggars," presented to Henry VIII. 
complaining of the encroachments of the mendicant orders, their 
revenues arc staled at £43,333 per annum, besides their temporal 
gooda ; and the supplicants add, that " four hundred years past 
Iheae friars had not one penny of this money." J By the Slat. 22 
lien. \1II. c. 12, all proctors and pardoners (or itinerant rendors of 
indulgences) going about in any country, without sufGcient autho- 
rity, ate to be treated as vagabonds. § 

To many of the friars, the necessity of seeking their subsistence 
in this manner must have been equally repugnant. "When Luther 
WM In the convent of St. Augustine, he was prevented by the 
■nperiore from shutting himself up in his cell, that ho might pro- 
secute his studies, though offices the most menial had already been 
performed. They let him know that it was not by study, but by 
begging, that he was to benefit the cloister ; and we have an in- 
vight into the kind of alma they most coveted, from their own 

' Vtberr Rclinion of tlie Ancient Iriah. cap. vi. 

t (Holer's Text-Book, j 133. I Taylor's Indci hlooiuticus. 

4 Tpwhin'a NntM In ihe Canlerbury Tales, v. 710. 


enumeration : " bread, corn, egga, fish, meat and money." " Cum 
sacco per civitatem '." Away with your wallet through the town '. 
cried the Mars ; and, laden with his bread-bag, be had to wander 
through all the streets of Krfurth, begging from houHc to house. 
On his return he bad to shut himself up in his cell, or resume his 
Uskwork. The FraDciscans, by the rule of their order, were com- 
manded to ask alma confidcnter, which has been translated " stur- 
dily." The graphic pen of Chaucer draws the following picture in 
Ihe Siunpnoure's Tale. It ia intended as the portrait of a pteacber 
ia Hotdemease. 

'■ With scrippe, and lipped staf, ytueked hie. 

In crery hous he gan u> pore and piie. 

And begged mclc and chcae, or dies t-om. 

Hii fclaw had a staf tipped with horn, 

A pair of tables all of ivory. 

And a poiatcl ypolished fctisUy, 

And wrote alway the names, as lie Btond, 

Of alio folk that gave hem any good, 

Askaunce that he wolde Ibi hem prcye, 

' Yere us a bushel whetc, or malt reye, 

A Ooddes kichel, or a trippc of chesc ; 

Or dies what you list, wc may not cbesp, 

A Ooddes halfpenny, or a masse peny. 

Or ywe us of your hraun, if ye have any, 

A dagon of youi blanket, lere dame I 

Our sustrc dcrc ! (lo, here I write your name) 

Bacon or beef, or swiche thing as ye find.' 

A sturdy barbt went hem, ay. behind. 

That WB< hir hostcs man, and bore a sakke. 

And what men yavc Iiem laid it on his bakke." 
From these pcrvereiona of the original law of mendicancy, the 
priests of Badha are guarded by the rules laid down by their founder, 
which do not allow a single word to be spoken ; and when the bowl 
ia sufficiently filled, ihe priest is to return to his dwelling and eat 
the food ho has received, of whatever kind it may be. They are 
sufficiently rapacious in other respects, and their love of litigation 
hot brought discredit upon their order; but when carrying the 
alnu-bowl I bavti never teen (bcm otherwise than obi^crrant of Ihe 

From some of the above quotations it would appear that the vessel 
carried by the mendicants for receiving Ihe alma that were prc- 
•eiitt^d. was not always of the same description. The alms-bowl of 
the Dudhist is a ccmvcnient article lo carry, and answers all the 
purposes rcijuired by the priesl, in countries where the green leaf. 


or tlie cocoa-nut shell, hna not yet been superseded by articles of 
more complicated manufacture. There were some of the ancient 
ascetics in the east who went upon all fours, and ate their food like 
dof^. It is said, that when Diogenes saw a boy driuk water out of 
the hollow of his Land, he look the cup from his wallet and threw 
it away, saying that the boy had exceeded him in frugality. The 
mendicant frtars had a wallet or sack into which they put the pro- 
viaionB they received, and the Franciscans are represented as having 
their tunics foil of pocketa made for the same purpose. They aome- 
timoB took persons with them to collect money, as they were not 
allowed to receive it themselves ; but this was contrary to on ex- 
press rule, as the Franciscans are forbidden (cap. iv.) to receive it 
in any form whatever, either themselves or by a substitute, " vel 
per se, vel per intcrpositam personam." There was a complaint 
(AIvaruB Pelagius, it. 6) against the Franciscans, that some of the 
bretfaren wandered through countries and cities, solicidng and de- 
manding pecuniary atma, frequently with great importunity, taking 
the servant backward, and filling their boxes and pockets with 
money ; and that some received money, either with wax, or with 
wood, or with the cloak, and carried it about sewed up in their 
habits, tunics, or hoods. 

In whatever country religious mendicancy is practised, the virtue 
of almsgiving will be raised to an undue elevation in the scale of 
merit. The ancient chronicles say that it was customary for tlie 
monaichs of Ceylon to give annually five times their own weight of 
treasure in alms. In an inscription at Pollonnaruwa, about A. D. 
1200, is is said that the king gave annually five times his own 
weight, and that of his two principal queens and son and daughter. 
of treaaure, in alms to " the priests and the Brahmans." In 1818, 
Kappitapola was executed at Kandy for rebellion against the British 
government. Early in the morning he was taken to the temple. 
and as ho knelt in the sanctuary the chief priest recounted the 
principal meritorious actions of bis life, sucb as the benefits he had 
conferred on the priesthood, the gifts he had given to the temples, 
and other similar acts. He then pronounced his last wish, which 
was, that in the next birth he might be bom in the forest of Himala 
and finally obtain nirw^na. The priest, in an impressive manner, 
declared that his merits were great, and concluded a benediction by 
saying, " As sure as a stone thrown up into the air returns lo the 
earth, so certainly will you. in consideration of your merit, be jire- 
eent at the next appearance of a Budha, and receive your reward." 

80 EAST£I(?< MONAOniSM. 

W^en. abont to die, the rebel turned to the CommissioiieT, an 
Bnglish gentleman, and saying, " I give you a eharo of the merit 
of m; last religious offering," he unwound liia upper cloth from lus 
waiat, and presented it lo the temple, jocularly observing, that 
although it was ragged and foul, " the merit of the otTcring would 
not on that account be diminished, it being all he had to give." * 

From ita necessary connexion with the circumstances of the re- 
close, and its prominence in the nystcm of Uutoma, it will be requi- 
utc to enter upon the subject of almsgiving somewhat at lengthi 
altliougU many of the stalemcnta we shall have to make are puerile 
In the extreme, and would not in themselves, apart from the light 
they throw upon the Byslcm, justify the expenditure of the time 
that has been required for their compilation. The evils arising from 
this feature of the system appear to increase as years roll on ; and 
in consequence, the greater number of the following narratives are 
probably the inrcotion of a period comparatively recent. They are 
principaUy taken from the works that arc at present the most po- 
pular among the Budhists of Ceylon. 

The faithful are required lo give in alms of that which they have 
honestly earned by their own personal exertions ; this offering is 
called duna, whieh means literally "a gift." There must he n 
willing mind respecting that which they offer, from the time that 
the intention of making the offering is formed to the lime when it 
is presented, as well as after it has been made. There must be no 
regret for that which has been given, no wish to regain it. That 
wliich is thus given with a pure mind must be given to the Rudhas, 
the Pasfe'Budhas (who arise in the period in which there b no su- 
preme Budha, and discover intuitively the way to nirwana, but arc 
unable to touch it to others), the rahats, or llie priests. It ia re- 
quisite that the thing given, the intention of the giver, and the re- 
ceiver of the gift, be all pure. 

It is ever the rule of the Budhas to proclaim first the reward to 
be received for the giving of alms, and then to enforce the obser- 
vance of the precepts ; just as a child has some plaything given to 
it. whether it be a mimic plough, a bell, the sticks used in the gome 
called kolli, a little bow and arrow, or a cart ; but when he arrives 
at ripn yeara he has to work, in order that he may gain for him. 
•elf a hvulihoud. In the some way, the physician, when about to 
liatcr medicine, first mollifies the body of the patient by 
* llanhalt'* DeMription and Cooquurt of Ceylon. 

Vlll. MESllIC.VMV. 81 

KDointing it with oU for three or four days. The pving of alms 
Boflena the mind, and brings it into subjection, by which the ascetic 
is prepared for the escrciae of the rites he is afterwardu lo prttctise. 
P&j^wa is allied to dana, and is the ofTcring of flowers, lights, and 
rice. Tliese must be preaenled continually to the three gems. 
There are four divisions of almsgiving when practised in relation to 
the priests, called siwpasaduna. They are ; — I. Chiwara-dana, the 
gift of Tobcs. 2. Ahara-dana, the gift of food. 3. Sayanasana- 
danit. the gift of a. pallet on which to recline. 4. Oil^napratya- 
dana, the gift of medicine or sick diet- 
There is also a Uilna caUed sanghika, which ia divided into seren 
kinds. I. The giving of robes, food, &c. to a supreme Rndha, or 
his immediate disciples; this is the chief of the seren. 2. The 
giving of these tilings to the priests and priestesses, when assem- 
bled together, with a relic of Budha in their midst. 3. The giving 
of these things to the priests alone, under similar circumstances. 
4. The giving of these things to the priestesses alone, under similar 
circumstances. S. The giving of anything to the priests and 
priestesses, when permission has been previously asked. 6. Tlie 
giving of anything to an individual priest, when permission has 
been previously asked from a sangha, or chapter of not less than 
four priests. 7- The gii-ing of anything to a priestess, under similar 
circumstances. The reward that will be received for the offering 
of any of these gifts is like the atoms of the earth, it cannot be 

Of all the modes of acquiring merit, that of almsgiving is the 
principal ; it is the chief of the virtues that are requisite for the 
attunment of the Budhaship ; it is the first of the four great vir- 
tuc«, viz. almsgiving, affability, prouioling the prosperity of others. 
and loving others as ourselves ; it is superior lo the observance of 
the precepts, the path that all the Dudhaa have trod, a lineage to 
which they have all belonged. 

When the gift, the giver, and the receiver are all pure, the re- 
ward ia proportionately great. \Vhen the giver possesses that 
which ia good, but presents in alms that which is had, it is called 
d&na-d&isa ; when he gives according to that which he lias, whether 
it bs good or had, it is dana-sahaya ; when he him<:cif rct^ns that 
which is bad but presents that which is good, it is dana-pati. The 
giver must have purity of intention. When he presents the gift he 
ntuNt think. May it be to me aa a hidden treasure, that I may find 


again greatly increnscd, in a future birth. And Lc must think both 
before and after tlic gift is presented, that he gives to one wlio i» 
possessed of merit. When anj one gives that which lias been pro- 
cured by his own labour, he wUi have as his reward wealth, but no 
retinuo or attcndanls. When he gives that which he has received 
from olhers. ho will have attendants, but no wealth. When he 
gives both kinds he will have both rewards; but when he gives 
neither, he will have neither of the rewards. Kdla-dana is the 
giving of alms to strangers, travellfrx. and sick persons, and in 
times of famine, and the giving of tlie tirst-friiita whether of the 
garden or the field. When alms are f-lven withoul thought or 
aifection, or by the hand of another, or when tliey arc thrown to 
the receiver disdain fully, or given only after long intervals, or with- 
out any hope of reward, it is asat-purusha-dana ; when the rcvcrae. 
it is sat -punish a- dan a. There is no reward for him who gives in< 
toxieating liquors, or makes offerings to the tirtlaka heretics, or 
gives to those who only dnnce and play and sing or exhibit inde- 
cencies, or make obscene paintinj]^ in some public place ; but in 
Bome instances there may be a reward for those who give to musi- 
cians and singers, as when alms arc given to those who beat the 
drum at religious festivals, or to the priest who ehaunts the bana. 

When alms are given lo some, and not to others, it is like a par- 
tial shower ; when they are given to all. it is like a imiTersal rain : 
but when any one only thinks to give, and docs not give, it is like 
the gathering of the clouds and the thunder when there is no rain. 

He who gives alms in a proper manner will have continued joy ; 
he will be admitted to the society of the wise ; his fame will spread 
on all the six sides, and reach as high as the brahma-loka ; and 
after dealh he will be bom in one of the dewa-lokas. The reward 
for the giving of alms is not merely a benefit that is to be received 
■t some future period ; it promotes length of days, personal beauty, 
agreeable sensations, strength, and knowledge ; and if the giver he 
bora as a man, he will have all these advantages in an eminent de- 

That which follows was declared by Ootama to I'ggradewa- 
putra : — " There is no reward, either in this world or the nexl, that 
nay not he received through almsgiving. liy means of it the 
glories of Sckra, SJ&ra, and Maha-Bmhma (rulers of the celestial 
worlds), the Chakrawartti, the rahats, ihe Pasi'-Iludhaa, and the 
■upreme ttudha are received." 

When the live virtues of almsginng are exercised, i. e, faith, ob- 
servance of the jwecepla, the hearing of bana, liberality, and wia- 
dom. the reward ia appointed, whether it be in the brahma-16ka, 
d6«B-16kn. or world of men, aceordin;; to the wish formed by the 
giver ; but when alms are presented without these virtues, no re- 
ward is spccinlly appointed, as a piece of wood when thrown into 
ihe air falls to the ground on any of its aides, just as it happens. 

There are some gifts that have a great reward from the giver. 
and none from the receiver ; some that have the same from the re- 
ceiver, and none from the giver; some that have a reward ^m 
both : and others that have a reward from neither. If the gift be 
presented wiih a pure mind, though the receiver be had, it wili bo 
rewarded, as when Weesantara presented his children to the brah- 
man Jujaka, who was a bad man. Sometimes the giver is bad, 
and the receiver good ; but if both be bad the reward is small. A 
hunter once gnve alma to one who did not observe the precepts, in 
order to benefit his brother who was a preta sprite, but he derived 
no liencht therefrom. The hunter then gave alms to one who did 
observe the precepts, and his brother was released from the pr^ta- 

If a vessel be made clean, and water bo given from it, even to a 
worm, the gift will receive a toward ; how then can the full reward 
bo told of those who give to men ? 

If any one gives food to dogs, crows, &c. with the intention of 
receiving merit, he will have long life, prosperity, beauty, power, 
and wisdom, in a hundred births. If any one gives food to a man 
who does not keep the precepts, with the same intention, he will 
have B similar reword in a thousand births ; if he gives food to one 
who keeps the precepts, but is not acquainted with the dhannma, 
he will receive a similar reward in myriads of births ; if to an upSs- 
aka, an asankj-a of births (the asankya being a number that requires 
HI figures to express it) ; and yet more, in accumulative propor- 
tion, if to a sAman^ra, an upasampoda, one who has entered the 
paths, a rahat, a PoB^-Budha, and a supreme Budha. In this pro- 
portion the reward accumulates : — according to the earlh in a 
threshing-floor, in four miles, in sixteen miles, in the earth, in a 

In a former age Bodhisat was the son of a brahman, and was 
educated along with 100.000 princes from various parts of Jam- 
budwfpB. When their education waa completed, all the princes 


inyited him In go aod live with them ; but he cboBc to t 
Benares, where he become the king's prohita, or prime i 
Goch of the princes went every year to see ihe king, and whenever 
they went tlicy took rich presents for the minister. After some 
time, he gave away all these presenia in alms to beggars ; and the 
giving of the whole occupied bcvcd years and seven monthH ; be 
gave golden almS'bowls, couches, chariots, elephants, and many other 
treasures. But the giving of food, on one single occasion, to any 
one who has entered the first potb that leads to nirwaoa, would 
produce greater merit to (he giver than all the gifts of (he prohita. 
The giving of alma to one in the second path produces greater merit 
by one hundred times than when given to one in the first path ; 
and when given to one in the third, it produces greater merit by 
one hundred times than when given to one In the second ; and when 
given to a mhat, produces greater merit by one hundred times than 
when given to one in the third path. When given to a Pase-Budba, 
it produces greater merit by one himdred times than when given to 
a rahat. But when given to a supreme Budha it produces greater 
merit by Nxtecn times multiplied by itself sixteen times than when 
given to a Pas^-fiudha. We will suppose that there are rows of 
thrones upon which the disciples of Budha are seated, extending 
from one end of Jambudwipa to the other, and that there arc ten 
rows occupied by those who have entered the first path; five by 
thofo who have entered the second path ; two and a-liolf by those 
who have entered the third path ; one and a-half by rahats ; and 
one by I'n»6-Budbas. Now if all these were to receive an offering 
of alms, tlie merit of such an offering would he immensely great ; 
hut a single offering made to a supceme Budha would surpass even 
this in merit. 

The narratives that illustrate the greatness of the reward to be 
received from the giving of alms are almost innumerable. They 
appear to vie with each other in the absurdity of their chamcler ; 
and therefore a small selection from them will be regarded as more 
than suBicient. 

When the Bi'tdhinat Suinj^da was in the forest of Hiinuhi, a rishi, 
or holy sage, came to him and offered him three flowcr». By this 
act the sage was saved during the whole of 30.00U kalpas from 
being bom in hcU; he was always cither a dfwa or a man, and 
when bom as man. he wa* always either of (he royal or brahman 
cute. He was &00 time* a dewa ; 300 times Sekra ; and in the 

Tilt. MENDICANfir. 8.S 

time of OoUma, when he waa a respectable brahman in Rujagaha, 
he entered the priesthood, and became a rahat. 

A florist named Sumana, yiho resided in Rajagaha, and presented 
lo a former Budhn eight nosegays of jessamine flowers, received in 
the same birth elephants, horses, sons, daughters, females beauti- 
fully arrayed, and Tillages, eight of each ; and eigbt of all kinds 
of ornaments, gems, and robes ; was preserved from being bom in 
hell during a hundred thousand kalpaa, received blessings without 
number in the world of men ; at last became the Pase-Budha Su- 
niaoB, and attained nirwona. 

There was a poor weaver, who resided near the mansion of a 
charitable nobleman, and when beggars enquired the way to it, he 
was accustomed to point out the road with his finger. For this he 
wna afterwards bora as the dcwa of a tree, and by the lifting up of 
his finger he could in a moment produce whatever he desired. 

One day Budha and his priests went to a certain village to receive 
alms, but the people were unwilling to give them so much as a drop 
of water, until a female servant gave them a little from a vessel. 
As tlie water was poured out it did not become less, though she 
gave to all the priests. For this charitable act, she was afterwards 
bom aa a d6wi. 

There was a family in Rajagaha, all the members of which feQ sick 
and died, except one woman, who escaped from the house tbrough a 
hole made in the wall.* When at a little distance from the house she 
wao approached by the priest Knsyapa, who was carrying the alms- 
bowl at the lime, but as she had only a little dirty rice-gruel, she 
ihuught it was too mean to present as an offering. The priest 
however continued to remain near her, and as she thought it was 
out of kindness, she presented to him the gruel. For this she was 
born in tbe highest dewa-loka ; but she had also acquired great 
merit in previous births. 

There was a king of Ceylon, Sila Maha Tissa, who reigned in 
great splendour at Anuradhapura. In the earlier years of his reign, 
a» he bad heard that the most meritorious alma are such as are 
given bom that which has been procured by personal labour, he 

* There in a diaoi'ii laUcd nhiw!Ltaka-r6g>, lupposed to be caiiKd by a 
imlilciitial bliui, mixed witL the bivaUi of poL'uinouA scri>enu, ihnl coaei 
unnn a dwelling, when the Hie* tint die : then the Lzank and other teptilci ; 
■ncrwiirds i-ate, dogs, goats, and eatUe ; and last of all human bcinra. There 
U no Mean- frtOD it but by bunting through ihe wall ; to depart tbraugh thu 
door would be eertsin death. 


went in disguise to the harvest field, ivbere be worked a 
labourer ; and when he received the walahana, the portion of rice ^ 
tliat fell to his share &s wages, he presented it lu the priest Maha . 
Suma. Ailer this he worked three yearn in a bU)W plantation, near 
the mountain Swamnagiri, and gave the augur that he received aa 
wages lo the priests. Thus he who bad thousands of treasure and 
many thousands of attendants, worked with his own hands, that \ 
he might give the produce in alms. 

In [be time of (jutiima Budha there was in the city of Sewet a 
rich man, who died, and the king of Kosala became the inheritor of 
his property. On going lo worship Budha the king was late ; and 
when the sage asked the rea«on. be replied, "There was a rich man 
in our cily, who had plenty of good food, but he would eat only 
that which was common ; wlicn proper garments were brought to 
htm be refused theai, and made bis clothes of pieces of rags ; he 
went about in a shabby cart, covered by a leaf; he is now dead, 
and oM he has oo relative to be his heir, I have taken possession of 
his wealth, which baa detained me beyond the usual hour." Budha 
then said, *' If tliere be a pond infested with devils, the people are 
afraid to approach it ; they do not bathe in it, nor do they drink the 
water ; and as there is no benefit from it, it is allowed lo dry up. 
In like manner, the wealth of the unwise man is of no benefit to 
himself, bin parents, his wife, or his children. The rich man of 
whom you speak bad no advantage from his wealth in tlijs world, 
and he will have none iu the nest; he is now in the Rowrn bell." 
Th« king enquired how it was that he bad so much wealth, and no 
heart lo enjoy it : w lien Budha informed him that in a former birth 
he resided in Benares, a most uncharitable man ; but as he was one 
day going to the king's palace he met a Pase-Budha seeking alms, 
upon which he commaDdod one of his attendants lo take him to his 
house, and order some food to be given lo him. Ilia wife thought 
lhi« was something new, and gave him food of the richest kind, 
which ho received but did not eat, as he began lo say bona. On 
the rich man's return he looked into Ihe alms-bowl, and when he 
MW its contenla. he thought, " If this had been given to my cattle 
or my slaves, it might have done me some good." " For ordering 
UiU fond," said G6tama, " his reward was the wealth he has just 
left : but for nftenvards regretting that food so good had been 
given, ho wbb prevented from enjoying it." Thu« it is necessarj 
that what is given be given fteely, wiib a spirit &eo from cove- 

a there was a m 
One day, as he 


whose employment it waa to cut 
s walking along with a bundle of 
Vhis shoulder, he naii followed by an upasaka, carrying a 
chUd, which cried for some of the cane. At first he refused to give 
it any ; but al'terwards threw for it a piece behind him. In the next 
birth he heciune a preta, and lived near a grove of sugar-cane ; but 
when from hunger be went to take any of the cajves that he might 
cat them, they bent down and struck him, so that be bad no means 
of appeasing his hunger. It happened that Mugalan (one of the 
principal disciples of Gotama Budha) passed that way, to whom 
the preta made known what had occurred to him ; when tbe priest 
informed him that it was in consequence of what he had done to a 
child in a former birth ; but he recommended bim to try and seize 
the canes, with his face turned away from them, in the same man. 
ner as he had thrown tbe cane to the child ; which he did. The 
preta afterwards gave a cane to Mugalan as an ofTcring, who pre~ 
sentcd part of it to Budha ; and in the next birth the sprite became 
a d6wa. Thus that which is given must be presented in a kind 
manner and with affection. 

In a former age 06tama BMhisat was a man of wealth, and an 
he was exceedingly charitable, he afterwards became Sekra. His 
descendants for four generations were also charitable, and went lo 
the same dewa-loka ; but the fifth was a great miser. Sekra there- 
fore called these dewas, and informing them that ibe merit of the 
family was now about lo pass away, he directed them all to put on 
the appearance of brahmans, and go to the door of tlieir former 
dwelling to ask alma. The first who went was ordered awuy ; but 
be repeated a slunza, for which be received permission to remain- 
The same occurrence happened to them all. Then the rich man 
told hia slave to give them rice in the husk, but they would not 
receive it ; then unboiled rice, but they sttll refused it ; and after- 
wards such rice, boiled, as is given to osen ; but wbcn they at- 
tempted to eat it, it stuck in their throats, and they fell down as 
if dead. The master therefore told bis slaves to take tlie rice away, 
and put in its stead sucb rice as he himself was accustomed to eat j 
after which he called together the citizens, and said that as he had 
given them good rice, it was do fault of his that they were choked. 
Then Sekra assumed the appearance of a dewa, and exposed his 
deception ; but ho also gave him good advice, telling him the merit 
of giving alms, by means of which he waa induced to become 

chnritaljle. and continued ho until the da; of his death, after whicli 
he naa bom a dcn^. Thus, such food must be given as is com- 
monly used, when alms are presented, and not that which is of au 
bferior kind. 

A great fea«t was to be given (o Piyumatura Budha and his 
priesls, in a former age, by the citizens of Benares. The scribes 
went round from house to bouse, to know how many priests each 
householder would feed. Some gate their nnmes for ten, and some 
for four hundred, according to their ability ; but there was a poor 
htbourcr who could only put his name down to feed one ; and he 
resolved that he would work a whole day, and devote whatever he 
received in w^es lo procure food for the priest. On arriving at 
home he informed his wife of the promise he had made, and she 
determined to assist him. The next day they both worked hard, 
and received good wages, with which they purchased the articles 
that were requisite for the feast. The merit of tiie couple being 
observed by Si'kra. he went in disguise as a cook lo the house, 
and requCBled employment. They told him their intention and 
circumstances ; but he agreed to assist them without wages, if they 
were tinablo to pay him. \Mien all was ready, the man went lo 
the scribe to enquire what priest he was to hare ; but the scribe 
tohl him that, as he was so poor a man, he had paid no mora 
Ktteotion to the matter. The labourer, on hearing this was sorely 
disappointed, and began to weep ; when the bystanders, who bad 
been attracted to the place by his expressions of sorrow, recom- 
mended him to go and inform Piyumatura. Accordingly he went 
at once to the wih^ra. and Budha, who was at that moment coming 
out of his residence, put the alms-bowl in his hand, though kings 
and nobles were waiting to receive It. who offered liim untold trca- 
BDTaa if ho would give it np ; but he still retained it. Budha went 
ta his house, and partook of the food that had been prepared, which 
filled the whole city with its frograncc. As a reword for his cha- 
ritable act, Sekra filled the labourer's house with jewels; he was 
afterwards ennobled by the king, and, when he died, wa« bom in 
« d^wB-loka. 

In the time oC Dipankara Uudhu, Gotama Budhisat was a rich 
man in Benares, who gave aim* in such abundance that the whole 
uf Jomhudwlpa was u if " oil the ploughs had been hung np :" all 
persons ceased from labuur. When Sekra saw this he became 
kUrmed, (thinking that the merit of the rich roan would be so great 

v(ii. MEsnicAHcv. 89 

u to entitle him to receive the office he hitoHelf then held as ruler 
o( a celestial world) and destroyed all hia remaining substance, 
except a sickle, a cord, and a joke. With these Bodhisat went to 
cut grass, resolving to give half his earnings to the jioor ; but when 
he saw bo many in destitute circumstances he ^ve away the whole, 
and his wife and he had nothing to eat for the space of six days. 
At lost he fainted away, when in the act of cutting grass. At this 
moment Sekm appeared to him, and offered to return him all his 
substance if he would cease to give alms ; but he refused to make 
a promise to this effect. However, as Sekra now found out that 
be did not do this to obtain his throne in Tawutisa, he became pro- 
ptlioua to him, and gave him an immensity of wealth. 

There was a certain noble who did not keep the precepts, but he 
one day presented a mango to a priestess. When he died, he wbb 
next bom, by night a dewa with a thousand beautiful attendants, 
and by day a prota ; by night his body was like a flower of the 
garden, but by day like tire ; by night he had the usual number of 
fingers, but by day he had two claws. Thus he was altcmalely 
punished for his crimes, and rewarded for the giving of the mango. 

When Gotama, in the seventh year after ho became Itudlia, went 
to the Tawutis4 d^wa-Ioka, Ankura and Indaka were the first of 
the dewas who went to hear bana. ' Even before the arrival of 
Sekra, Maha Hrahma, Maheswara. and the other principal dewas, 
they approached the teacher of the three worlds. Indaka took 
his station on the right hand, and Ankura on the left; but as the 
d^was successively arrived. Ankura gradually receded to a greater 
dtst&nce, until he was twelve yojonas from Budha, whilst Indaka 
remained at his original station. Before Budha commenced the 
■aying of bana to the assembled dewos, be declared to them how it 
was that this difference had been caused. " In a former birth," 
Mid the sage. "Ankura presented an offering twelve yojanas in 
extent, and gave alms continually during 10,000 years; but he 
gave always to the unworthy, as there were none in existence at 
that period who possessed merit. On the other hand, Indaka gave 
only a single spoonful of rice to the priest Anurudha. It is on 
account of the difference in the merit of those who received their 
rospcclivc gifts, that Indaka remains at my right hand, whilst 
Ankura retires to a distance." In like manner, when the husband- 
man scatters his seed in bad ground, though It be ever so much in 
quantity, the produce is small ; whilst he who scatters his seed in 

good ground, though the tiuanlity be small, guins an abtindant 

Id this numner we night proceed, heaping together in palUng 
profusion siinilar instances of the fertility of man's imagination, 
when that which conccma his suhsiateoce ia the object of regard. 
The noble principle implanted in the heart by God of sympathy. 
charity, or love, has in all ages been seised upon by men, who ore 
either to be charged with selfishness, or wilh extreme ignorance of 
the teachings of the word of inspiration. How mournful the feel- 
ing that enters the spirit at the reading of such passages as the 
following, from the page of Chrysostom! "The fire," aays he, 
speaking of the lamps carried by the virgins mentioned in the para- 
ble, " is virginit;', and the oil in alms-giving. And in like manner 
as the fiame, unless supplied with a stream of oil, disappears, so 
virginity, unless it have alms-giving, is extinguished. . . . Haat thou 
a penny, purchase heaven. . . . Heaven is on sole, and in iho 
market, and yet ye mind it not ! Give a crust, and Cake back para- 
dise ; give the least, and receive the greatest ; give the perishable, 
and receive the imperishable ; give the corruptible, and receive the 
incorrnptible. . . . Alms are the redemption of the soul. . . . Alms- 
giving, which is able to break the chain of thy sins. . . . Almsgiving, 
the qoecn of virtues, and the readiest of all ways of getting into 
heaven, and the best advocate there."* St. Eligius, or Etoi, in the 
seventh century, exhorts the people to make oblations to the church, 
that when our Lord comes to judgment they may be able to say, 
" Da, Dominc, quia dedimus.'' f Again, in a similar strain, Edgar 
Mys of this virtue. " Oh, excellent almsgiving ! Oh, worthy reward 
of the soul ! Oil, salutary remedy of our sins !*' It was usual to 
recommend this mode of obtaining liberation from guilt. Nor were 
nrgumenta wanting to set forth the propriety of this course. 
" Cor many a man w Iiard Ii of hcrrtf, 

Uh may not wrpc although him sore smertc ; 

ThrrHurc in ttcde of wtppioit and prniem, 

Hvn mote give tiXxa la the poun bcm." 

CAdiucr'* /V«IcyM,v. 229. 

By the exeicUe of charity the sick wcro taught to pspcct cures. 
The rich, as well as the poor, were Bccustomod to put a wrilKn 
schedule of their sins under the cloth which covered the altar of a 

favoutite saint, accompanied by a donation ; and a day or two after- 
wards, when they re-eiLamined the schedule, the Tirtuea of the 
aaint bad converted it into a blank.* 

Here we must pause. If tbese statements be true ; if this be 
the ftppointment of God, how are we to reconcile with it the decla- 
Tations of Scripture, that represent the redemption of man as re- 
quiring for its accomphshmeut the richest ransom that the whole 
universe can provide ? Either these ancient teachers were mis- 
taken, or Jesus of Nazareth died in vain. But, as Christ is •' the 
wisdom of Ood," "in whom are hid ull the treasures of wisdom 
and knowledge," all his acts must be invested with an infinite pro- 
priety and fitness ; and it must have behoved him to suffer. There- 
fore, if man would seek to enter heaven, it must be by the method 
that He has appointed. Our hope of immortality cannot be fixed 
upon saintly absolution purchased by an obolus ; the merila in 
which we are to trust are those of Him, " in whom we have re- 
demption through his hlood, the forgiveness of sins, according to 
the riches of bis grace ; wbereia be hath abounded toward us in all 
wisdom and prudence." Apart from this trust, and the charity 
welling up from the purity of principle it instils, I may bestow all 
my goods to feed the poor, and give ray body to be burned, but it 
will profit me nothing. Yet, how full of all that is beautiful are 
the arnuigemenU of Qod I We need not look out for some rahat 
or Budba upon whom to bestow onr alms, lest we fail of receiving 
an adequate reward. In the day when the eternal crowns shall be 
distributed lo the riclors of the cross, " the King shall answer and 
say unto them, Verily I say unto you, inasmuch as ye have done it 
unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto 
me.*' How affecting the example that is presented for our imita- 
tion ! " Ye know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that, though 
he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor, that ye through his 
poverty mij^ht be rich." " Walk in love, as Christ also bath loved 
us, and hath given himself for us.'' How exact, how discriminating, 
how powerfully impressive, are the words of the law ! " As ye 
have opportunity, do good unto all men." " To do good and to 
communicate forget not, for with such sacrifices Qod is well 
pleased." Where Utile is given, little is required ; where much is 
given, much is required. " Not grudgingly, or of necessity, for 
God loTeth a cheerful giver." 

* Foabrokfi'a British MonachUm. 


In laking upon himself the [en obligations, the priest of Budha 
rt-Bolves, according to the fifth, to refrain from the use of intoxicating 
drinks, at it in said that they lead to indifference towiLrds religion. 
But tlie uso of aninial food is not absolutely forbidden ; and in llie 
whole economy of the institute there is a general indiflerence ujwn 
thifl question, which in in powerful conlraxt lo ihc requirements of 
other orders of ascetics. This may have arisen from the fact that 
G/>lam(i Budha died from ealing pork; a circumstance too well 
known lo he set aside by the more rigid of his disciples, who might 
otherwise have been ready to insist upon a dietetic discipline more 
extenBirc in ila prohibitions. But although in certain cases, as in 
times of sickness, animal food is allowed, there are many regula- 
tions intended to guard against the abuse of this privilege. 

We shall generally find that, when any of our natural desires are 
debarred the indulgence that they seek, the other appetites, that 
arc not under the same lestruint, will exert their liberty with the 
greater freedom. Hence it is to be supposed that the founder of an 
ascetic institute will here meet with one of his greatest perplciilies. 
And his task is the more difficult, a^t eating and drinking canuol, 
like a luxury or a mere vanity, be entirely forbidden. The laws of 
the priesthood, as they appear in the Patimokkhan, are numerous 
and comprehensive ; but there is do rule relative to diet the breach 
of which is atlenilcd with permanent exclusion, suspension, or 
penance. The people of Ceylon not unfrequcntiy express thoir 
displeasure against the priests, on the ground that ihey urge iheni 
to bring meat curriea as offerings, whilst vegetable preparations ara 
received with disdain. They appear to have degenerated since the 
time of Robert Knox, who says, " The jieople reckon it one of tho 
chief points of godness lo abstain from eating any flesh at all, bo- 
cause they would not have any hand, or anytKing to do, in killing 
any living thing ; they reckon herbs and plant* more genial food." 

According to the Patimokkhan, no priest is allowed to partako 
of food after tho sun has passed the meridian. When ghee, butter, 
oil, honey, sugar, or other articles included in what is regarded aa 
sick diet arc received, they may not be kept in store by the priest 
more than seven days ; unless in cose of sickness, he may not re- 
ceive food more than one day at a place where provisions are pre- 


p&red for a number of persons ; unless upon authorised ( 
he may not partake of food provided expreaalj- for a nimiber of 
priests ; he majf not, unless upon authorised occasions, eat his 
ordinary meal before going b; invitation to any place to receive on 
oflering of food ; when, at any place, more than two or tlirce bowls 
full of rice or other grain are presented to him, he may not accept 
them, unless he share them with the other priests ; when a meal ia 
given at any house, he may not, aAcr receiving it, partake of food 
given by another person ; no priest shall tempt another priest, who 
has already partaken of a meal given by invitation, to cat more, 
unless it be of food reserved from the same occasion ; the priest 
may not partake of food reserved &om the previous day ; unless 
when sick, he may not solicit such luxuries as ghee, butter, oil, 
honey, sugar, fish and llesh, milk or curds ; he may not with his 
own hand give food to a naked or wandering ascetic ; when going 
with the alms-bowl, he may not enter a house ; when invited, 
along with otlier priests, to partake of food at any place, he may 
not go before or after the appointed time, unless he inform the 
other priests ; when any one offers to proridc the proper diet for a 
priest in case he should be sick, he may not avail himself of it after 
the lapse of four months from the time it is given ; he may not 
receive food from tlie alms-bowl of a priesless ; unless when sick, 
he may not go to the house of one of the faithful (out of the ordi- 
nary course) to receive refreshments, without an invitation; and 
the priest who resides in a dangerous place, and has food brought 
to him, must warn those tvlio bring it of their danger. 

The food given in alms to the priest is to be received by him 
meditatively ; it is not to be received carelessly, so that in the act 
of being poured into the alms-bowl some may fall over the sides ; 
the Uijuor and the solid food are to be received together, without 
being separated ; and the alms-howl is not to he piled np above the 
moulh. The food is also to he eaten meditatively, with care, so 
that it is not scattered about ; without picking and choosing, the 
particles that come first to hand being first to be eaten ; the liquor 
and the solid food are to be eaten together, not beginning in the 
centre, and heaping the food up, nor covering the liquor with rice. 
The priest, unless when sick, may not ask for rice or curry to eat ; 
he may not look with envy into the howl of another ; nor eat moutli- 
fula larger than a pigeon's egg, but in small round balls ; he may 
not fill the mouth, nor put the hand into the mouth when uVing 

food ; nor talk when his mouth is full ; nor allow panicles to drop 
from his mouth; nor swallow hia food wilhout being properly 
maslicaled ; and one mouthful must be swallowed before another 
is taken. He may not shake bis hand lo free it from the particles 
tltkt may bo attached to it, nor may the food be scattered about, 
nor the tongue put out, nor the lips smaeked, nor the food sucked 
up with a ooiae. He may not lick his hand«, nor the bowl, nor hia 
lips, when he eats. A vessel of water may not be taken up when 
the hand is soiled &am eating, and the rincing of the bowl is not 
to be carelessly thrown away. No priett can partake of food unless 
he be seated. 

It will be remarked, that the rules relatiTO to the manner of 
eating are here laid down with the utmost precision. We can 
imagine that, at the commencement uf fiudhism, as men of all 
grades were admitted to the priesthood, many rudenesses would be 
exhibited that would bo extremely olfen^ivc in the sight of the 
prince whose doctrines tliey had embraced ; and that it could only 
be by a series of regulations scooping down to the commonest acts 
they would be prcrented from bringing the priestly character into 
contempt. It was therefore nccesaary to make laws, nut only as to 
the quantity and character of the food, but also as to the manner in 
which it was to be eaten. From this we have an insight into the 
manners of the times, in reference to a class of society to which the 
ancient historian seldom directed his attention, owing to whose neg- 
lect in this particular we arc ignorant of the manners of the mass, 
even when the conduct of monarchs and nobles is recorded with a 
fulness that b offensive. 

The hours in which it is forbidden to eat food are called wikala. 
The appointed hours ore from sunrise to the end of the fifteenth 
hour, i. e. unlU the sun has passed the meriiliun. The food tliat is 
eaten in any other part of the day or night is called wikala- 
hhojana ; and by the sixth of the ten obligations the priest pro- 
f(«sos that be will reject this untimely or unseasonable food.* 

The priests are commanded by Budba to be contented with as 
much as is requisite to appease their hunger, when they toke the 
alms-bowl from house to house, and not to loiter on the ground ; 
as those who eat more than a sufficient quantity wilt be led to take 
life and steal, and commit the five deadly sins, whilst those who are 
tsmpente will he enabled readily to keep the preccplii, and practise 
* Sadhamuaaratnaktr^, 


nil tlie ordinances that are prescribed. There were a cerl&in num- 
ber of parrots in the Himalayan forest that went from tree to tree, 
feeding upon the fruits they found ; but there was one parrot that 
always remained upon the same tree, and when it died, it fed upon 
the bark. This was seen by Sekra, who as u reward for the mode- 
ration of the parrot, caused the tree to live again, and to put forth 
leaves and fruit. This example is worthy of being imitated by the 

At one time Seriyut and Mugalan (the two principal priests of 
Gotama Budha) went into a forest for the benefit of solitude ; but 
Mugalan fell sick. When Seriyut asked him if he had ever been 
ntlncked in tlie same way before, he said that he had when young ; 
and when he further asked by what means he had been cured, he 
sail) that his mother had made him a confection of certain ingre- 
dients. Tliis was overheard by a dcwa that resided in a neigh- 
bouring tree, who went and informed the persons of a house where 
Seriyut was accustomed to go to receive alms. Ti>e ingredients re- 
quired for the confection were therefore put into his bowl, and he 
took them to the sick priest. "When Mugalan looked with his 
divine eyes to see by what means this had been brought about, he 
aaw thst it was through what he himself had said. But as it was 
given through what he had said, and to receive it would have been 
contrary to the precept, he threw the whole away ; in that instant. 
however, the pain left him, and never returned again, though he 
lived afterwards forty. five years. 

There was a priest in Chiwara Oumbu who, when suffering from 
hunger, would not cat the fruit that had fallen from a tree, because 
it had not been given him by the owner : rather than break the 
precept by eating it, he suffered life to become nearly estinct, and 
was found in this condition by an upisaka, who took him upon his 
back, and while thus carried he attained rahalahip. 

On one occasion, when Ootama and his priests were in Weranja. 
a famine prevailed so extensively that the priests were not able to 
procure any food from the people when going from house to house 
with the alms-bowl ; and they were compelled to live on some hard 
borlcy-cakes used as provender for horses. t The priest Mugalan 
requested permission . to exert his supernatural power in order to 
obtain food, but tlie exercise was forbidden by Budha. 

I. Joura. Ceylon Koysl As. Sot. i. 79. 


The priest is not lo eat as a paslime, nor for pleaoure ; nor to 
make the body strong, like the public wrestlers ; nor [o render it 
beauliful, like the dancers. As a man ivtth a falling liouse prups 
il up, as a man with a broken waggon puts in a pieee of wood ; so 
may the priest eat to preserve his body and prevent untimely death. 
As hunger is the most powerful of all the appetites, he may eat to 
ward it off. As a man and woman, when crossing a vast desert 
with a child, if their footl faib them, cat the tlesh of their own 
child in their anxiety to escape from the desert, with similar dis- 
gust must the priest cat his food, that be may escape from the 
evils of entslence.* 

It is said in the Wisudbi Margga Sanne, that there arc ten modes 
of defilement (pratikfila sangignya) produced by food, as seen under 
the following circumstances. I. Id going to the place where it is 
to be received. 2. Its reception. 3. The act of eating. 4. The 
ingredients with which it combines. 5. Its place of deposit, fi. 
Before it is digested. 7. After it is digested. 8. The fruit it 
produces. 9. Its discharge or emission, 10. The pollution from 
its touch. 

1. In the journey that the priest must undertake to procure food, 
lie will have to puss along roads that are dIfHcult, dangerous, and 
dirty ; he will be exposed to wind and cold ; and he will see many 
disagreeable objects, fillh of all kinds. 2. As he wails in dificrent 
places to receive food, insects will come from dirty places and sr^ltle 
on his robe, and in his bow] ; some persons will tell him to go 
BWay, whilst others will take no notice of him whatever, or look at 
him a> if he were a thief, or perhnps nbuac him ; and in passing 
from place to place he will have to encounter foul smells and tread 
on many kinds of refuse. 3. In eating the food there will be many 
things la cause aliaine ; the tongue must do the work of the hand, 
and before the food is swallowed it must be made of the conHisteoce 
of the vomit thrown up by a dog. 4. When the food has pan^'d 
into the stomach it becomes foul and corrupt. Even in the bodica 
at the Chakruwartlis and Budhas there arc bile, phlegm, and blood. 
If the bile be loo abundant, the Food that has been eaten will be- 
come like mec oil ; if the phlegm be too abundant, it will become 
like the Juice of the ketiyn or uii^ubala fruit ; and if the blood he 
loo abundant, it will become like red dye. 5. The place lo which 
the food descends is nut a vessel of gold : in a child ten years of 
* Wundhi Uotiie* Sannf. 


nge It ia like a privy thai has been usee) a£ many years without 
being cleaned, increasing in loathsomeoesa with the age of the in- 
(lividuaL fi. When a shower in Ihe hot season falls upon a village 
inhabited by low people, it runs into the cess at the estremily of 
the place, abounding with all kinds of filth ; and whrii the sun 
arises froth and bubbles are formed upon the surface of this com- 
post. In like manner, when food is tikken into the body, in a little 
time it is miied with all kinds of impure secretions, and the jatn- 
ragni, oi digestive fire, working upon the mass, causes it to appear 
with a surface like that of the compost. 7- When the fuud ia 
digested, it does not become gold or gems, but Le changed into 
escrement and urine. 8. The food passes away from the body by 
llie nine apertures, but principally by the intestinal passage ; and a 
part of it is ejected by the pores of the skin. 10. \Mien the food 
is eaten it soils tho fingers, teeth, and tongue ; and even by con- 
tinual washing it is not possible to take away the defilement and 

7'hese are the ten modes by which the defilement arising from 
food is exhibited ; and tlicy are steadily to be meditated on by 
the priest, that the desire of food may be token away. By this 
means, though nirwftna' should, not be obtained, it will secure an 
inheritance in one of the celestial worlds. 

The third of the Thirteen Ordinances is called Pindapatikanga, 
from pinda, pieces or morsels, and pata, falling, &om the falling of 
the particles of food into the bowl of the priest. He who keeps 
this urdinance cannot receive food which has been given under any 
of the following circumstances : — for the sake of an assemblage of 
priests ; that which has been given at an appointed time, or by in- 
vitation ; that which is given to a certain number of priests, by 
sending them a tally, or some instrument upon which the number 
of the priests that are invited is marked : food given on a certain 
number of days in each half-moon ; on the days called poya ; on 
the day after the full-moon poya : food prepared for priests who 
are strangers, after their arrival ; for priests who are going on a 
journey ; for sick priests ; for those priests who minister to their 
sick companions: food given statedly to a temple; regularly and 
constantly j^ivcn ; or given by the people of any village on certain 
appointed days. Thus there are fourteen different descriptions of 
food that are not to be received by tJie priest who keeps this ordi- 
nance. When food has been prepared for the assembly, it may be 


roceivpt) by Ibc priwt witbout breaking ihe law if be has not been 
told for what purpose it was originally intended ; or he may receive 
it from nny place where food ti given to an aasemhly regularly and 
without interruption, under certain circumstanceH. 

When the priest who keeps the superior ordinance f^oes with the 
bowl to receive food, he may receive it from the house either irnmc- 
diately before or behind bim, or from the halU where food is ron- 
BtADtly given : but should any one say, *' Do not curry the bowl to- 
day; I will take what is necessary lo the i)lace where yim dwell." 
he may nol receive the food thai in this way is offered. He who 
keeps the middle ordinance may in this way receive food thai is 
not more than sufficient for one day ; but if the person offers to 
bring it the next day, it must be refused. Tbc inferior ordinance 
allows the food to he thus received on three successive days, but 
nol longer. 

The second of the Twelve Sacred Observances of the Cbinese !s 
also called pin'd'apitika, according to which the priest is lo procure 
his food by taking the bowl, in order that he may extinguish all 
desire. He may not accept ibe invitation of any one. He must 
seek the nourinhment that is necessary for the support of his mate- 
rial body and the accomplishment of his tnoral duties. He must 
make no dilTercncc with the food he receives, whether it be good 
or bad. nor feel any resentment in cases where be meets with n re- 
ftuol. but keep hia mind al all times in perfect tranquillity.* 

The fifth of the Thirteen Ordinances is called Ekasonikanga, 
ftoro eka, one, and asana, a. seat. He who keeps this ordinance 
may not eat food in two or three different places ; he is to remain 
on one xeal until he has finished his repaat. \\'lien in the refectory 
he must look out for a proper scat, so that if a superior priest were 
to come in. he may not have to rise, in order to give place lo bim. 
Chiilabayo, learned in the sacred books, »pake thus : — It is not 
proper to rise until the repast bo finished; if the priest has sat 
down, but not bcgim lu eat. he may rise ; but if he has begun to 
cat, he may not rise, and if it should bo required of him to rise, ho 
may not nt down again lo eat. 

Tbo priest who keeps the superior ordinance cannot receive more 

food than that which be has when he first sits down, though it be 

ever so little in quantity ; but ho may receive oil or honey, or any- 

ihiBg that ia allowed oa sir.k diet, when he is nul in health. He 

■ Bcmuut't Relation dcs Rojraume* I(audilhi(|uc>, p. Ad. 



who keeps the middle ordinance mny receive anything that is given 
to him previous to the end of his repasL He who keeps the inferior 
ordinance may receive more food, even though liis repast be done, 
if he has not risen from hia seat. He who eats again after he has 
risen from his seat breaks this ordinance. 

The fourth of the Twelve Sacred O'bservancea of the Chinese is 
called eka p&nika, and is said to mean the rejection of a multipli- 
city of repa«t8, and the adopting of the eustom of having one 

The sixth of the Thirteen Ordinances is called Pattapindikanga, 
from patta, the alms-bonl, and pinda, morsels. He who keeps this 
ordinance must eat from one vessel only. If he have at the same 
dme liquid food and solid, he may eat first the one and then the 
other, but he may not put them in two separate vessels. If flesh 
hiu been put to the liquid, it must still be eaten without thinking 
of its disagreeable qualities, even though loathing should be caused ; 
yet if vomiting follow, on the next occasion on which it is received, 
it may be separated from tlie other food. If any one receive sugar 
or honey, or anything else that is good to be taken with the liquid, 
they may be taken together. Though the priest eats from one 
vessel only, he may not take more than a proper quantity ; all thai 
he eats must first be put in the alms-bowl, even though it were 
something he might take in his fingers, as pepper-pods ; what 
others might put on a leaf, must not by him be so put. 

The priest who keeps the superior ordinance may throw away 
■he refuse of sugar-cane, when he has sucked the juice, but all 
other things that are in the bowl he must cat ; he may not break 
deah, cakes, or any other substance, either with his teeth, hands. 
or an instrument, in order to divide it. He who keeps the middle 
ordinance may break his food with one hand, whilst holding the 
bowl with the other. He who keeps the inferior ordinance may 
break anything that is put into the bowl, in any way whatever. 
Any of the three who eats Irom a second vessel breaks this ordi- 

The seventh of the Thirteen Ordinances is called Khalupach'ha- 
bhattikanga, from khalu, forbidden ; paeh'ha, after ; and bhutta, 
period of time: khalu is also a bird, that when eating any fruit, if 
it lets it fall, eats no more that day. The priest who keeps this 
ordinance cannot eat any more after he has met with lliot which is 
■ IttEmuiukt's Relation dee Roysuioce Bouddhiques. 

100 EARTEBK XnXACntsw. 

akBpa, i. e. if he has, fur any rcanon. to Tefuse ihal which is hroaght 
to him when he is eating ; or if he be presented wilb that wblcti is 
improper to be eaten, from iw loBthsomeneBs or otherwise. 

He ivho keepa llie superior ordinance may only eat that which \a 
in hia mouth, and nothing more, although even the first handful of 
fond that he takes is akspa. He who keeps the middle ordinance 
may eat that which is akapa but nothing more. He who keeps 
the inferior ordinance maj cat aa long as he remains on one seat. 

The Bftb of ibe Twelve Sacred Observances of the Chinese is 
i-allcd in Siaskrit khaloupas'waddhaktinka, and is said lo enjoin 
■hat the food obtained by the mendicant is to be divided into three 
portions ; one to be given to any person whom he sees to be suffer- 
tng from hunger, and a second to be carried lo some quiet place in 
the forest, and placed upon a stone for the birds and beasts. If he 
does not meet with any one who is in want, he is not to eat the 
whole of the food (hat he has received, but two-thirds only. By 
this means his body will be li^'hter and mure active, and hia diges- 
tion quicker and less laboured. He will be able readily lo enter 
upon the practice of all good works. When any one eats too 
greedily, the intestines and belly become gross, and respiration is 
impeded. Nothing is more hurtful to the development of reason.* 

It is sEud in the Wisudhi Morgga Sanne that the priest who 
keeps the Thirteen Oidinunces is lo avoid the usual food of men, an 
ghee, honey, and sugar ; and live on such things as galls and tlio 
urine of goats. 

By many of the Budliists it is considered to be on act of great 
merit lo make a vow never to partake of food without giving a por- 
tion to the priests. On one occasion, the monarch Duttagamini thus 
meditated : — In my childhood, my father and mother administorod 
an oaih to me. that I should never make a meal without sharing »t 
with the priesthood. Have I, or have I nut, ever partaken of n 
meaj without sharing it with tbo priesthood ? While thus ponder* 
ing, be recollected that he had eaten a round chilly, or pepper-pod, 
at iUa morning meal, in a moment of abstraction, without reserving 
any part of it for the priesthood. He therefore decided that it was 
nquiute for him lo perform penance on that account, and he oftcr- 
words bufll a digoba and wihara to expiate the crime.* 

The (ubject of diet has not only engaged the anxious attention of 

rx. THE DIET. 101 

tlie fouD JerB of monaaUc institutions, but baa also been regnrded bv 
legislators and moralists who have been under do such influence aa 
the superstitions of the ascetic. It would be seen at once that the 
use of food, either to an excessive degree, or when prepared in a 
luiurions manner, unfitted men for the right performance of reli- 
^Dus exercises, and that intoxicating liquors taken to excess had a 
moral effect still more to be reprehended. Hence the enforcement 
of various prohibitions relative to the quality and quantity of food ; 
in some instances, however, applying only to particular claEsea of 
individuals, or to certain ucasoDS. The brahman student is to be- 
ware of eating anything between morning and evening," Accord- 
ing to the restitutes of Manu (v. 51, 62, 63), "he who makes the 
flesh of an animal his food, is a principal in its slaughter ; not a 
mortal exists more sinful than he who, without an oblation to the 
manes or gods, desires to eiUarge his own Resh with the flesh of 
another creature : the man who performs annually for a hundred 
years, an aswamedha, or sacrifice of a horse, and the man who ah- 
stains from flesh-meat, enjoy for their virtue an equal reward." 
The only fast required of the Jews was on the great day of atone- 
ment. On one occasion Daniel mourned " full three weeks," and 
during this ])criod " ale no ])loaHunt bread," nor did flesh or wine 
come into his mouth. — Daa. s. 2. The Hebrew priests were not 
allowed to drink wine or strong drink when ibey went into the 
tabernacle of the congregation. Lev. x. 9; but it was supposed that 
they did not break this command if they drank no more than a log, 
or an egg-shell and a-half. By the regulations of the Orphic bro- 
therhood the use of animal food was forbidden. The Essenes were 
permitted to partake o( only a single plate of one kind of food ; and 
OS they took an oath at the time of their initiation, not to partake 
of any food that was not cooked by one of their own number, those 
who for any fault were excommunicated from their .society were re- 
duced to extreme distress, and sometimes perished from hunger. 
The rule prescribed by Manes may be sufficient to represent the 
pncliccB of the early heretics. He insisted upon an entire absti- 
nence from flesh, eggs, milk, fish, wine, and all intoxicating drinks ; 
and his disciples were to support their shrivelled and emaciated 
bodies with bread, herbs, pulse, and melons. The followers of 
Satuminus, or the Syrian Gnostics, refused to partake of animal 
food, in order that they might avoid all contact with the evil prin- 
• Manu, Inst. it. 66. 


ciple, which they aupposcil to be matter ; and thejr taught that all 
those Boub who puq)ose to return to Qod after death must abstain 
from wine, flesh, and wedlock, and from all that tenda to sensual 
graiificatiou. Both Pythagoras and Empedokles prohibited the 
eating of animal food, from the supposition that there is a miyuvia 
between godn, animals, and men. 

The rule of entire abstinence from flesh, though generally in- 
sisted upon, was not of universal obligation among the ancient 
monks. The Carthusians are not allowed to eat flesh, even in the 
most dangerous sickness, lliey fast eight months in the year, and 
in Lent, Advent, and all Fridays, reject all white meals, as eggs. 
milk, butter, and cheese. On Sundays and holidays they eat to- 
gether in a common refectory, but on other days they dine alone in 
their cells, their food being carried to them by a lay brother, who 
puts it into each cell at u Ultlc window, without speaking a word. 
They are not permitted to eat in any other place but the convent, 
nor to drink anything but water. According to the rule of Bene- 
dict, the monks were allowed as their daily portion (Reg. 33, 40) 
twelve, or eighteen, ounces of bread, a hemina of wine, and two 
dishes of Tegetables. The flesh of quadru{>eds was strictly pro- 
hibited, except to the feeble and the sick. When the Lombards, 
in 580, destroyed the abbey in which Benedict had resided on 
Mount Cassino, the abbot escaped to Rome, taking with him the 
weight of the bread and tlic measure of the wine which were the 
daily allowance of each monk. No monk is allowed to eat out of 
the monastery, unless he is at such a distance that he cannot return 
the same day. The Cistertians never eat flesh except in times of 
dangerous sickness ; unless upon extraordinary occasions, they ab- 
stain also from eggs, butter, milk, and cheese, but they can moke 
use of these articles of diet when they have been given in alms. 
From the Scptuagcsima until Easter flesh is banished even from 
the inhiniarics. They idl take their food together in the refectory. 

•' In prvirr™ uid pouiiutcci 

Punen hran mnnyo, 

Al fin the love of cure Ixird 

Lyvcdcn Ail stiertii, 

In hope to have after 

Ucvdne rich btuw ; 

Ab •nrre* and Iicremite* 

That huldvn hem in hirv H'lk*. 

And cornlon noght in conliM! 

To cuien aboutc, 

For no likcrooi liflud« 

llirc Ukamo to pltac."— nm Ploughman, r. if>. 

IX. THE DIET. 103 

We have seen that the use of wine was not univeriially for- 
bidden ; but by the early canons tbe ascetics were prohibited from 
entering a public house. In llie Anglo-Saxon church the priest 
wax enjoined " to keep aloof from all parlies assembled for (he pur- 
jHise of singing and carousing, and above all to preserve himself 
from drunkenness, the besetting sin of his countrymen." By the 
council of Cloveshoe, all inhabitants of monaateriea are forbidden 
to drink to excess themselves, or to encourage such excess in 
others ; they are to exclude from their entertainment coarse un- 
seemly amusements, and never to allow their cells to become the 
resort of gleemen, harpers, and buffoons. Yet Alcuin accuses them 
of being addicted to " secret junketings, and furtive compota- 
tiona."* Id 1521, in the abbey of Whalley, containing about 
twenty monks, there was expended for red wine, the sum of £33 
I6(. Sd. ; and for white or sweet wine, £9, which at the rate at 
which wine was then sold would give about eight pipes per 
nnnum-t Tlie monks of Sallay brewed annually 255 ([uartera of 
malted oats and 104 of barley, and as the whole establishment con- 
sisted of about seventy persons, each individual would consume 
about SOD gallons annually : but a large allowance must be made 
for hospitality. J 

Many of the earlier ascetics took only one meal daily, ivhich was 
gcneraUy after sunset ; some fasted three or four days without any 
nourishment whatever; and even when partaking of food they 
lived only on wild herbs and roots, or on pulse steeped in cold 
water, and never touched anything that had passed the fire. The 
water that they drank was sometimes kept until it was offensive. 
From the time of bis conversion, Pachomius never ale a full meal. 
Paul, tbe Tbebueau, had half a loaf brought him every day, by a 
nvon, except upon one occasion when he was visited by Anthony, 
and the provident bird brought a whole one. According to Athun- 
asios, iJio food of Anthony was bread and salt, and his drink water : 
whiUt feeding u{ion this diet, he neither became fatter nor thinner; 
and his meohi were taken in private, aa he was ashamed that he 
was obliged to eat. An account of the dally food of Hilation has 
been preserved. From his twenty-first lo his twenty-seventh year, 
he ate at first lentiles in half-a-pint of cold water, and afterwards 

■ l.irigard's Anslo-Saxon CliuTch. 
t WUilnker'altiMory of WTinllcy, 
] VVliitakcr's History of the Deanery of Cravcu. 


bread, salt, and water ; Trom his twenty- serenth to h!a thirtieth 
year, wild herbs and iindressed roots; froni hie thirty-first to hia 
thirty-fifth year, sii ounces of bsrlcy bread and parboiled cabbage 
wilhout oil. But finding that he was becoming neai-sightcd, and 
his skin scurfy he added a little oil. From siity-four till eighty be 
ubflloined altogether from bread, and substituted five ounces of a 
compound of flour and chopped cabbage.* Palladiua contented 
himself with four or five ounces of bread daily, and one small vessel 
of oil in a year, Simeon Stylites look only one raeal in the week, 
which was on the Sabbath. In Lent, he fasted so long that I must 
give the account in the words of my authority, lest I be accused of 
exaggeration. "At the foot of Mount Thelanissa," says Alban 
Butler, " he came to the resolution of passing the whole forty days 
of Lent in total abstinence, after the example of Christ, without 
either eating or drinking. Bassus. a holy priest, and abbot of 200 
monks, who was his director, and to whom he had communicated 
his design, had left with him ten loaves and water, that he might 
eat if be found it necessary. At the expiration of the forty days 
he came to visit bim, and found the loaves and water untouched, 
but Simeon stretcbcd out on the ground, almost without any signs 
of life. Taking a s])ongc, he moistened his lips with water, then 
gave him the blessed eucharist. Simeon, having recovered a little, 
rose up, and chewed and swallowed by degrees a few lettuce leaves 
and olber herbs. Tbi« was his method of keeping Lent during the 
remainder of bis life." Catherine, of Sienna, accustomed herself to 
BO rigorous an abslincnce, that the eucharist was nearly the whole 
nourishment she took ; and once she fdsted. with the exception of 
what she took in the eucharist, from Ash Wednesday to Ascension 
Day. The food that Basil took was so small in quantity, that he 
appeared to live without it, and to have put on beforehand the life 
nngelic. Paul, of Mount Latrus, for some weeks had no other 
kubsistcncc than green aeoms, which caused him at first to vomit, 
even to blood. A countryman sometimes brought him a little 
coarse food, but be principally lived upon what grew wild upon 
the mountain. ^Vhen he wanted water, a constant spring was pro- 
duced near his dwelling. In the midst of these privations, the 
iwceiics preserved their equanimity, even upon the most trying 
occasions. Once, when Ephmim, of Edcssa. had fasted several 
days, the brother who was bringing him a mess of i>otl«ge made 
* Encyclopedia UcUnpolitana, ut. Hennii ; HuH|)biianuih D« Honachi^. 

IX. THE DIET. 105 

with a few herb^. let the pot fall, and broke it. Tlie saint Bceing 
hitn in confusion, said checrfutly, " As our supper will not come to 
us, let Q9 go to it : " then sitting down he picked up hia meal from 
the ground. When Arseniue, who had been a courtier, presented 
liimself for admisBion before the monks of Scete, he was allowed to 
stand wiiilst the monks took their repast, and no notice waa taken 
of him ; but John the Dwarf, took a piece of bread and threw it 
down on the ground before him, upon which Arscnius fell down, 
and in that posture cheerfully ate the bread. OennaQus began 
every meal by putting a few ashea in hia mouth, and the bread he 
ate waa from barley be had himself threshed and ground. Francis 
generally put ashes or water upon what he ale, even when it was 
only a little coarse bread.* Piers Ploughman aays, v. 40S6 : — 

■' Ac ancres and heremitea 

Thst ctcn nogbt but at noQCa, 

And na-mooic er the morwe^ 

Mjn almesne bKuI thu hare, 

And of catel to kepe hem with. 

That htui cloUtres and chiiches." 

These legends are many of them incredible, and nearly all of 
them absurd. The only meats from which the Christion is to 
abet^n are those offered to idols, and blood, and things strangled. 
— Acts IV. 29. We may eat "whatsoever is sold in the shambles ;'' 
and it is regarded by St. Paul aa the sign of " a departing from the 
faith,'' a giving heed to " seducing spirits and doctrines of devils," 
when men command us " to abstain from meats, which God hath 
created to be received with thanksgiving of them which believe and 
know the truth : for every creature of God is good, and nothing to 
be refused, if it be received with thanksgiving." — 1 Tim. iv. 3. 
The law of the Lord inculcates the relinquishment of certain kinds 
of food for an especial reason, and men make the law universal ; 
Ihcy forget the reason, and make a merit of the act. The word of 
Ood enjoins temperance, and man demands total abstinence. These 
&re perversions that may in some instances produce a temporary 
good, but they arc in danger of intlicting a permanent evil upon the 
church by setting another law above the revealed will of God. or by 
carrying out one branch uf that will to an undue estent, putting a 
part in place of the whole, and thus infringing God's prerogative as 

■ Alt>ui Builcr, pi 

: Professor Emerson, Andovcr, in the Bibliotheca 


the aupremc Icgielator. The religion of Christ ia one of clievrful- 
ncsa and hoi; juy ; the primitive bcltcTers " did eat their meut with 
(jUdneas of heart ; '' and tliough there is a good moral in tlie words 
of Herbert, wc muBt not allow the principle to rob us of uur privi- 
lege ■• to rejoice evermore : "— 

■• Take thf meat ; think it dmt : then i 
Andia; with all, Eutb to eoith I com 


Whilst jel in innocence, Adam slept ; and calm indeed muHl 
have been the midnight hour of Paradise. The repose of all urn- 
mate creation would be profound ; the beast as stiil in its slumber 
US the herbage upon which it reclined, or the llowtr that grew in 
beaut; b; the side of its lair. But the ancient ascetics regarded 
sleep aa a part of animality ihey were to throw off to aa great an 
extent aa possible. With some it would be difficult to accomplish 
this design, as those persona who have few cares to perplex, their 
minds are possessed of powers of sleep to which we whose lot has 
been cast in this restless generation muet ever be utter strangers, 
The better informed among them would perhaps sometimes re- 
member that Adam was neither deprived of wedlock, nor food, nor 
speech, nor sleep ; and as they in their solitude were debarred from 
the former of these privileges, they would be lempted the more Co 
indulge in the fourth, and to say to themselves, " a little more sleep 
and a little more slumber," when the rule of their order or tlieir 
personal vow would call upon Ihem with its stem voice to arouse 
themselves and pray ; yet it is a bard task to resist sleep in some 
frames of the body, and the morning twilight would often see them 
nodding their heads like the bulrush when boned down by the 
wind, at a time when they ought to have been erect aa the trunk of 
the tree, blasted by the lightning and now decayed, into which they 
had crept nt cunset. 

In eastern climes the nights are so beautiful, and the bare ground 
so comfortable a place of rest, that in the Indian systems of asccti- 
rism we meet with little account of the modes of penance that an 
t'onnecliH) with sleep. It is an ordinance of the Dina Chariyawn 
thai the novice is to arise before lUylight. Tlicrc arc aixty hours 

X. SLEEP. 107 

in the day, according to the mode of reckoning in India, thirty of 
vrhicb belong to the night, which is divided into three watches 
of ten hours each. It is said that Qotama fiudha slept during one- 
third of the third watch, or three hours and one-third. In the first 
watch he preached or engaged in religious conversation ; in the 
second watch he answered questions put to him hy the dewas ; and 
in the first division of the third watch he slept, in the second exer- 
cised meditation, and in the third looked abroad in the world with 
bis divine eyes to see whut being or beings it would be proper to 
catch in the net of truth during the day.* 

The last of the Thirteen Ordinances is called N^sajjikanga, which 
is the same as nisajja, ni being a particle of emphasis, and sajjika 
the act of sitting. He who keeps this ordinance may not lie down 
to sleep, and during the whole of one watch of the night he must 
walk about. He may not recline at full length, but may walk, or 
stand, or sit. The priest who keeps the superior ordinance may 
not lean on any place, or make his robe into a seat, or take bold of 
a piece of cloth fastened to a tree. He who keeps the middle ordi- 
nance is allowed to make use of any of these assistances. He who 
keeps the inferior ordinance may make seats (in particular ways 
that are mentioned). None of the three are permitted to lie down. 

The last of the Twelve Sacred Ordinances of the Chinese is called 
naichadika. It prohibits tbc mendicant irom lying down. A seated 
position is that which comports best with his design. His diges- 
tion and respiration are easily earned on, and he can bend his mind 
to that which is wise. Indolence leaves itself open to be attacked 
by rice, that seizes its advantage. The mendicant ought therefore 
to take his repose sitting, and his body ought not to touch the 

This mode of penance has probably been carried to a greater 
extent by the Brahmana than by any other order of ascetics. And 
in their case it is not an incredible talc upon which we have to de- 
pend; they Bie presented before our eyes in vast numbers, with 
bodies and members so dry and withered, that they cannot have 
been brought to such a state without the practice of the most p^- 
ful austerities. But it is the recluse alone who is called upon to 
endure lliese hardships. According to the sage Aurva, the house- 
holder. " after eating his evening meal, and, having washed his feet, 
is to go to rest. His bed is to be entire, and made of wood ; it is 

■ Amdwatura. 

t K*niii»at'« RplMinn. 


not to be scanty, not cracked, nor uneTen, nor dirty, nor infested 
liy insects, nor without a liedding ; and lie is to sleep with his 
head cither to the east or to the south ; any other position is un- 
healthy." • 

There wu an order of monks called &icoifirp-oi, inaomncs, the 
flleepless ; and by other monks the same austerities were observed. 
One was called Kectus, from standing erect until his legs refused 
to hold him up any longer. Chrysostom persisted in remaining in 
a stsnding posture so long, that with this and other exercises he 
rained his health. Anthony was accustomed to remain whole 
nights without sleep. Paul, the hermit, never lay down to sleep, 
but only leaned his head against a stunc or tree. John, of Old 
Castile, only slept two or tbree hours in the night. Peter of 
Alcantara, knelt a great part of the night, sometimes leaning on 
his heels for a little rest; but he slept sitting, leaning his bead 
a);ainst a wall. Pallodius neither stretched out his legs not lay 
down to sleep; the night through he sat erect at his work of pint- 
ting ropes, and sleeping only in a doze at his meals ; an angel might 
be persuaded to sleep, but not he. Macarius continued abroad 
during twenty days and twenty nights, in order to conquer his pro- 
pensity ta sleep, until he was in danger of going mad ; he remained 
erect during the forty days of Lent, neither bending the knee, nor 
sitting, nor lying down. The Ethiopian Moses persisted six years 
in standing erect the night through, never closing his eyes. Daniel, 
the Stylite, supported himself against the balustrade of bis pillar, 
until, by continually standing, his legs and feet became swollen 
and full of ulcers. On one occasion, in the winter, he was found 
Eo stiff with cold, tliat his disciples had to soak some sponges in 
worm water, and rub him therewith, before he could be revived. 
Nor has otir own country been without saints of the same order. 
Cuthbert was accustomed to spend whole nights in prayer ; and to 
resist sleep he walked about the island in which he lived — Landis- 
farno. One night he was seen to go down to the sea-shore, where 
he went into the water until it reached his arm-pits, and continued 
there until the break of day, singing tlie praises of God. It is not 
aaid whether his position was affected by the tide. 

By the rule cf Basil, sleep was not to be continued after mid- 
night, the rest of the night betug devoted to prayer. Alexander, 
in 403, instituted the order of Akoemites, which dillcrcd from that 
■ WilH>n'i VuhDUputtma,309. 

XI. THE TONSl'HE. 109 

of BasO only in this rule, that each monastery was divided into 
different choirs, which, succeeding each other, continued the offices 
of the church day and night without interruption. Among the 
Cistercians, the monks, who slept in their habits upon straw, rose 
at midnight, and spent the rest of the night in singing the of&ces.* 


The prophet of Israel made use of a very significant figure to 
describe the calamities that were about to orerlake his countrymen 
for their sins, when he said that, instead of *' well-set hBir"'there 
should be haldness. The right arrangement of the hair tells of 
comfort and ease, and betokens a sense of the proprieties of social 
existence ; whilst, if left in disorder, it tells with a voice equally 
truthful of carelessness or calamity. It is a great addition to the 
grace or dignity of the human form ; and whether we see it in 
flowing ringlets upoa the necks of children, or in Ihe modest tresses 
of the matron as she walks in comeliness, or in the scanty locks 
upon the head of the aged, white as the falling snow, the appear- 
ance that it presents is in unison with the circumstances of the in- 
dividual, and therefore beautiful, We cannot wonder, then, that 
Uie hair has been an especial object of dislike to the gloomy foun- 
ders of all monastic institutions ; and that they have been un- 
sparing in their demand that it should either be entirely removed, 
or deprived of aU its grace. 

But in some instances there have been other motives for its re- 
moval. It has been supposed that it would promote the cleanliness 
of the person, or that, as it is a mere earthly excrescence, the body 
is more pure, and partakes more of divinity, when free from its 
presence. It is said that the Hebrew priests shaved ofl' all their 
hiwr when inaugurated, and that when on duty they cut it every 
fortnight. They were not allowed, in cases of mourning, to make 
baldness upon their head, nor lo shave off the comer of the beard — 
Lev, ssi. 5. The passage, " Uncover not your heads," Lev. x. 6, 
is by many of the Jews translated, '■ Let not the hair of your head 
grow," as was sometimes the custom of mourners. They supposed 
that this law, except in the case of the higli priest, was only binding 
* HoBpinioo, Gicslcr, and Albtu Butler, iiauiui. 


iliiring Ihc period of their miniatralioii. It i» remarkable that, 
in tlie t>nly rile approftching to aiiccticism in use among the 
Israelites, the Nazaritc was required to allow hia hair to grow long. 
Thu Egyptian priests every third day shaved every part of their 
bodies, to prevent vermin or any other species of impurity from 
adhering to their persoDB when engaged in their sacred duties. 
Hence Pluiarch. in his exhortation to the priestess of Isis, says, 
"As the long robe and ihc mantle do not make a philosopher, 
neither does the linen garb and shaven head constitute a priest of 
Isia." Tlie learned Origen was once shaved by hia perscculorB, 
when in Alexandria, and taken to the temple of Serapis, that he 
might be induced to join in an act of idolatry aa u priest. 

Among other nations the hair has been cut off for different rea- 
sons : — as a sacrifice ; at marriage ; after escape from imminent 
danger ; after a campaign ; on the day of consecration ; and as a 
token of mourning. Sappho (epigram ii.) says of Timas, 

" Her luvcd conipanionA pay the rites of woe, 
AU, all, bIob ! the living can bestow ; 
From thcEir &ir hcods the gracelul locks they Kheor. 
Place on her V>mb, and drop the teodei toar." 

Faicketi Sappho. 

The hair of Achilles was dedicated to the river-god, Spercheius. 
In honour of the Hyperborean virgins (Herod, iii. 34) who died at 
Dclofl, the Delian youths of both sexes celebrated certain rites, in 
which they cut off their bair. This was done by virgins previous 
to their mnrriage, who wound their hair round a spindle, and by the 
yoimg men, who wound it round a terlaia herb, and placed it upon 
thf strangers* tomb. The Spartan ephors. on entering upon office, 
issued a kind of edict, in which it was ordered "to shave the beard. 
fivaTai, and obey the laws," the former being a metaphorical ex? 
prension for subjection and obedience. At Sparta the beard was 
conaidercd as a niark of freedom, as well as at Byxantium and 
Rhodes, where shaving waa prohibited by ancient kws.* The 
•laves were shaved as a mark of scrriludc. The hair of the vestal 
virgins was cut off. probably at the time of their conMcration. 

Among the Scandinavians it was a mark of infamy to cut off the 

hair. The Dutch, when in possession of Ceylon, adopted this cub- 

toni as a mode of punishment, which was continued by the English ; 

• V. O. Mtiller'snisloryorthc Dorians. 

but when it was found tliat on this account the native soldiers rc- 
fuseil to have ibcit hair cut, it woa no longer adopted. 

From Bome of the above customs originated the tonsure, tliat 
deaiipiated the clerical or monastic slate among Christians. In the 
early church, male penitents were required to cut off their hair Euid 
■have their beards, in token of contrition ; and fomales had to ap- 
pear with their hair in disorder. But the old eccIeBiastica] rules 
expressly enjoined the clergy (Constit. A])ost. lib. i. c. 3) to wear 
their hair and beards long.* It is said by Alban Butler (Oct, 12) 
that the tonsure was introduced in the fourth or fifth century, after 
the persccutionB had ceased. The first locks were sometimes cut 
off by the king or some other great porsonage. In the eighth cen- 
tury Ihere were three varieties of tonsure t the Greek, in which ihe 
entire top of the head was shaven; the Itoman, in a circular form, 
in imitation of the crown of thoms ; and that of St. Paul, or the 
oriental, from the forehead to the crown. It is supposed that the 
custom among the British monks was to have the hair cut in the 
fore part of the head, in a semicircle, from ear to ear.i' To say 
that man waa shaven, was equivalent to saying that he had be- 
come a priest or monk. When Wilfrid was admitted among the 
clergy, by receiving the tonsure, but not any holy order. Bede says 
aimply. " AtlonsuB est," which Alfred translated, "He was shorn 
to priest." X Hilarion was accustomed to cut his hair once yearly, 
a lilllc before Easter. It was the custom in the community of 
Aicard, a French saint, for every monk to shave his crown on the 
Saturday. Tlte founder having Aice been hindred on the Saturday 
from performing the usual operation, began to shuve himself very 
early on the Sunday morning; hut ho was touched with remorse, 
and is said to have seen in a vision a devil picking up every hair 
he had cut off at this forbidden hour, to produce against him at the 
judgment seat of Ood. The aunt of Eustocbium. whose history is 
related by Jerome (Dc Virgin, ct ep. 22. 26, 27), having caused 
her hair to be gracefully curled, after the fashion of Ihe times, a 
terrible angel appeared to her the following night, threatening her 
severely for having attempted to instil vanity into one who was 
consecrated as the spouse of Christ. The Capuohins wear their 
brarde, nut shaved close, hut long and not clipped- Francis wore 
a beard, but it was very short, and hia followers, who had long 


beards, were commaniled lo shave Ihcm.* The TcmplarB, among 
alher peculiarities of their institute, were commanded to wear their 
beards long- It is said of Chaucer's Monk, that 

" Hll bed was balled, and ahone as any glaa." 

The Institutes of Manu contain the following regulations on the 
■abject of the hair. " By the toosure of the child's head, with a 
lode of hail left on it ... are the seminal and uterine taints of the 
three classes wholly removed. . . . hy the command of the Veda, 
the ceremony of the tonsure ahould be legally [)crformed by the 
first three cbiasea in the first or third year after birlh.t . - . The 
ceremony of k^sauta, or cutting off the hair, is ordained for a 
priest in the sixteenth year after conception ; for a soldier, in the 
twenty- second; for a merchant, two years later than that. . . . Sudras, 
engaged In religious duties, must perform each month the cere- 
mony of shaving their heads. . . . Ignominious tonsure is ordained, 
instead of capital punishment, for an adulterer of the priestly class. 
where the punishment of other classes may extend to loss of life.'' [ 
The god Siva is represented as having matted hair; and the jatala 
ascetics among the Btahmans, wear their hair clotted together in 
inextncable involutions. 

Among the Budhista, the priest, from the commencement of his 
noviciate, is shaved ; and he is provided with a raKor, ns one of the 
eight articles he is allowed to possess, in order that his tonsure 
may be regularly performed. The law is, that the hair is not to be 
permitted to grow to a greater length than two inches ; but it is 
the usual custom to shave once every fortnijjht. The priesta share 
each other, but it is not forbidden to have the operation performed 
by a laic. Among the Brahmans no one is allowed (Manu, Inst, 
iv. 9) to cut his own hair or nails. Until the year 1266. the monks 
of St. Augustine's, Canterbury, were accustomed to shave one 
another in the cloister; but frequent injuries ensuing through their 
awkwardness in that office, secular persons were hired. In some 
instances tlie camcrarius provided razors and towels for the monks, 
and they were shaved by the infirmorius. In the Sempringham 

* Albui BuiIft, poaum. 

t 'riin« and »«m>iu, and the phMca of the moon, are closely otKerrcd in 
tli« FjrUlr, Lmcachire, when the ftrat operation of rutting the infant's nails 
nnd hair is to be perfimned, which for a whole year axe carefully guarded 
from the HJaaora. 

I Inst. ii. 37, 3a, 05 ; T. 140 ; viii. 3TS, 


nJe the canons were shaved serenleen times per annum ; but one 
of the Inquirendu of Henry's visitors was, "Wbeiher je bee 
wjckcly sliaven?" Shaving the beard began about the year 1200. 
lest the eucbtirist should be dctiled by it.* 

The priests of Budha never put a covering upon the head in 
Ceylon, though this custom appears not to be followed in other 
eountricB where the same religion is professed. They walk out 
uncovered, with the bald crown exposed to the fiercest beam of a 
tropical sun, but without appciiring to feci any ill effect in conse- 
quence. It 18 said by Herodotus (iii. 12), that after a battle be- 
tween tlic Persians and Egyptians, it was found that the skulls of 
the Egyptians were ao hard, that a alone would scarcely break 
them ; whilst those of the Persiuns were so soft, that they might 
be broken or pierced through with the greatest ease. The former 
were accustomed from their infancy lo have their heads shaved, 
and go uncovered ; whilst ihc latter always wore some form of 
head-dress. Hence it would appear that the skull, from exposure. 
becomes crass and callous. 

In ihe tnetnphysical drama, called Prahodha-ehandra-udaya, a 
liiidhist is addressed thus: — " Ahal sinner that thou art, vilest of 
heretics, with thy shaven crown, drest like the lowest oiitcasles — 
uncombed one — away with thee '." f 

There are fifteen evils connected with the growth of the hair, 
8Ucl) as that it must he ornamented, anointed, washed, perfumed, 
puiified, unloosed, tied, combed, curled, unknotted, and freed from 
vermin : and when it begins lo fall off, there ia regret. But the 
freedom from care and trouble is not the only advantage to be 
guned by cutting off the hair.J When the haii of the priest, or 
bis nails, are suffered to grow long, his robe is dirty and full of 
boles, the perspiration is allowed to remain upon hi» body, and his 
various requisites are covered with filth, his mind will partake of 
the same undeanness. When the lamp, or the oil. ot the wick, are 
not free from liirl, tlie light that is given is not clear; in like man- 
ner, when the mind is unclean, the truths necessary to be known 
cannot be discovered, and the rites of asceticism cannot be pro- 
perly ezerciKed. But when the body is clean, the mind partakes 
of the same purity ; and as the lamp, oil, and wick, when free from 
dirt, give a clear littht, so the mind that is pure can discern the 
truth*, and exercise the tIick in n proper mnnncr.g 

i ^ 


The use of dress la one of the consequencet of sin ; and though 
at its first adoption it was Intended only as " the veil of shame," it 
haa since been made the inetrument of much evil, by ministering 
to pride and passion. Hence the wish of nearly all uscedca lo 
prevent this evil, either by returning to the simplicity of man in 
innocence, or by making the garment of scanty dimensions, or by 
adopting a dress of mean appearance, coarse, rough and ragged. 

The precepts given in the Patimokkhan relative to the dress of 
the priest of Budha are numerous. He is permilted to have three 
robes,* called reapectively sangba^ya, uttarasanggaya, and anlara- 
vrasakaya, and is not allowed to retain an extra robe more than ten 
days ; the whole three arc always to be in bis possession, unless 
danger be apprehended, in which case he may leave one robe in the 
village, but not more than six days, unless specially permitted. 
When cloth is received for a new robe it must be made up without 
delay ; and when it is insufScient for the making of a robe, it may 
not be kept longer than a month, even when waiting for so much as 
is required to complete il ; unless when the robe has been stolen 
or aecidentallf destroyed, another robe is not to be solicited from 
any one ; when given under these ctr cum stances, he is only to re- 
ceive two ; no priest shall persuade any one to collect money to 
purchase for him a rube ; no robe that the giver has previously 
been requested to present may be received ; the priest may not 
take money from the messenger of a king or other great person for 
tlic purchiue of a robe, but the money may be given to some one 
else : and when the priest wants a robe he may go thrice to that 
poison, and remind him that a robe is required, and if not then 
given, he may thrice try to obtain it hy standing in silence ; but if 
still refused, he may not make any further eflbrl to procure it, 
except that he may inform the person who sent the money of the 
eitcumslance. A priest may not seek the extra robe allowed during 
the miny montlis before the last month of the hot season, nor have 
it made up before the Inst hnlf-monlh. WTien a priest has given a 
robe to another, he may not afterwards try to regain it, or have it 

* Thv word robe may ajipcai to be a mUuomcr m applied to the drM* of 
a Ituilhiit mctnUrauit : £ut it hul noi always the dignity umt is now attaehnl 
._ .-. M — ■-■'---rucallttllht ilreu of a ulava, niba gi ' 


taken avay ; he ma^ not ask for cotton thread, and then give it to 
a weaver to be made into doth for a robe ; when he knotvs that the 
weaver is making cloth for a robe, he may not go to bim and give 
instructions as to the manner in which be is lo make it, promising 
him a present. The time for making ihc offering of a robe being 
at the end of the rainy Benson, when waaa has been performed, the 
[■riesL may not receive a robe more than ten days prior to that 
period. When the priest obtains a new robe it must be disfifrured, 
by marks of mud or oiberwifie, before be puts it on ; he may not 
ftive his robe to another, withunt the regular form of investiture. 
When a robe has been given in the regular form, he is not to make 
a complaint that it has been given with partiality. No cloth shall 
be nsed as a covering for a sore that is more than two spans in 
breadth and foul in length. The priest may not wear in the rainy 
f>eiison a robe larger than six spans in length and two and a half in 
breadth ; and he is never to wear n robe as large or larger than the 
robe of Rudha, which was nine spans long and six broad (in each 
case the span of Budha being intended). The under robe is to be 
BO worn that no part of the body from the navel to the knee be ex- 
posed, and with the upper robe the body is to be covered from the 
shoulders to the heels. 

When the priest has forfeited a robe, on account of having kept 
it beyond the prescribed period, he is to deliver it up to a chapter. 
Approaching the assembly, and baring one of his shoulders, he 
worships the feet of the senior priests ; then, kneeling down or 
sitting on bis heels, he raises his clasped hands to his forehead, 
and lajrs that the robe has been forfeited, being an extra one, and 
kept longer than ten days. The robe is delivered lo the chapter, 
and another priest b appointed to receive it.* 

In the missive sent by the sanglia raja of Burma lo the priests of 
Ceylon, that hierarch dwells at length upon the necessity of great 
attention being paid " (o the proper adjustment of the robes, ' and 
t\aote» the following rules from the Sfkhiyawa; — "The precept 
(mght lo be observed that I should wear the upper robe so ns lo 
envelope the body. . . . The precept ought to be observed that I 
should enter the village or house, well covered with my robes." 
From the work called Khandakawatta, which ia said lo contain 
precepts taken from the Maha Waga and Chula Wnga l!ie follow- 
ing rule is taken : — " When the time is announced for the perfnrm- 
• GogeHr'tTianslntiiniaflhcPlitiniokkhan. 

r 2 


ance of kd; sacred dutf, every priest should enter ihe village in a 
quiet orderly manner, putting on the robe ao aa to conceal the 
three mandala. nr the parts of the body from the navel to the ankles, 
and envelope Ihe body, tying the waist-band, covering the body 
with the upper robe doubled, and tying the knot, taking in the band 
the alnts-bowl. after having properly washed it.'' And again, the 
rija proceed*. " Some persons erroneously think, that lo tie a band 
or sasb round tlie upper robe, to prevent it from flying off, ia not 
contrary to the Winaya ; but to show that this is a mistake, I qnotc 
the foUomnft passage Horn the Chula Waga: — "Priests, do not wear 
a girdle, not even a siring, round the small of the back : the priest 
who wears it is guilty of an offence requiring confcsaion and nbso- 

The physician Jiwaka having given two magnificent robes (o 
Ootama Budha ; the sage reflected that if the priests were allowed 
to receive robes of this description, they wonld be in danger from 
thicvea; and he therefore intimated this danger to his attendant. 
Ananda, who cut tbem into thirty pieces, and then sewed them to- 
gether in five divisions, so that the robe resembled the patches in a 
rice-field divided by embankments. On sceinjj this contrivance. 
Budha made a law that his priests should only have three robes al 
one time, and that they should always be composed of thirty pieces 
of cloth.* 

"When Ootama Bo'lbisat was the ascetic Sumedha. in the time of 
Dipankan Budha. he reflcctcd that there are nine objections to the 
garment of the laic. 1. It is too inagnificenl. 2. It must be re- 
ceived from some one. as it does not appear by itself, and cannot 
be found in the forest. 3. It soon becomes soiled. 4. It is soon 
worn away, or is otherwise destroyed. 5. It cannot bo procured ot 
any moment, just when it is required. 6. It is a thing of value. 
7. It may be stolen. 8. It enervates the body of the wearer. 9. 
It gives rise to evil desire. He also reflected that there are twelve 
advantages from weuring the garment of the ascetic (wik-chiwam. 
a covering made of bark, or of some other vegetable substance). 
1. It is plain. 2. Hiere is no necessity lo apply to any one. in 
order to procure it. 3. It can bo made by the ascetic's own hand. 
4. It does not soon become soiled. 5. Thieves will not notice it, 
6. It can easHy bo procured la any pkce. 7. It becomes tbc 
wfiirer. 8. It does oot give rise to evil desire. 9. It does not 

* I'l^liWBlifm. 

XII. TUE nAlllT. 117 

cause cove to usnesB. ]0. Ills readily put on. II. It requires no 
trouble lo procure it. 12. When evil desire haa been destroyed, it 
does not cause ils reproduction.* 

The robe Is to be put on by ihe priest as if it were a bandage to 
cover a sore, or a cloth to cover a skeleton ; and he must carry the 
alm«-bovrl as if it were a vessel of medicine. There are some 
priests who put on the robe as young men, or even as lewd women, 
put on their garments, lo attract attention ; but this is contrary to 
the precepts. It may be put on to keep off the snow, as by e.xlreme 
cold dtneose is produced, and the mind is prevented from exer- 
cisiug continued thought. Its principal advantage, however, is to 
cover the shame of the priest ; other benefits are occasional, but 
this is without intenaission. 

When invited to receive the offering of a robe, the priest may not 
say that he dues not desire it, that a few rags from the grave-yard 
will be sufficient for him, in order that he may receive the greater 
Inspect. By this means the people might be led to think that they 
will gain merit by giving to so holy a man, and thus be induced lo 
bring him many offerings ; and the priest who at first appeared so 
disinterested, will be led to ask for more and more, thus bringing 
discredit upon the truth. f 

The king of Kosala one day presented to each of his 500 tvives 
a splendid robe ; but they made an offering of them to Anandu, 
when he cume to the palace to say bana. The next day, as the 
king saw them in their former garmenlB, he enquired what Ihey had 
done with the robes ; when they said that they had presented them 
to Ananda. The king, in anger, asked if the priest wanted to sell 
them, and went immediately to the wihara to enquire into the 
matter ; but he spoke only to Ananda, and not to Budha, asking if 
Budha had not said that no priest was to have more than three 
robes. Ananda rejilied, " Yes, as his own property ; but he is to 
receive whatever is presented, in order that the giver may thereby 
obtain merit. On a certain occasion the priest Wonawasutissa re- 
cdved a thousand bowls of rice-milk, which he gave to aa many 
priests ; and at another time he received a thousand mantles, which 
he disposed of in a similar manner. In the same way I received 
the 500 Kasi robes from the queens, and gave them to as many 
priests whose robes were old." The king enquired what the priests 
did with their old robes, and Ananda said, that " after stitching 
* I'CijIiwaLjra. f Wuudhi Margga Samie. 


them ihey took them for loose wrappers. " The king : " What be- 
comes of ihe former wrappers ?" Ananda : " They cut away the 
old pierca, and taking the good pUcoa that are left, they make 
them into inner robes." The king : " What beeomea of the inner 
robea that have been cast off?" Ananda: "They spread them 
upon the ground, that they may sleep upon them at night." The 
king: "What becomes of the cloths upon which they slept pre- 
viously f" Ananda: "The priests spread them in the places where 
they dwell, to walk upon." The king : " What is done with the 
dotba npon which they formerly walked ?" Ananda ; " They 
make them into the rugs upon which they wipe ibeir feet." The 
king: " What becomes of the former rugs ?" Ananda: "They use 
them in preparing the clay of which their dwellings arc built." 
The king's anger was appeased by these answers ; and (o show his 
satisfaction he presented lo Ananda ^00 other robes of similar 
value, greatly praising the institutions of Budh;i," 

Tbe first of the Thirteen Ordinances is called Pansukulikanga. 
The word pansu means earth, and may here be used in reference 
to the cloth about which the ordinance is instituted, which must be 
taken from the earth or ground ; or it may be used as meaning 
anything mean or low. Tbe word kiila means a heap, collection, 
or bank ; it is also used for disgrace. Tbe garment of the priest is 
called pansukula ; the priest observing this ordinance is called 
pansukulika, and the observance itself pansukulikanga. The priest 
who keeps this ordinance rausl resolve, " I will not receive the 
garment given by a householder ; 1 will receive it only in ac- 
cordance with the precept." Thia precept forbids the receiving 
of any cloth for the making of a garment that has not been found 
under one or other of the following circumstances : — The cloth that 
has been thrown into a burial-ground, or thrown away in the bazaar, 
or thrown out of a window with the intention of acquiring merit ; 
the cloth used for the purification of a woman in childbirth ; the 
cloth thai a demon pncst has tied round his head on tlie perform- 
ance of some ceremony, and thrown awuy when going to bathe ; the 
cloth thrown away by a person after bathing ; the cloth thrown 
away by persons who have carried a corpse lo the pincc of sepul- 
ture ; the cloth eaten by cuttle, or white anls, or rata ; the cloth 
th&t has been partially burnt, and thrown away in consequence ; 
the cloth that ia lorn at the end ; the piece of clulh that is only a 
* PiijliwBliyii. 

Xlt. lUC HABIT. tl9 

shred or remnant ; the clolh that has been put up like a flog by 
persons vho have sailed away in a vessel, which may be taken after 
Ihey are out of sight ; the flag lied ia a. battle-field after the fight is 
done; the cloth put on an ant-hill with an offering to a demoa; the 
cloth that has belonged to a priest, or that has been used at the 
anointing of a king, or that has belonged to a, priest who is a riahi ; 
Ute dotli left in a road by mistake, after it has been seen that no 
one claims it ; the clolh carried away by the wind ; the cloth given 
by the d^was, like the one given to Anurudha; and the cloth cast 
on shore by the waves. Pieces of cloth that arc found in any of 
these twenty-three ways may be token by the priest for the making 
of his garment, and no other. There are three ways iu which this 
ordinance, sa well as the other dhutangaa, may be kept ; the supe- 
rior, the middle, and the inferior. The superior allows the clolh to 
be taken only from the place of sepulture. The middle onlinante 
allows the priest to take the garment that has been put for him by 
another priest, in any place. The inferior ordinance allows him to 
take a garment that has been put at his feet by another priest. 
The priest who receives a robe from a householder breaks this or- 
dinance ; but he may receive tt with the intention of giving it to 
another priest, without any fault. Even the things allowed are not 
in all cases to be taken. When the mother of the noble Tissa was 
confined, the cloth used at her purification, worth a hundred pieces 
of gold, was thrown into the street of Anuradbapura, called Jala-weli, 
under tke supposition that it would be taken by some priest ob- 
serving this ordinance ; but though it was seen by the priests, they 
did not take it, on account of its value. 

As Golama Budha, when he proclaimed that Kasyapa was Co be 
his successor, said, " Kisyupa, thou shatt wear my pansukula robe." 
we may learn that the garment of the great sage was of this mean 
description. We may also infer from this expression that the re- 
ception of (he habit of any public teacher was intended to convey 
the idea that the individual who received it had succeeded to the 
office of the person by whom it was previously worn. It may have 
been on this account that Etisha " took up the mantle of Elijah, 
that fell from him," at his glorious removal to the company of tbe 
ever happy. — 2 Kings ii. 13. 

The seventh of the Twelve Sacred Observances of the Chinese is 
said to teach that the mendicant ought not to wish for any kind of 
omnmcnl ; he is not to look for sumptuous habits, but to take those 


which are lom and lutlervd, tind have been lojectcd by utbein. 
These he waiilies und cleanN, and makes them inio patched gar- 
nents. solely to protect him from the cold and cover his nakeilnesa, 
New (tarments and bcnuliful habits give rise to the desire of re- 
newed existence, and agitate the mind ; they alno attract thieves." 

The second of the Tliirieeo Ordinancex is culled Techiwarakaiiga, 
from t^, tlircr, and cbiwura,. a robe. I'he three robes ore the one 
undcrueath, the one oulajde. and the §angAla that covers all (an- 
BWeriug to the peribolaciii, which the Gfingram canons obscn'O tvns 
u»ed by the ascetica). The priest who observes this ordinance can- 
not possess more tbon three robes at one time; if he possesses a 
fourth, the ordinance is broken. When cloth for the robes is re- 
ceived it may be put by for future use, if there be no tailor, or no 
thread, or no needle, until they can be met with : but it must be 
mode up ul the first opportunity that presents itself. If an old robe 
be cast away merely that a new one may be received, though the 
ordinance in not broken thereby, its spirit is disregarded. The 
priest who keeps the superior ordinance may put on one robe whilst 
the two others are dyed, if he lives near a village ; but if he lives in 
the forest, he must dye all the three at the same time, and rcmaiii 
in the interval without clothing ; yet, should any one approach, he 
must Iflke one of the robes from the dye and put it on. The middle 
ordinance allow* a robe to be put on during tlic process of dying, 
but the robe for this puqnise must be one that was previously in the 
dye, imd ao other vun be taken. The inferior ordiuunce allows the 
robe of anotlier priest, or any common cloth, to be put on, whiUt 
his own are in the dye ; but it may not be retained when the pro- 
cess is done : he may neverthcleaa possess a piece of cloth like a 
sheet without breaking the precejil. In addition to the three n>lH-s, 
the priest rnay not poiseas any other garnieiit ; but be may have a 
ilal-koda, for the purpume of denning the Icelh, If il be not more 
than a span bnuul and three cubit* long. 

The cigtith of the Twelve Sacicd Observances of the Chinese is 
culled troitchivarika, which signifies that the mendicant is to con- 
tent himself with the kin cha of nine, seven, or five pieces, fic 
hju few desires, and is easily latirfied. He wishes neither for loo 
ranch nor loo little clothing. He b ccjuolly dixlant from those who 
a white, and have a number of habit*, and the heretics 
tnliicly nuked ; both the uno and the other excess is 

* HcDiaau'a UulatHin ikn IC-iyuiUiiiw IlnuiUlui|Ui». 


avoided : the three haliits dre a just medium. As for the leat. the 
word kin cba Bigiiifiea, of different cotuurs, on account of the pieces 
that form the habit of the tirst, second, and third order. 

The tliree robes are said b; Klaproth lo be called in Chinese — 1. 
Seng kia li [sanghat'i), meaning " reuni" or " double," 2. Yu lo 
lo seng ^outtaraBa[igh4l'i) meaning " habit de dessus." 3. An tho 
hoei (anlaravasaka) meaning " habit de dessous." The first is used 
when riaiting the palaces of kings and other public places ; the 
second, when conducting worship or preaching ; and the third, when 
in the interior of the dwelling.* 

In Burma the priests observe oiJy one part of the law. They 
■ear the cloth into a great number of pieces, but take care that it 
shall be of the finest quality. f 

The month succeeding the three months of the rain; season, in 
which wass is performed, is called in Ceylon chiwara-maaa, or the 
robe-month. At this time the people purchase one or more pieces 
of cloth, according to their circumstances, which they present to the 
priests. The cloth for this purpose is called katina. It cannot be 
received except by u chapter, which must be constituted of at least 
five priests. When the clolh is offered, the priests hold a conver- 
sation among each other, and enquire, " Which of us stands in need 
of a robe?" The priest who is most in need of a garment ought 
now to make known his want ; but this rule is not attended to, as 
the priest who has rend the sacred books, or expounded them, 
during the performjnce of wass, whether tlic mast de.'ilitulc or not, 
uauaUy receiver the robe. The priest respectfully asks the rest of 
the chapter to partake of the merits produced by the offering. The 
uHsembled priests, a8siHtc<l by the lay devotees, make the cloth into 
a robe, and dye it yellow; the whole of which process roust be 
concluded in sixty hours, at a natural day. 

On some occasions the robe is manufactuied throughout, from 
the raw material, in the same space of time. The hojl where the 
bona is read is seen filled with women, sitting upon the ground ; 
«omo bring in the collon from the tree, or free it from the pod, 
whilst others prepare it for the spinners, who moke it into jam ; it 
is then handed over to the weavers, who sit outside with their 
simple looms, and make it into clolh. In the evening of the same 
day the cloth b received by the jiriest^, who stitch it into a robe. 
I. l(j. 


aiid dye il the prescribed colour. Thia cuslom is more practised in 
llic maritime provinces than in the interior of the island. It is not 
an ordinance u! Uudha. The Egyptian priests had a garment woven 
in one day when they observed the festival in memory of the return 
of IlatnpsinituB from the infernal regions. — Herod ti. 123. Tbe 
magic standard of tbe ancient Danes was al»o woven and embroi- 
dered by royal hands in one noon-tide- 

The regulations made by Gotama upon the subject of dress, were 
probably in part intended to set aside the custom that appears to 
have prevailed throughout India in the age in which he lived, for 
the ascetics to be entirely destitute of clothing. When Alexander 
arrived at Taxila, he met with the gymnosophiats, and was surprised 
at their extraordinary patience in the endurance of pain. It is re- 
lated by Plutarch that when Onesicritus was sent to desire some 
of them to come and see the monarch, Calamus commanded him to 
■trip, and hear what he said naked, othcnvise he would not speak 
to him, though he wore even a divine being. Some of the ancient 
ascetics of the west were contented with a costume equally primi- 
tive. Wlicn Zosimus had been in the Arabian desert about twenty 
days, he one day saw a strange figure, like a human being, with 
short whitfi hair, but extremely sunburnt. Thinking it was some 
holy anchoret, he ran after the figure, when a voice said to him, 
•■ Abbot Zosimua, I am a woman ; throw me your mantle." After 
covering herself, the woman, who proved to be Mary, of Egypt, 
lud that she had lived in the desert forty-HCVcn years, and in that 
period had not seen a single human being. There were other 
■nints who had no other covering but their own hair ; as was said 
of one of these wortlues, " nuditatem suam divino munerc ves- 

It is expressly stated by Gotama that one purpose of the robe is 
lo preserve the {iriest's body horn the attacks of musquitoes. 
Hence, in Budhialical works we meet with no such narratives a.s 
that which is related of Macarius. This great anchoret having one 
day killed a gnat that had billen him in his cell, ai a penance he 
hastened to the marches, that abounded with flies that could pene- 
trate the thick ikinof the wild boar, and there remained si.t months, 
until hia body was so much disfigured with sores and swellings 
that he could only be recognised by his voice. Bernard acted a 
wiser part ; when his monastery was troubled by swarms of flies, he 
excommunicated tliem, and they all died. \Vhen Gotams retired lo 

Xlt. THE HABIT. 123 

the shade of the midella tr^e, at the time he received the supreme 
Budhaithip, there was a. Btorm of wind and rain ; but a snake-god, 
Muchalinda, came and entwined himself seven times round the body 
of the sage, extending hla large hood over his head, and saying, 
" Let not Bagawa be afiected by cold, or heat, or flies, or gnats, or 
wind, or sunbeams, or insects." Gotama accepted his protection, 
until the storm had passed away. In the native paintings that re- 
present the sage in this poailian, his general appearance greatly 
resembles that of a monk ensconced in his hood. 

Il was customary, at an early period, for those Christians who 
assumed an ascetic course of life, to put on the pallium of the an- 
cient philosophers. The monks of Egypt, according to Cassian, 
wore a mean habit, merely enough to cover their nakedness, with 
short slc-evea. Libanius (Haeres. xlvi. c. 1) calls them "black- 
coat monks." The dress of Anthony was hair-cloth within and 
sheepskin without, which he never changed ; but no one saw him 
naked until his death. He bequeathed one sheepskin to Alhana- 
sius, with an old blanket; another to Serapion: and his hair.clotb 
to his attendant. HUarion never changed his sackcloth until it was 
worn out, and never washed it, saying that it is idle to look for 
neatness in a hair-shirt. The covering of Paul, the hermit, was 
made of the leaves of the palm-tree. John, of Alexandria, had 
a valuable blanket sent to him, hut he used it only for one nighl, 
and the next day sold it and gave the price to the poor. When 
others were given to him, he acted in the same manner. Basil had 
only one tunic and one coat. Bruno had only one coarse habit, 
When Aphraatcs was once ofiered a garment, he said that he had 
only one, which he had worn sixteen years, and he was not willing 
to have two at the same time, or to exchange an old and faithful 
servant for a new one. The dress of Oermanus was the same in 
winter as summer, and was never changed until it waa worn to 
pieces. Thomas, when made archbishop of Valentia, kept for 
some years the habit he had worn in the monastery, which be con. 
tinned to mend with his own hand. On the day when Francis re- 
nounced the world, he stripped himself of his clothes, in the fer- 
vour of his zeal ; and when the cloak of a country labourer working 
for the bishop of Assize was brought, he cheerfully put it on, making 
upon it a cross with chalk or mortar. Afterwords he contented him- 
self with one poor cout, which he girt about with a cord ; and this 
habit, which was the dress of the poor shepherds and peasants, he 


g&ve tu bis fuUowers, with a short clouk iivct the shouldera, anil a 
houd to cover the head. When his rough giirmcnt becume loo soft, 
ho sewed it with (lacklhrcad. When he fouod that his vicar- 
gi'neral had pul on a habit of finer mntcriul than ihe oihcr I'riurs, 
and adopiod other novelties, ho deposed him from office. Peter, of 
.Ucantara, never wore any other garraent but a habit of thick coarse 
sackcloth, with o short cloak. When the weather wa* very cold 
he left the door and win<l»iv of his cell open, and took off his man- 
tle, that when he again put it on and closed his door, hta body 
might he refreshed with the warmth. Tho habit of Colette was of 
the coarsest description and made of more than a hundred patches 
sewed together. Turgesiua, abbot of Kirkstall. in Yorkshire, was 
always clad in hair-cloth, frequently repealing to himself, " lliey 
nho are clad in toft raiment arc in kings' bouses." 

The various orden of monks were known by their dress, as each 
had some difference cither in the shape or colour of the garment. 
Their most common appellation was frequently from the colour of 
their dress, as the Black and White Friars, and the Pied Triars, or 
Fralrea de Pica, who were so called from their outer garment, which 
was black and white, like a magpie. The dresses of the monks 
were sometimes costly. In 1478. the sum of £5 was paid for the 
hahit of the abbot of Whallcy, and £39 for the habits of the monks, 
who were about twenty in number. Master William de Siowe, 
aacrist of Eveshnra, acquired four copes, one of clolh of gold, very 
fine, another of red velvet with pearls, a third of ttd satin of the 
best kind, and a fourth also of red $atin with flowers of gold ; he 
also proi-ured three albs, one of which had a representation of ihe 
Deity in gold work, with the heads of the apostles aUo in gold. 

Tho Egyptian priests, as well as the I'yihagoreans and Essencs, 
wore white garments ; and were confined to one particular mode of 
dresa. The garb of the earlier Christian asc«tics waa also while. 
The monks with whom Chrysostom associated had garments matic 
of the rough hair of goats or camels, or cif ohi skins. The followers 
of Gregory Naxiaiixen had only one cloak, nuide of sackcloth. The 
monka of Pachumiua wore on their shoulders a white goatskin. 
called a mcloles ; llieir tunic was of white lincu, without ■Icevca. 
with a cowl of tho name material. According to the rule of Uene- 
dict, the abbot wa» (o appoint the drcsa of the fraternity, and each 
brother wan to have two tunica, cowls, and icupularies, the best 
hctUj; worn when they went abroad. When inivclting tlicy wore 

breeches, but at other times thoir gown was to suffice. Their 
founder was indifferEnt to the colour, form, or quality of their dresR. 
but recommended that it should be adnpled to the climate, and 
similar to that of the lohouring poor ; when requisite it was to be 
mended with sacks and scraps. The Cislercen^ians exchanged the 
black habit of the Benedictines for a white one. The Janitareans 
wore a white habit, with a red and blue cross upon the breast. 
PclcT, the venerable, says of the Carthusians, that their dresa was 
meaner and poorer than that of other monks, and so short, scant}'. 
and rough, that the very sight was frightful. The Dominicans wear 
a white robe with a white hood, over which, when they go out, they 
put n black cloak with a black hood. Ignatius appointeil no other 
habit tban the one used by the clergy in his lime, that his disciples 
might be able the more readily to converse with persona of all 

Notwithstanding the example set by the more rigid of these asce- 
tics, and l!ie stringency of the monastic rules, there were many of 
the order who disregarded the institute, and even reverted to dis- 
honourable means to procure costly habits. Piers Ploughmun 

" I found there &ercB, 

All the four orders, 
prooehiag the people, 

For profit of hcmwlve. 
Closed the gospel, 

Aa hcxn good liked ; 
For covptise of copes 

Construed it as they would. 
Many of thcsv master frercs 

How cluthcD hem at llkint; ; 
For hir money and her merchandize 

Marchm togedors." 

The love of dress was an ancient evil among our countrymen, and 
even the inmates of our monastic establishments partook of the 
«ame principle. At the beginning of the ninth centurj-. Alcuin. in 
his letters to the rulers of the Anglo-Saxon monasteries, implored 
them " to prefer the virtues of their profession to the display of the 
hoods of silk, of bands round the wuisl, of rings on the finger, and 

who might plead, in e 
husbands ; but what 
dresB, whu arc liable 


of fillets round the feet."* As might be expected the piincipal 
difficulty was presented among the women. When Elhelwold, 
bishop of Winchester, saw at court the abbess Edith, daughter of 
king Edgar, in a splendid dress, he was so shocked that he said to 
her, " Daughter, the spouse whom you have chosen delights not in 
external pomp. It is the heart which he demands." " True, 
father," replied the abbess, " and my heart I have given to him. 
While he possesses it, be will not be ofiended with esternal pomp.'f 
To those who have been accustomed to regard the earlier ages of 
the church as the most pure, and its recluses as the holiest of man- 
kind, appeals like the following, from the pen of the martyr bishop 
of Carthage, must come with startling effect. " What do oma- 
menta mean, what means decking of the hair, except lo one who 
either has, or who is seeking, a husband ? . . . . Peter dehorts 
excessive ornamenting of their persons, 
e of Iheir fault, the will and Usie of their 
se can tirgins find for a like regard to 
o such interference ? , . . Thou, if thou 
goest abroad, sumptuously arrayed, alluring the eyes of youth, 
drawing after thee the sighs of admirers, fomentiug lawless pas- 
sions, and kindling the sparks of desire, and even, if not destroying 
thyself, destroying others, and presenting lo their bosoms a poisoned 
dagger, canst not excuse thyself on the pretence of preserving a 
mind pure and modest. Thy pretext is shamed by thy criminal 
nttire, and thy immodest decorations, nor sbouldest thou be reck- 
oned amongst the maids of Christ, who so livest as if willing lo 
caplivnle, and to bo loved by, another." J The monks had many 
maxims that were intended to teach tliem a better lesson. The 
following lines are from Old Rhymes of the Monastic Life, pub- 
lished by Fabricius, and quoted by Fosbroke, in his British Mo- 
nBchiBm :— 

<• UalienB veBtitiiin et rictum, 

I't fiTl ajKHtnli dictum. 

Nihil (jun-rag umpljiu, 

De colore df CBUMrris, 

ffi fit Tills lone Isterin, 
Bt Accrio lobrina. 
Dire ne £■ cauicMus, 
In vestitu, n»c guloaut 
In diveni* ciiulU." 

XII. THE ITAtllT. 127 

In some Budhialical countries there has been a similar departure 
from propriety ; but in lands where the fashions of dress change not, 
and each class or caste has its appropriate eostume, the temptations 
to this evil are leaa powerful in their influence. The garment now 
worn by the priests in Ceylon in entirely of a yellow colour, but 
there if< a considerable difference in the shade, the dress of some 
appearing as il' it were made of cloth that had been dyed by being 
steeped in the mud, whilst that worn by others is of silk, bright and 
glossy. A priest who frequently yiBitod me hod a silken vest that 
was presented lo him by the king of Siam ; and of this distinction. 
though an old man, he was not a little proud. The priests do not 
change their dress when proceeding to the performance of any 
ceremony, the usual robe being retained on all occasions. After the 
late rebellion in Ceylon, a priest who was aentenced to death for 
participation in the crime, having been shot in hia robes, the go- 
Ternor of the island was greatly blamed, in the House of Commons 
and by the press, for allowing the execution to take place in thi.? 
manner ; but I think, unjustly ; unless the priest expressed a wish 
to adopt another dress, and was forbidden by the authorities. No 
one had the right to deprive him of his robes, until he was degraded 
from office by (he superior priests; and it would probably have 
been regarded by him as an additional insult if an attempt had 
been made lo take tliem away at the lime of his esecution. The 
robes of the Burman priests are sometimes of woollen cloth, of 
European manufacture. The Tibetan priests wear silken vests, 
adorned with images, and have a lettered border of sacred texts 
woven into the scarf. 

The adoption of one particular mode of dress by the ascetics was 
attended by a pernicious consequence, as it was supposed that 
merit might be gained by putting it on, though it covered a heart 
full of all corruption. According to a tradition of the Carmelites, 
Simon Slock, the prior general, 1251, received the scapulary from 
the Virgin. " The Virgin appeared to me," Stock is made to say, 
" with a great retinue, and holding up the habit of the order, 
exclaimed, This shall he a privilege lo ihec and to the whole body 
of the Carmelites ; whosoever shall die in it will be preserved from 
the eternal flame." It was said by tome of the Franciscans that 
their sainted founder went down once a year to purgatory, and set 
free the souls of all whose bodies were buried in the habit of hia 

• r,imlpr>TrxlHimk, 


We have many proofs ihnl among the ancionls the use of omo- 
mcnts, gBTlands. perfumes, and unguenTs was carried to an extrava- 
gaol excess. In taking upon himself llic ten obligations, the |)ricst 
Mvs. according to the seventh. " I will observe the jirecept thnl. 
fotbidi) the Rilorning of the body with Howera or garlands, and the 
use of perfumes and utiguenta." In the Institutes of Monu (ii. 
178) there ir a similar command ; " let the brahmachari, or student 
in theology, abstain from chaplcts of llonerd.'' Uut this law ie not 
iJways binding, as we read again (Inst. iii. 3) ; '* ihe student 
having received from his natural or spiritual father the sacred gift 
of the Vpda, let him sit, before his nuptjala, on an elegant beil, 
decked with a garland of flowers." The use of garlands Has 
denied by Solon Id any of the Athenians who were proved to be 
cowards. Empedoklos, when saying that he was honoured by all, 
adds that lie was " covered with garlands." The oil wilh which 
Venus anointed ihe body of Hector was perfumed wilh roses. In 
Capua there was one great street called the Scplasia, which con- 
sisted entirely of shops in which ointments and perfumes were sold. 
Horace (Sat. i. v, 36)ridicules the pomposity of a municipal officer in 
the small town of Fundi, who had a shovel of red-hot charcoal carried 
before him in public, for the purpose of buniin^ on it frankincense 
nnd other odours. " The preparation of perfumes among the 
Israelites required great skill, and therefore formed a porticulor 
profession. The rokechim of Exod. xxs. 25, 3a ; Neh. iii. 8 : 
Eccles. X. 1, called apothecary in the autliorised version, was no 
other than a maker of perfumes. So strong were the better kinds 
of ointments, and so perfectly wer< 
stances amalgamated, (hat they ha' 
scent several hundred years, 
museum at Alnwick castle, contains some of tlie ancient Kgypliaii 
dntmeni, between two and three thousand years ohi, anil yel its 
odour remains."* That the number of ornaments then in use was 
excessive wcmay Icom from Isa. iii. 18 — 23. In the full dress of 
an eastern prince there were sixty-two different ornaments, ihc 
R&me* of which are on record. And in restricting the pHesIs to 
ihrcp robes of a prescribed kind. GuUmo may htt^o had in view the 
evils connected with a multiplicity of dresses. The Talmud enu- 
morateii oighlrcn several (garments that belonged to the clothing of 

KitUi'n (Yi-lupediu. an. I>,'ifiiiii>'. 

e the diflerent component «ub- 
ve been known to retain their 
! of Ihe alabaster vases in the 



The ftacetics had teas authority for their peculiarities with respect 
to clutMng than for some other of thcii eustoniH, as even the angels, 
whom they loved so much to imitate, arc represented us bfing 
clothed, when they \-isit our lower world, and as having - shining 
garments. " In the Scriptures there i* the some golden nie^n ob- 
served upon the subject of dress, that distinguishes the sacred 
record ^m all other writings. The garments of men and women 
are not to be of the same kind, Deui. uiii. 5 ; and exliavagance in 
dress is censured ; but no restrictions aic enforced that would he 
oppressive to the wearer, or make him an object of ridicule to the 
world. " I will," says the apostle Paul, '" thai women adorn them- 
selves in modest apparel, with sbaniefucedness and sobriety, not 
with braided hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly array ; but (which 
becomcth women profeasinR godliness) with good works." — 1 Tim. 
ii. 9. With which agreeth the admonition of the apostle Petor: — 
" Whose adorning, let it not be that outward adorning of plaiting 
the hair, and of wearing of gold, or of putting on of apparel ; but 
let it be the bidilen man of the heart, in that which l^ not corrup- 
^ble, eren the ornament of a meek and quiet spirit, which is in the 
■ig^tof Ood of great price." — 1 Peter iii. 4. 


Neither in the ten obligations binding upon the priest o( Budha, 
nor in the precepts of the Patimukkhan, is a residence in the forest 
insisted upon at a necessary privation. Gotama Budha, and the 
priests by whom he was usually accompanied, resided in wihara^t. 
Nevertheless, the importance of a complete abandonment of all the 
conveniences of social life is frequently inculcated in ibe sacred 
books ; and he is regarded as the sincerest recluse who resides In the 
wilderness, for away from the roof of a house, or even the umbra- 
geous canopy of a tree. The usual name by which the laic is desig- 
nalcd is that of graUapnti. meaning literally the ruler or chief of a 
house ; but the word house is here to be regarded as referring rather 
to the family than to the place of residence. Among the Singhalese 
the word wibara is now more generally used of the place where 
worship is conducted ; whilst the dwelling of the priest is called a 
. from pan, leaves, and sala, a dwelling, or a place to 


which any one is accustomed Ui reBurt, from a loot which signiiics 

Id ihe age of Uotama, the practice of nscctitism apiienrs to have 
prevailed throughout India in its moat ngorotis form, and to a 
gieaX extent. But Ly the institutions of Budba, the inlliclian uf 
self-torture is diBCOunltnanced ; nnd though some of the ordinances 
cannot bo observed without much painful suffering, the prinuiry 
idea in their appointment appears to have been that of privutJun 
and not of penance. Yet it was foreseen, or experience had already 
taught, that the enlhuxiaNm of vast msascs of celibates, frequently 
in solitude, but occasionally congregated for some common pur- 
pose, was too powerful an impulse to be brought under any ordinary 
mode of control; and therefore, whilst the calmer spirits were 
allowed the advantage of a contemplalive life, away from the temp- 
tations of ordinary existence, the fervour of individuals was directed 
into such a course, that it might he allowed the utmost extravagance 
of exercise, amidst the solitude of the wildemeAS, without pro. 
ducing any pernicious conBcquence beyond the personal limit of 
the ascetic. 

The apparent contradiction between the command given to the 
people to build wiharas, and the advice given to the priests In 
dwell in solitude, did not escape the notice of Mtlinda. The rejily 
of N4gas^na, when enquiry was made as to the reason of tliis 
anomaly, was to ihc following effect: — "The heuai of ihc foroat 
has no settled dwelling i he eata his food here or there, and lies 
down to ileep in whatever place be may happen to be ; and the 
faithful priest must in these respects be like him. But alill, from 
the building of wihuras there arc two advantttgcs. 1. It is on act 
that ho* been praised by all the Uudlios, und they who perform it 
will be released from sorrow and attain nirwdna. 2. \>'hen wih&nia 
are built tiie pHcstessea have an iip|)orlunity of seeing the priests 
(and receiving instruction). Thus there i* a reward for those 
who build dwellings for the priosta; but the &ithful priest will not 
prefer such a place for his residence." 

In n fonnifr age tlic ascetic Sumedha reflected that there are eight 
objections to n-nidlng in a house : — I. It causes much trouble in ita 
erection. 2. It re(]uircs continual repair. 9. Some more exalted 
pciBOnago may require iL 4. The persons living in it may be nu. 
merous. 0. It causes the body to become tender. 6. It affords 
opportunity for the commiasion of evil deeds. 7. It causes the 

silt. THE RtSIItEHCE. 131 

covetous thought. This is mine. 8. It harbours lice, bugs, und 
other veimin. He then reflected that there ue ten advantages to 
be derived from residing under a tree : — 1. Such a place can be 
found with ease. 2. It can be found in any locality. 3. When 
seeing the decay of the leaves, the priest is reminded of other un- 
permanences. 4. It does not cause any covetous thought. 5. It 
does not afford any opportunity for evil deeds. 6. It in not rc- 
ceired from another. 7. It is the residence of detvas. 8. It requircB 
no fence around it. 9. It promotes health. 10. As the ascetic 
can meet with it anywhere, it is not necessary for him to think that 
he will have to return lo the place he previously occupied.* 

T^Tien the priest resides in a fised habitation, there are many 
thing* that require his attention ; there are also many conveniences, 
mch OS access to good water; and all these things have a tendency 
to gain his affections, and induce the love of that which b connected 
with esistencc. But there are some priests to whom these things 
are not a snare, and who can use them without harm. There were 
two persons respectably connected who took the obligations of the 
prioathood at the wihara of Thiipardma, near AnurJdhapurs. One 
ofthem afterwards went to the forest of Pacbinakandoraja, where 
he resided five years. As he found it beneficial thus to live in 
solitude, he resolved to go and inform his friend of the adrantage 
he bad received, that he might be induced to enter upon the some 
course. \Vhen the day dawned, after his arrival at the wihara, he 
thought thus ; — '■ The people who assist the priests will now send 
them cakes and rice-gruel, and whatever else they require ;" but 
nothing of this kind took place. He then thought that as the 
people did not bring any food, the priests would go with the bowl 
to tlie city to receive alms. At the proper hour he accompanied 
hia friend to the city, and, though the food they received was 
trifling, they went to the appointed place and ate it. He now sup- 
posed that in a little time the people would be cooking their own 
rice, and that then the priests would be plentifully supplied. But 
the portion they received was small ; and they said tbat this was 
the quantity usually presented. The two priests afterwards set out 
to go to the forest ; but when they reached a potters' village in the 
w»y, it was found that the stranger had left at the wihSra his 
walking-stick, his cruse for holding oil, and the bag in which hu 
put his sandals ; but on mentioning this to the resident priest he 
• Ptljliwiiliya. 

Ituml tliul hill fiiend had ng earthly poftscBsioo whatever, as even 
the Hut and bed that he used belonged to the chapter. The priest 
from ihe forest then said that it would be of no benefit to such a 
pernon lo go to the aolitudc to which he hnd been invited, as all 
places nerc alike to him; whilst al Thupatama he had many pn- 
vilegcs : he wa* near the reties of Ibc Budhas j he could hear the 
trading of the bana at the Lohaprasada ; there were many dagobas ; 
he could nee many priests ; it was as though a nuprcme Budba were 
alive- Ho ihcrefore recommended his friend to remain where he 
was, and he returned to the forest alone. 

It is recommended ihat when sirsmawa, phlegm, or raoha, igno- 
rnnce. U in excess, the priest should reside in the open forest; when 
pita, bile, or dw6sa, anger, at the fool of a tree ; when wata, wind, 
or riga, ei-il desire, in an empty house." 

It is directed in the Paiimokkhun. that the residence of the prie.->t. 
if it be built for himself alone, shall he twelve span.% according to 
the span of Dudha in length, and seven in breadth, inside. The 
site must be chosen in a place that is free from vermin, snakes, 
wild beasts, Htc. that the life of the priest, or of those who resort to 
him, mny not he in danger, and that the destmclion of unlniid life 
niny not be caused b) ita erection. There must he a path around it 
wide enough for the ]>a8sage of a cart. Before pussessioa is taken 
a chapter of priests must see that it is not larger than the pre- 
scribed limits. Whether Ihe residence is intended for one priest or 
for many, this rule must he enforced. When the dwelling is erected 
the priest may direct materials to he brought two or three times 
from grounds nut under immediate cultivation, tliat the parts re- 
quiring stability may bo rendered firm ; but this number of times is 
not to be exceeded. 

In the time of Ootama Budhn, a priest who resided at Isigilla, 
near Uajagaha, having had his hut tlirice broken down by the 
inhabitants, and being a potter, prepared a house entirely of 
eorlb. Collecting grass, wood, and other combustibles, he bum) 
it thoroughly, so that it became of a beautiful red colour, appeared 
like a golden beetle, and was sonorous as a boll. But when Uudha 
saw il, ho leprimoiided him severely for having burnt the clay, 
witboul any feeling of compassion for the sentient beings he had 
destrojed during the operation, and commanded that it should ba 
broken down.t 

Tlic eighth of the Thirteen Ordinances is called Aranyakangn. 
The word aranya meaii^ a forest. The priest who keeps this ordi. 
oanec ctnuot reside near a village, hut inust remain in the forest. 
If there be a boundary to the village, or a wall, he niuat remain as 
fnr from it as a strong man can throw a stunc ; and if thete be no 
huundary, he must reckon from tlie place where the women of the 
last hou^e are accustomed to throw the water when they have 
washed their rcssels. If there be only u single «uggon or a soli- 
tary house, it must be regarded as a village ; whether there be a 
boundary or not, if there be people, or if people are intending to 
come, it is the same as a village. All places not coming under this 
destriptioQ may be considered as the forest. It is said in the Ab- 
hidharmma. that the forest begins at the distance of the length of 
SOU bows from the village. If a superior priest be siek, and that 
which is necessary for him cannot be obtained in the forest, he may 
be taken <o a village ; hut tlie priest who uteompanics him must 
leare before sunrise the nest morning; though his superior should 
even be dangerously ill, he canaot remain in the village to assist 
him. The priest who keeps the superior ordinance must always 
remain in the forest. He who keeps the middle ordinance may re- 
main in a village during the rainy season, in which wass is per- 
formed. He who keeps the inferior ordinance may remain in a 
village during the four months of the hot season, as well as during 
the four months of the rains. Whoeier enters u village to hear 
bana. and for this purpose alone, does not violate the rule ; but he 
must go away before sunrise, and may not remain when the buna is 
concluded. Biidha declared that the priest who resides In a forest 
bod hia respect. The recluse of the forest does not meet with those 
things that suggest what is improper to enter into the mind; he 
becomes free from fear, though living in solilude; tbo love of 
existence jiasses away, through bis being continually exposed to 
wild beasts and other dangers. Wliea at ii distance from men. 
there i* the true privilege of solitude, an advantage that even 6ekni 
does not receive. To him who lives thus, the second ordinance will 
be u n shield, and the rest of the ordinances as no many weaponi ; 
the forest will he as an arena of batik', and, as if in u chariot, ho 
win proceed to conquer Mara, or evil desire, 

l*be first uf the Twelve Sacred Observances of the Chinese is 
callod ■ lau ju (Arauyaka). according to which the mendicant ought 
always to dwell in a "lieu de repos, lieu trunquilte." It is the 


meaos of avoiding the troubles of the mind, of removing the dust 
of desire, of destroying the causes of revolt, and of obtaining tran- 
scendental wbdom.* 

The ninth of the Thiileen Ordinances is called Rukhumi'ililiaiiga. 
firom ndtha, a tree, and mula a root. The priest who keeps this 
ordinance must avoid all tiled bouses, and live at the root of a tree 
(tho root being defined to be the space nithin which the leaves fall 
on « cabn day, or on which the shadow of the tree falls at noon) ; 
but trees of the following kinds are prohibited : a tree at the limit 
of a couDtry; a tree in which any dewu resides who receives offer- 
ings from the people ; a tree whence gum is taken, or edible fruits 
are gathered ; a tree in which there are owls, or a hollow tree ; and 
a tree in the midst of the ground belonging to a wihara. The priest 
who keeps the superior ordinance may not live in a place that is 
pleaeani or agreeable. From the spot in which he resides he must 
pat away the leaves with his foot. He who keeps the middle or- 
dinance may live in a place prepared by otliers. He who keeps the 
inferior ordinance may call a novice to prepare a place for him, by 
sprinkling sand, and putting a fence round, as if it were a house. 
The priest must leave the tree, if ever there should be a fcatiTal 
near it. None of the three can live in a house without breaking 
the ordinance ; and it is also broken if the priest goes to any place 
where there is a concourse of people. When he sees the leaves 
falling be is to think of the impermanency of all things. This or- 
dinance was much commended by Qofama Budha. It was at the 
root of a tree that he received his birth, became Budha, preached 
his first sermon, and died. 

The tenth of the Twelve Sacred Obsorvaneea of the Chinese is 
called vrikchamoQllka. The mendicant who has not attained to 
wisdom amidst tho tombs ought to meditate under a tree, and there 
to search out reason, as did Budha, who accomplished under a tree 
th» principal circumstances of his Ufc-t 

The tenth of the Thirteen Ordinances is called Abbhokasikanga, 
from uhbhi, open, void, and okasa, space. The priest who keeps 
this ordinance may not live in a place where there arc people, or 
at the root of a tree ; but in an open space. He may enter the 
wihara to hear bana ; and ho may go to hcu bona, or ta say bana 
to another, tf called for that purpose ; aa may the priest who ob- 
MTTc* tho preceding ordinance. He may enter the refectory, or 
* Boniuat'* RcUtioii. T Ibid. 

XIII. THi: BEaiDESCK. 135 

the place where water is wanned for tlic priests to buliie, when 
going to bear or say bana ; he may aUo go inside to place a scat 
for a superior priest, if there be not one previously ; when going 
along the road, if he sees an aged priest carrying the alms-bowl, 
or any other requislle, he may carry it for him to relieve him, or 
eien for a young priest, if he he weak ; when it rains he may go 
for shelter to any place in the middle of the road, but he may not 
leave the rood for that purpose, nor is he allowed lo run ; but when 
carrying the requisites of another he may go quickly, and may seek 
a place of shelter, even though it be not in the middle of the road ; 
yel he may not remain when the rain is over. The same rules 
apply to the priest who observes the preceding ordinance. The 
priest who keeps the superior onlinance cannot live near a tree, or 
a rock, or a house ; hut in an open space he may put up hia robe as 
a screen. He who keeps the middle ordinance may remain under 
on Dverhangiog rock- He who keeps the Inferior ordinance may 
live in a cave into which the rain percolates, a threshing-floor when 
the people are gone, a shed made with leaves or with talipot, or a 
lodge made for the purpose of watching the rice-fields. Any of the 
three who lives in a place where there are people, or at the root of 
a tree, and not in an open space, breaks this ordinimce. 

The eleventh of the Twelve Sacred Obsenances of the Chinese is 
called Abhyavakashika. The mendicant, remaining under a tree, and 
partly covered by its shade, minds not the cold. It is true that the 
rain and faumidlty reach him, that the dung of birds defiles him, and 
that be is liable to he wounded by venomous beasts ; but he is at 
liberty to esercise meditation- Remaining upon the ground hia 
•pint is refreshed ; the shining of the moon seems to purify his 
mind; and be can more readily become entranced.* 

The eleventh of the Thirteen Ordinances is called Sos^nikanga. 
from BOs&aa, a cemetery, or place where the dead have been depo- 
sited, or w-here dead bodies have been burnt. The prie'it who 
keeps this ordinance must always reside in a cemetcr}', and it must 
not bo near a village. Until twelve years have passed over from 
the time a body is burnt, the place may be regarded as a sosana. 
The priest may not make a place like a court of ambulation, nor 
frame a hut ; he may not sit in a chair or recline on a couch ; and 
he is forbidden to provide water, as if it were a priest's regular 
dwelUng. This is a very difficult ordinance, and must be observed 
* HciDi»at'« Kclalioii. 


with much foiTowful determination. When walking, he mast turn 
hi* eye in part towards the cemelery ; and when he enters it, it 
inu«t not be by the principal road, but by an unfrequented bye- 
path- When walking in the day-lime, if he sees a tree or an ant- 
hill, hemmt mark what it i*, and he will ihennot be afraid of what 
he m«y see ot night. He may not cast stones at the devils he may 
■ee or heor. He may not remain away from the place a single 
night ; he must always be there at midnight, but at dawn may 
leave it 1 he must not eat any kind of food that is agreeable to the 
devils or that is made with sesamum, m^e, flour, flesh, or sugar (lest 
evil should befall him from the wish of the devils to possess these 
things for their own henetit) ; he must look out for the bones left 
by dogs and other animals. He may not enter any house, as he 
lives in the midst of the smoke arising from the funeral pile and of 
the Etench proceeding from dead bodies. The priest who keeps 
the superior ordinance is always to remain in some place where 
there is the burning of bodies, the stench of corruption, and weep- 
ing for the loss of friends. He who keeps the middle ordinance 
may remain in the place where there is any one of these three. He 
who keeps the inferior ordinance may remain in any place where a 
body has been deposited within the space of twelve years. The 
priest who remains away from the sosana a single night breaks thia 

The ninth of the Twelve Sacred Obgervancea of the Chinese is 
cnlled ■'m4»'iinika. To dwell among the lombs brings to the mind 
of the mendicant jUMt ideas relative to the three things that are the 
first gat© of the law of Foe. "1 'in stability, la douleur, et le vide." 
He here sees the sjwclaclc of death and of funerals. The putridity 
and corruption, the impurities of every kind, the funeral piles, the 
birds of prey, generate within him thoughts relative to the imper- 
manency of all things and hasten the progress of that which is 

The residences of the priests in Ceylon are uaually moan erec- 
tions, being built of wattle, filled up with mud, whilst the roof is 
covered with straw, or the platted leaves of the cocoo-nut tree. 
Their rcvidenccs in Burma appear to be of the same description, 
but those in tSiam are much «u]HTior. having richly-carved entrances, 
and om&mcnted roof*. None of the fervour of the original in«titu> 
lion is now manifested among the Singhalrsr. About the year 
* Kcmiual'* ItcUUon. 


1836 there was a priest near Ncgombo who professed never to re- 
side in a house, and to subsist entirely upon fruits. From the sin- 
gularity of hia appearance, and the mystery of his life, he was 
an object of great terror to children. Though regarded by some 
persona as sincere, his conduct was generally condemned, and be 
was thought to be of weak intellect. 

This mode of asceticism is of too slriking a character not to have 
bad many imilators in the west. Mary, of Egypt, resided in the 
desert beyond the Jordan forty-seven years. Daring the first four 
years of the penance of Hilarion he had no other shelter from the 
inclemencies of the weather than a little hovel, made of reeds and 
rushes woven together. He afterwards built a little cell, still to be 
seen in the time of Jerome, which was only a Httlc longer than his 
body, four feet broad, and five feet in height. Martinianus lived 
many years upon a rock sxirrounded by water, in the open air. 
James, of Nisibis, chose the highc:<t mountains for his abode, re- 
tiring to a cave in the winter, and the rest of the year living in the 
woods, in the open air. Martin, of Tours, had a cell huilt of wood, 
his monks having generally cells of a similar description, whilst 
some resided in various holes dug in the sides of the rocks. In the 
sixth century it was customary in some places for a monk, cele- 
brated for his virtues, to be chosen, who was afterwards to lead the 
life of a reclufie, walled up in a cell, and spending his whole time in 
foaling, praying, and weeping. Marcian shut himself up in a small 
enclosure, out of which he never went, his cell being so low and 
narrow, that he could neither stand nor lie in it without bending his 
body. But the singular residence was that of Simeon Stylites, 
who passed thirty years of his life upon the top of a column, which 
was gradually raised from nine to sixty feet in height. 

Even in our own inclement country, the zeal of these ancient 
a>cctics has been emulated. Simon Stock, a youth of Kent, in the 
twelfth year of his age. retired to the forest, and resided in the 
hollow of a large oak tree. When the anchorets of England re- 
tired from the world, the ceremony of seclusion was generally 
prc.tided over by the bishop. Their cells, twelve feet square, had 
three apertures, one for receiving the housel, another for food, and 
the third for lights. The door was generally walled up, and the 
anchoret was not permitted to come out, "but hy consent and bene- 
diction of the bishop, in case of great necessity." 

The yoke of the recluse must in many instances be cxcecdiagty 
painful of endurance. Far away is he from all ihe amenities of Ihc 
world, though formed by the hand of God to seek their enjoyment; 
he is often alone, and has much leisure, by which the melancholy 
drcumslances of his situation are almost conlinually prcsetiicd to 
his mind ; the silence and solitude that are around him people 
themselves with ehai)es that appear to him with moikery and gibe, 
until hia own spirit seems to add its powers to lUe number of his 
persecutors ; and in the place where he expected to find peace 
there la only dissppointment and Texation. Yet if he be a coe- 
nobite abo, there are occasional opportunities of intercourse with 
other men, all of whom are enduring the same piercing of the soul 
by that which is more cruel than the serpent's tooth ; and if per- 
mitted the exhibition of the slightest symptom of dissatisfaction, or 
to communicate to each other their individual woes, the heaviest 
bar and the strongest wall woidd be insufficient to retain them 
within the bounds by which they arc circumscribed. The gloomy 
abstractedness, the sunken eye, channelled brow, hollow cheek, 
pallid countenance, and attenuated frame, with which the painter 
delights to present to us the monk, are the faithful semblances of a 
sad reality ; and these emaciations are too fretiuenlly the result of 
painful exercises of discipline imposed by an imperious master, and 
not from vigils and |icnances self-impoBcd, that the body may be 
subdued, and the whole man he soul. The code of discipline to 
which he is subject is ihereforo most severe and stringent in all 
that relates to intercourse with members of the same (ralcrnity : to 
his superior, he must be in every respect submissive ; to his equal, 
reserred ; and to his inferior, distant. The necessity of implicit 
obedience b therefore insisted upon in all monkish canons. It is 
one of the eight things requisite to monastic [>urfection, and is called 
" tho cardinal virtno of monks." In the monasteries founded by 
David, the patron of Wales, the candidates for admissluti hod to 
wait ten days at the door, during which time they were tried with 
harsh words and repeated refusals, in order that they might leant to 
die to themselves ; and they were anorwards required to discover 
their most secret thoughts and temptations to the abbot. In the 
Rcgnla Benedict!, rap. 5. it is said, " Primus humilitutis gradus 
est ubcdientJa sine mora ;" and in the <ir*l chapter il is said that 


the rule and life of the Franciscans ie this, " to obey Ihe holy gospel 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, living in obedience, without property, and 
in chastity." But to see this principle in perfection we must exa- 
mine the institutes of the Jesuits. The most perfect obedience and 
eelf-denial were the two first lessons that Ignatius inculcated upon 
his novices. Tbey were told at the door, as they entered, that ihey 
mUBt leave behind them all self-will and private judgment. In hia 
letter to the Portuguese Jesuits, On the Virtue of Obedience, he 
says that this alone brings forth and nourishes all other virtues. 
He calla it the peculiar virtue and distinguishing characteristic of 
his Bociety, in which, if any member suffer himself to be outdone 
by those of other orders in fasting or watching, ho must yield to 
none in obedience. He adds that true obedience must reach the 
understanding as well as the will, and never suffer a person even 
secretly, to complain of, or censure, the precept of a superior ; nor 
is it a less fault to break the laws of obedience in watching than in 
sleeping, in labouring than in doing nothing. No particular bodily 
susterilies are prescribed by the rules of the society ; but there are 
two practices that are to be moat rigorously observed. The first is 
called the rule of Manifestation, by which every member is required 
to discover even his inclinations to his superior ; Ihe second is, that 
every member renounces his right to his own reputation with hia 
auimrior, giving leave to every brother immediately to inform his 
superior of hia faults, without first observing the law of private 
rection, which in common cases is acknowledged to be right.* 

The profound respect that was paid by the inmates of the mo 
tery to their abbot may be learnt from the following extract of a MS. 
in the British Museum relative to the abbey of Evesham. " The 
newly-elected abbol. if be were consecrated out of the monastery, 
Rhsll, when he returns, be received by ua in a festive procession. 
After his instalment hy the prior, he is everywhere to be received 
with particular reverence. We must be reverently obedient to him 
in all things lawful: and as he passes along, either through the 
cloister, through any of the offices, or any where except in (he dor- 
mitory, all shall stand up and bow to him while passing No 

one shall walk abreast with him, except to mass. ^\'herever he shall 
nit, no one shall presume to sit down by him, unless he command 
him so to do. If bidden to sit down hy him, that person shall bow 

to him in a devout manner, and thus humbly take his seat 

• Hocpin. Dc Monnchis. Alban Uutlor, July 31 . 

Whoever shall give anythitiR into hi* hiinJ. or receive anything 
from him, shall kiits his hand. Wherever he shall be present, 
there shoEild be observed the striclesl order and discipline. When 
he shall reprehend any monk who has behaved oi spoken amiits, 
whether it be « ilhin ihe cloister or not, that monk shall arteiwardu 
L-ntreat his pardon in a humble manner, as if in the chapter- hoUHe, 
and shall stand before him till ordered to sit down ; and as long aa 
he sees him to be angry, so long shell he entreat for pardon, till his 
wrath be appeased."* 

The Edienes paid so great a res]iect to each other, that if ten r>f 
them were lilting together, no one would speak if it were contrary 
to the wishes of the nine; and if a senior among them were only 
touched by a junior, he had to wash himself from the pollution, nt 
he would have had to do if touched by a stranger. The results to 
which the law of obedience led were of a varied character. The 
director of John, ihe Dwarf, bade him, as his first lesHon, i>Iant a 
<lry walking-stick in the ground, which he was to water every day 
until it brought farih fruit. The nut'ice was obedient, though he 
had to fetch the water a eonsiderahle distance ; hut in the third 
year the stick actually took root, put forth leaves and buds, and pro- 
duced fruit, which John gathered and gave to his hrcthren. telling 
them that it was the fruit of obedience. When Lanfranc. after- 
wards archbishop of Canterbury, was once reading a iMin nenlencc 
he was stopped and told by his superior to pronounce Ihe e in do- 
cere short. Though he knew that he was riglil, he made the altera- 
tion as commanded, saying (hat it was a greater sin to disobey the 
abbot, who commaoded him in Christ's name, than to adopt a 
wrong quantity. A similar story is told of the still more celebrated 
Thomas Aquinas. Ii was part of the Benedietine rule, thai when 
two monks met, the junior vrai to ask benediction from the senior ; 
and when he passed by the junior was lo rise and give htm his seat, 
nor to sit down till he bade him. mien the abbot entered the 
chapter, all descended one step and bowed to htm, standing on the 
aame step until he sat down, ^\'hen he went out with benediction, 
the monka met him on their knees, and gave the kiss of charity, to 
his hand first, nnd afterwards lo his mouih, if lie offered it. When 
tho monks delivered anything lo him they kneeled, kissing his 
hand if he wa.i sealed. No brother was ulluwud (cup, 37) ntnong 

• Tiadal'i Iliitot)' of Brntuun. 

ll)c Benedictines lo cross tlic tbrcsholil of the inonas 
the pcnnisslon of his superior. 

Ii is probable that in lliia part of the insliiute the a 

t with his heaviest 
Hocial beings, we aie nt 
own will ; and whenevi 
family, b. rlub, an orde 
ttonal barriers to the 
these instances there is 
kinilly offices, and 
mentary sacrifice < 

By the constitution of 01 
issitatcd on many occasions (o give uji our 
new associations are formed, whether as a 
ler, a sect, a city, or a country, there arc addi- 
' exercise of the individual will. But in all 
is an interchange of assistance, a reciprocity of 
acknowledged advantage, tlint causes the mo- 
our part to be recompensed in a thousand 

tnmlts, that are more than on equivalent for the loss we have had to 
Auslain ; so that the home in which the family is congregated, or 
the country by which the exercise of uur national institutions is 
bounded, are magic words that have often been the most powerful 
impulse in the rallying cry that has led men on (o victory or death. 
But there b in man a natwal propensity to usurp a greater autho. 
rtiy than that which ia properly conceded to him, on account of the 
position in which he is accidentally placed as a ruler. In this te- 
epect we are true children of Ihe falher-fiond, who ia made to say 
that he had rather reign in hcli than serve in heaven. It is a base 
lie that he utters, as he would readily give up his sovereignty to be 
the lowest of the seraphs that ministers before the throne ; but it is 
one so consonant with our own corrupt imaginations that we give it 
credence, until maturcr thought has convinced us that it is an empty 
boast. In the monastic institutes this passion has been carried out 
lo its utmost limit. The tecluse was taught that all within, ns well 
■s all without, is to he abandoned ; tliat not only the mine but the 
me was lo be sacrificed at the ascetic altar. The superior aimed Ht 
exercising an influence like that of the steam-engine of some exten- 
sive manufactory in modern times, which througliout the vast edifice 
over which it rules is the motive power by which every thread is 
thn>wn atid every wheel revolves. There was a restriction upon oil 
the sensee of the monk, that there might be no outward irregularity; 
and if the mind wandered, however innocently, from the prescribed 
course, the wcahuess was to be confessed to the superior uud abso- 
lution Boughl. In the Pu-iimokkhan the misdemeanours that require 
confession and absolution form the more numerous class. 

When viewed in connexion with this severity of discipline, nomc 
of the namea given lo llic monks and nuns, as brother, and abbot ; 


eistor, and abbess ; appear tu be singularly inappropriate, as the 
tender asaociations to which ihey allude ought to have no place in 
the breast of the recluac, if Uie principle of aseeticiBm be right. He 
is not allowed to love any being whatever upon earth ; the order or 
the inititutc, a thing of the imagination. Is to engroHs the place of 
every relationship ; and it Rometimcs usurps the place of God. The 
titles given to the superior priests of Budha are more consistent 
with their circumstances, being equivalent rather to prior or archi- 
mandrite. Jerome did nol aiiprovc of the word abbas, as he thought 
that its use was contrary lo the command, to " call no man father 
upon earth." 

Among the BudhisU, so strict a rigidity of social discipline b not 
required, as the priests are enjoined to take the alms-bowl from 
house to house, in order lo procure food. This itself is an employ, 
ment, enough to engage the attention mthouL producing fatigue, 
whilst it affords them the opportunity of exercise ; and by bring^mg 
them into contact with much that is beautiful in the world without, 
is equally beneficial to the body and the mind. We have therefore 
no reason to suppose that In the pansal there b exercised the cruelty 
of the western inqubilor, who too frequently wrings tears and blood 
&om the reluctant inmate of hb dark prbon-house before his spirit 
is subdued or hb heart broken. Nevertheless, there Is the recogni- 
tion of the some principle ; every mark of respect is to he paid to 
the superior priest, and the causing of a division among the priest- 
hood is one of the sins from the penal con.sefpicnccs of which 
there is no possible release by means of anything that can be done 
in the present state of existence. 

The following precepts are contained In the Patimokkhan : llie 
priest is forbidden to bring a groundless charge against another 
priest. In order to have him excluded liom the community ; he is 
not to take hold of some Iritiing matter, and found a charge thereon ; 
with all solemnity he u charged not to sow dissensions, or to en- 
deavour to perjiotnate existing divbions, among the priesthood ; do 
one is to aid and abet a priest who Is causing divbions ; the priest 
is nut to refuse admonition ; when spoken to on account of any 
«vU conduct, ho Is not to say that the priests are captious and par- 
tial ; be is not to use contemptuous speech, nor to slander the 
pricvta : unlc-iu with prmussion, he b nol to decUre to others the 
crime* of llic pricsla ; he b not to go to the place previously oceu- 
pi«J by another priest, in onlcr to annoy him, and cause him lo 


leave ; he is nut from aoger. lo expel another priest, or cause him 
to be expelled ; be U not to act unkiniUy, or do anything that would 
discompose another priest ; he is not to hide, or cause to be hid, 
fven in sport, the articles belonging to another priest ; he is not to 
tiring forward ugaln a cause thai has been once decided ; he is im- 
plicitly to obey the precepts called Sahadanunikan (Un-s binding on 
uU the priests) : be is not to be angry with another priest and strike 
him or push against him ; he is not to surest doubts against ano- 
ther priest, in order to annoy liim, nor is he to listen when other 
priests are in debate or at strife ; and he is not to consent to any 
I'ccloaiojtical procedure, and then complain of the investigation. 

The law declaring that the priest shall not take hold of imy 
trifling matter and found a charge thereon was enacted by Gotama 
Budha under the following circumstances. A certain priest wish- 
ing to ruin another priest, named Dabbo, was unable to accomplish 
Ills object without resorting to an equivocation, as the conduct of 
Dabbo was blameless. Walking one day with bis fcllow^priesls, 
and seeing a flock of goats, he said that he would give to one of the 
lie-goats the name of Dabbo, and to a she-goat the name of Mettiya 
(a priestess who hud been previously excluded), in order that he 
might be enabled to declare that he had seen Dabbo and Mettiya 
guilty of improper conduct. An investigation took place, but the 
equivocation was delected ; and this law was enacted in conse- 

It ia forbidden to the inferior priests to be in the company of the 
tnperinr, or those who are more aged, without paying them proper 
respect. They are not to jostle them, nor to go in front of them 
when seated ; nor are they to sit on a higher seat, or to talk when 
near them, or when talking with them to use action with their hands 
and feet ; they are not to walk near them with tbcir sandals on, or 
to walk about in some part of the same court at a higher elevation. 
or to walk at the same place at the same time. They ore not to go 
before them or press upon them, when carrying the alms-bowl. 
They arc not to be hursh with the novices. And tbey ore not to 
take upon themselves matters with which ihey have no right to in- 
terfere, such as lo put firewood in the place where water is warmed 
for bathing, or lo shut the door of the hath, without permission.f 

The crime colled langha-bh^da, or the causing of a division 

■ Oogorlv'* TmmUtian of the PbtunokUum 1 Ceylon Fritnd, Dec. 1839. 
f- Wifudhi Morgga 8«nii£. 

unong Ihc priestltood. is uhl' of the five deadly nins, fur which the 
delinquent must sulTcr during a whole kalpu Jn hell. It cannot he 
committed by a laic or a novice ; it can oiily be done by one who 
ban received upa»ini|iada ordination.* The five deadly Hins have 
been already enumerated, p. 37. 

Some of [hose regiiUtiona will remind the render of the forms 
observed onboard our men of war. The Htrictncss of the discipline 
that is enfoiccd U the sitlleiit point at which the monk and the sol- 
dier muet ; and though Uic wurnor and tlie recluse form an anti- 
thesis, in this as in muiiy other instances extreiues buvc been made 
to meet from some partial resemblance, and in the year 1119, a 
military order was founded in Jerusalem combining the monastic 
life with the tumult of the camp and the strife of the battle. 


The code of ecclesiastical law called Patimokhhan. is to be re- 
cited bi-monthly in a chapter of not fewer than four prieBla. But 
the ascetic brotherhood appear ever to diilike being reminded of 
iheir duty, as tliig rule is not attended to in Ceylon, and an abbot 
of Watdon. in his letter of resignation, assigns rhe following as one 
of the reasons why he could no longer hold the office. " They be 
in nombre sv brethcm, and excepte irj of them, non undcrsiande 
ne knowe ther rule nor the statutes of ther teligione." Yet 
according to the Kegulaliona of Benedict all the monJu who btd 
able, are to learn the rules of the order memoriler. 

Before the P&timokkhan is read, the place of aSscmbly must be 
swept, low cuihlons prepared for the priests to sit upon, and water 
placed for them to drink. There are twenty-one persons uho may 
not bo present, as laics, eunuchs, &c. Between each priest a spncc- 
is to be left of two cubits and a-half. The chapter is not legally 
constituted if all the pricnls are under ecclesiusiical censure for the 
same crime. In that case it will be necessary that Uiey he 
absolvod by some one who is not guilty ; but if they be guilty of 
different faults they can absolve each other, nfler confession, and 
ihen proceed lo business. When one aection of the rule is read, 
the enquiry is made three times if bU thai are jiresent have obscrred 
• Milinclo Pnuina. 


the precept ; and if no answer is given, it is supposed to be in the 
affirmative ; but if any one has broken the precept, and does not 
confess it, he is regarded as being guilty of a wilful lie. When 
a priest has been piilty of any of the thirteen crimes lliat involve 
suspension and penance, and shall conceal (he fact, upon its 
discovery he is placed under restraint as many days an he has 
concealed it. then for six nights he is subject to a kind of 
penance, and after this period he may be restored lo his office by a 
chapter, at which twenty priests must he present. No priest is 
allowed to question the utility of reading the Patimokklian. in the 
manner prescribed, and if any priest is convicted of manifesting im- 
patience relative to the reading of this code, ho is to confess hia 
crime and receive absolution. The mutters brought before the 
chapter are to be deliberately investigated, and the sentence is to 
he determined by the majority. The modes of punishment that are 
appointed are of the mildest description, including reprimand, -for- 
feiture, penance, suspension, and exclusion. The principal exer- 
cises of penance appear to be, sweeping the court-yard of the 
wihara, and sprinkling sand under the bo-tree or neat the dagobos. 
Id one legend it is slated that some ascetics, who were required as 
penance to go to the Ganges and take up a portion of sand which 
they were to bring lo a certain place, had by this means, in the 
course of time, made a mound of sand that was many miles in ex- 
lent. It was the custom of Pachomius to carry sand from one place 

to another, i 


It is said 

the night s 

>n, when he wished t 

the Wisudhi Margga Sanne, that when a priest falls 
into an error, or commits a fault, that is comparatively of little mo- 
ment, he is to seek forgiveness from a superior priest ; and if all 
u'ho reside in the same wihara are inferior to himself, he is to go to 
some other wihara for the purpose. Until absolution is thus re- 
ceived, the evils arising from the fault continue to exist. 

In Burma, when a priest is detected in the violation of the law 
of continence, the inhabitants of the place where he lives expel him 
from hia monastery, sometimes driving him away with stones. The 
government then strips him of his habit, and inflicts upon him a 
public punishment. The grand master, under the predecessor of 
Badonsnchcn, having been convicted of this crime, he was deprived 
of alt his dignities, and narrowly escaped decapitation, lo which 
punishment he was condemned by the emperor. Wlienever a priest 


has been fruilt}* of a violation of the rules of his order, he is required 
to go immcdinlcly to his 8U[>erior, and kneeling down before him, 
confess bis crime. There are some sins, of which confession must 
be made, not merely before the priest, but before all wlio are us- 
temhled in the chapter. A penance is then imposed upon the de- 
linquent, which consists of prayers (or, more probably, of stanzas 
from the bona), to be recited for a certain number of days, accord- 
ing to the lime be hns sutTcred to elapse without confession ; and 
these prayers must be said in tlie niglit. A promise must also be 
given to refrain from such faults in future, aiid pardon asked of all 
the priests for the scandal given, with u bumble request lo be again 
admitted into the order. But these regulations are at present much 
neglected, as the priests content tbemaelves with an indefinite mode 
of confession, something resembling the Confiteor of the Roman- 

Among the Benedictines, when an offence was committed, there 
was, first, private admonition, then public reproof, sepsralion horn 
tbe society of the brethren, corporal punishment, expulsion ; the 
delinquent was permitted to return thrice, but after tbe fourth re. 
lapse he was ejected fur ever. The discipline of some of the orders 
was extremely severe. According to the rule imposed by an Irish 
aaint, Columban, tbe monk who did not say Amen at grace, before 
and after meals, was to have six lashes ; he who talked in the refec- 
tory was also lo have six laabes ; and he who coughed at the be- 
ginning of a psalm was to be treated in a similar manner, as well as 
he who touched the chalice ivith his teeth, or smiled during the time 
of divine serN-ice. They who spoke roughly and frowardly were lo re- 
ceive fifty lashes, as well as they who were disrespectful to the supe- 
rior. For amall faulls the chastisument was sis lasbes ; for greater, 
especially in things reluttng to the mass, sometimes 200 lashes were 
given, hut never more than iwenty-five at one time. When a monk 
had finished his ta*k of work, if he did not ask for more, penance 
was eqjoined. Among the punishments were prolonged fasts, 
■ilence, sepantion from the table, and humilations.t 

The clergy were anciently punished by suspension ; by being 
mulcted of a portion of their salary ; by being forbidden to cxeicise 
some of the duties of their office ; by degradation, lu from the rank 
of priest to that of deaeon ; and by non- admission to the sacrament 
of the Ijord's Supper, unless they approached the tabic as laymen. 
Tbe inferior clergy were liable to imprisonment and strijies. In 
• SkngMmann'a Bnrmene Empira. t Albnn Builcr, Nov, 31. 


large cities there were houses of correction, decanica, attached to 
the chorclieB. In extreme cases excommunication naa resorted to, 
after which there was no posEibUitj' of restoration to the clerical 

The authority of the popes of Rome was never displayed in such 
appalling magnificence as when they laid the nations under an in- 
terdict. It was then tliat the prophecy waa fulfilled, which spake 
of him " who opposeth and exalteth himself above al! that is colled 
God, or that is worshipped ; so that he as God gitteth in the temple 
of God, shewing himself that he is God." — 2 Thess. ii. 4. As the 
ancient kings are represented as being moved from beneath to meet 
the monarch of Babylon on his entrance into sheol, so we can ima- 
gine the princes of all times, ^om those who had merely executed 
jnatice to those who had waded through seas of gore, going forth to 
do homage to these "vicegerents of the Almighty," when their 
" pomp was brought down to the grave," for having so far surpassed 
all other potentates, in the strength of the spell theydarcd to mutter, 
the terribleness of the feara ibey aroused, and the varied character 
of the miseries they inflicted upon men. It was not merely that all 
religious offices were suspensed, that the churches were closed 
against the laity, the altar against the performance of marriage, and 
thechuTcbyardagainst the burial of the dead; in addition, ihe clergy 
were placed in deadly opposition to tbe laity, and the laity to the 
clergy. Tbe consequences of this antagonism were sometimes 
tremendous, as when John cast into prison Oeoffr)', archdeacon 
of Norwich (for having abdicated the functions of his office as a 
judge of the exchequer when he beard that his king was excom- 
municated), and caused him to be wrapped in a sheet of lead shaped 
like an ecclesiastical mantle, leaving him, without food, to perish 
under the weight of the metal by which be was opprespcil. At the 
period of tbe same interdict the ecclesiastics, generally, were ex- 
posed to ill-treatment and murder from all ranks. TUcy had sua. 
pended the privileges of the church to punish the people, and the 
people suspended the privileges of the slate to punish them. 

It was the peculiar privilege of tbe comraondries of tbe Knights 
Hospitalara to be permitted to receive persons under sentence of 
excommimi cation. By a rale of their order personw who bod been 
denounced might take refuge in their churches, where lights were 
directed to be kept continnnlly burning. The Hospitalnrs might 
■ lUddle'f Chiiatiui Antiqilitii^ 


R.tHTRnV M<l?JArHI8«. 

«sit inlprdicfeJ persons when siek to adminiater conRolalion, ami 
inter them when dead with the rites of the church in the cemeteriei 
hclonginp to their own order ; if they paascd through an interdicted 
place, ihey. and they alone, could perform mass in the churches ; 
and if even a whole city or province were excommunicated the 
people coutd still resort to the coinmandries for the offices of reli. 
i;ion. There were certain monftslcries, as that at Bury, that had 
aIho the privilege, as a peculiar mark of pontiRcal favour, of exemp- 
tion from the general effect* of the interdict. " With the doora 
«hut, without rinjfing of belt, and with s low voice," the service* 
were at such times to be performed,* 

It appears from the Tibetan works on Budhism that the priests 
of Cotama were accustomed to put under ban, or interdict, any per- 
son or family, in the following mode. In a pubhc assembly, after 
the facts had been investigated, an alms-bowl was turned with its 
moutli downwards, it being declared by this act that from that time 
no one was to hold communication with the individual against whom 
the fault had been proved. According to the text, no one was to 
enter his house, or to sit down there, or to take alms from him. or 
to give him religioua instruction. After a reconciliation had taken 
place, the ban was taken off by the alms-bowl being placed in its 
usital position. This act was as significant as the bell, book, and 
candle ; but much less repulsive in its aspect and associations. 


The priests in Ceylon are seldom seen with anything in the hand, 
unless it be the nlmn-bowl. or the fan which, like a hand-screen, is 
carried to prevent the eyes from beholding vanity. They are usunlly 
followed by an attendant, called the abittayfi. When the priest 
receives the offering of a fleece of wool, he is forbidden by the 
Patimokkhan to carry it a greater distance than three yojauas. 

The priest is forbidden to dig the ground, or to cause it lo be 
dug ; he ii not to cut trees or gross ; he is not to sprinkle water in 
which there are insects u|>on grass or clay, or cause it to be sprin- 
kled; he is not to go U view an army, unless there be a sufficient 
TMaon, in which cote he may remain with the army two or throe 

• T«ylor 

Index Honaaticns. 

d aEGUt-MioNS. H3 

nigbls, but not longer, and in Ihis period he may nut go to ihc 
place of combat, oi to the muster of troops, or to sec any sight con- 
nected with the army. The priest may not, when in health, kindle 
a fire to warm himself, or cause one to be kindled, unless it be the 
mere lighting of a lamp, or some similar act,* 

The disgusting filtbiness exhibited by sonic of the ancient monks 
i> seldom presented among the priests of Budha. Cleanliness of 
the person is inculcated ; but the priest Ja not allowed to bathe 
more frequently than once a fortnight, unless it be in &is weeks of 
md the first month of the rainy season, or when sick, 
1 work or travelling, or when there is rain accompanied 
by wind. The priests of Egypt, according fo Herodotus (ii. 37), 
washed tbemaelvea in cold water twice every day and twice every 
night. Among the Benedictines, the monks in health, and espe- 
dally the young, were commanded (Heg. cap. 36) to be sparing in 
the use of the bath ; but it might be used by the sicJc as often as 
wa» necessarj-. The more rigorous climate in which tlie greater 
part of the ascetics of Christendom resided, would cause the more 
ancient institute to be greatly modified, in order that it might be- 
come adapted to its novel circumstances. The monks in the fens 
of Lincolnshire, as well as those that have had to live amidst the 
everlasting snows of the Alps, would have perished, if not allowed 
the warmth of a fire. Hence the calefactory was a necessary apart- 
ment in all the monasteries of the north ; and would no doubt be a 
favourite place of resort to those of the fraternity who were the len- 
derest, the merriest, or the most indolent. 

The priest is to use a tooth -cle an e r t'egularly in the morning. It 
is generally made of some fibrous substance. The Brabmans have 
a Himilur observance. "A brahman rising from sleep is enjoined, 
under penally of losing the benefit of all rites performed by him, to 
rub his teeth with a proper withe." | 

In the sacred writings there ore frequent allusions to customs 
connected with the strangers who visited the wihi'iros. from which 
we may infer that they received all necessary attention and assial- 
anee ; but in everj instance that I remember, the reference is to 
priests alone, and it does not appear that laymen arc permitted, 
when travelling, to take up their abode within the precincts of any 
place occupied by the sromanas of Badha. There was therefore no 
edifice attached to the wUiarn, like the xenodochium, in which any 
• I'&tiiwikklian. t Colebrooke'* Mistellsncous EMBy>, i, 121. 



traTcUer might receive temjMirary relief, and in which a certain 
number of the poor were relieved by a daily almit. The monks 
were indebted to this institution far a great part of their popularity ; 
but tliough in the olden time it was a useful and almost necessary 
establish men I. it was liable lo be much abused, and its proceedings 
would often bring sorrow to the minds of the more conscientious 

The priest may not enter the village, or sit down in it loudly 
laughing, but speaking in a low tone, with a steady gait; not 
swinging the arms about, or turning the head, or with bis aims 
placed on bis hips, or with his bead covered. lie may not sit on 
bis heels in the village, or sit lolling. And he is not to perform the 
offices of nature standing, nor upon any growing vegetable sub- 
stance, nor in water.* 

There are some precepts contained in the Patimokkhan that can- 
not be understood unless the circumstances that gave rise to them 
arc known ; such as, that " if any priest shall place a bed or stool 
with unfastened legs upon the upper terrace of a residence, and sit 
or lie down upon it, it is pachlttiyon, a fault requiring absolulion 
and confession.'' This taw was enacted on account of a priest who 
lay down upon a bed with a loose leg in this position, and the leg 
fulling down materially injured a priest who was below. 

In taking upon himself the seventh of the ten obligations, the 
prieNt declares, " I will observe the precept that forbids attendance 
tipon dancing, pinging, music, and masks." The Brahmans were 
placed under a similar restraint. " Let the student in theology 
abstain from . . . dancing, and from vocal and instrumental music. . . . 
The Brahman must not gain wealth by music or dancing, or by any 
art that pleases the sense. . . . Let him neither dance nor sing, nor 
play upon musical instruments, except in religious rites. . . . Brah- 
mans who profess dancing and singiitg, let the judge exhort and 
examine aa if they were Sudras."— Manu, Inst. ii. 178 ; iv. 15. 212 ; 
viii. 102. That the drama was muth cultivated in India at an 
early period, we may learn from Wilson's Hindu Theatre and other 
sources. But these exhibiliuDs have over been condemned by the 
more thoughtful among mankind. Diogenes said tiat the Olympic 
games were only great wonders to a set of fools. It was decreed by 
the council of Constantinople, held a. i>. 681, that no monk should 
bo allowed to wilneas theatrical exhibitions. 
• rttituukkhan. 


By taking the ninth of tlie ten obligations the priest declares 
that he will forego the use of high or honoiuablc seals, or couches. 
The ancients appear to have been most esttavagant in the costli- 
ness of their beds and couches. The prophet Amos (vi. 4) pro- 
nounces woe upon those who " he upon beds of ivory, and stretch 
themseivea upon their couches . . . that chant to the sound of the 
Tiol and invent to themselves instruments of music." Among the 
offerings made to the temple at Delphi by Croesus were a great 
number of couches decorated with gold and silver. We are informed 
by Chrjsostiim that the beds of the principal Antiochians were of 
ivory, inlaid with silver and gold. Clemens of Alexandria, in his 
Paedagogue, book ii. cap. 9, condemns tbe use of beds of carved 
ivory, with silver feet, in imitation of animals or reptiles, and 
upon which are coverlets embroidered with gold. He »ay3 that 
silver sofas, and beds of choice woods ornamented with tortoise- 
shell and gold, with coverlets of purple, are to be abandoned ; and 
asks if we shall rest the worse because our beds are not of ivory, or 
our coverlets tinted with Tyrian dyes. 

The priest is not allowed to take even so little as a blade of grass, 
when it is not given ; and if he takes a sandal, or anything of the 
same value, or above that value, he ceases to be a sou of Sakya. aa 
the withered branch that is severed from the tree ceases to put forth 
the lender bud or to bear fruit. 

He is not allowed knowingly to deprive any animal, though it be 
even so insignificant as an ant, of life ; and if he deprives any human 
being of life, even though it be by the causing of abortion, he ceases 
to be a son of Sakya, as the mountain that has beea severed in two 
cannot again be united.* 

In the time of Gotsma there was a priest who was under the ia- 
fiuence of passion ; and as he was unable to maintain his purity he 
thought it would be better to die than to continue under this re- 
straint. He therefore threw himself from a precipice near the rock 
G^akiita ; but it happened that as he came down he fell upon a 
man who had come to the forest to cut bamboos, whom he killed, 
though he did not succeed in taking his own life. From having 
taken the life of another he supposed that he had become parajika, 
or excluded from the priesthood ; but when be informed Budha of 
what had takoD place, the sage declared that it was not so. aa he 
had killed the man unintentionally ; his intention being to take his 
■ Knnunawkchim. 

own life. Budha, however, made a law forbidding the priests U> 
commit suicide.* Sererul stories are related in the Tibelan Dul-va, 
of suicide or poisoning among the priests, or of causing themselves 
to be slain or deprived of life, out of grief or denpair, upon hearing 
of the various kinds of miseries or calamities of life. Budba, in 
consequence, prohibited uny one from diacoursing on these miseries 
in such a manner as thereby to cai»e desperation, f A similar story 
b related of Hegesias, whose gloomy descriptions of human misery 
were bo overpowering, that they drove many persons to commit 
Boicide, in consequence of which he received the surname of Peisi- 

In the city of W^sili there was a priest, who one day, on going 
with the alms-bowl, sat down upon a choir that was covered with a 
cloth, by which he kilted a child that was underneath. About the 
same time there was a priest who received food milled with poison 
into his alms-bowl, which he gave to another priest, not knowing 
that it was poisoned, and the priest died. Both of these priests 
went to Budha, and in much sorrow informed him of what had 
token place. The sage declared, after hearing their story, that the 
priest who gave the poisoned food, though it caused the death of 
another priest, was innocent, because he had done it unwittingly ; 
but that the priest who sat upon the chair, though it only caused the 
death of a child, was excluded from the priesthood, as he had not 
taken the proper precaution to look under the cloth, and had sat 
down without being invited by the householder.^ 

It is said by Kudha, in the Brahma Jala Sutra, that there are 
some sages who attend places of amuscmeot. where there are reci- 
tations, masques, and dancing, and combats ore exhibited between 
men, animala, or birds ; they also play at various games of chance, 
Bod practice all kinds of buffoonery ; and they love jesting and 
uports that are childish or vain. They prognosticate the nature of 
future events, and pretend to tell whether they will be prosperoun 
or adverse from the voices of animals and birds, as well as from the 
marks upon their bodies, from meteors, the appearance of fire in 
any porticulor direction, earthquakes, dreams, and the manner in 
which dolh is eaten by rats or insects. They pretend to foretell 
the fate of princes and empires ; they deal in spells, invocations, 
elixim, and panaceas; they teach the sciences, and write deeds and 
coutraci* ; they practiic certain ceremonies with fire fed by a par- 
• Hilinda Tnuui. f ('noma Kf-f-n ] MUinda Trasna. 


ticular kind of Kpoon, and from the manner in which it bums they 
predict the future. But all these practices are disreputable, and are 
to be avoided by the faithful priest.* 

No priest is allowed to make false pretenaionB to the possession 
of rahatship; and il' any priest acts couirary to this precept, he 
censes to be a son of Sakya ; as the palm-tree cannot continue to 
grow when deprived of the branches that form its head.f 

There are thirly-two subjects upon which the priests are forbidden 
to converse ; — about kings, as to their array ; robbers, the loyal 
guard, armies, narrations that cause fear, wars, harangues, food, 
drink, garments, vehicles, couches, garlands, perfumes, music, vil- 
lages, as to tbc pleaaantnesa of their situation or otherwise ; towns, 
cities, provinces, relatives, women, intoxicating liquors, streets, 
khumbandas (imaginary beings of a most disgusting appearance), 
deceased relatives, wealth, the origin of the earth, the origin of the 
sea, the sayings of the sceptics, mental error, sensual enjoyments, 
and their own imaginations.^ 

There are sixty-three cbaritas, influences, or states of the mind, 
of which the principal are raga, dwesa, and moha. 1. Raga, com- 
placency, priile, or evil desire. 2. Dw6sa, anger, of which hatred 
is a component part. 3. Moha, unwiseness, ignorance of tlie truth. 
The manifestation of these principles is diversilied, as seen in the 
conduct of different priests, according to, 1. The position of the 
body. 2. The work tliat is performed. 3. The manner of eating. 
4. 'ITie objects that are seen. 5. The natural disposition or general 

1 . The position of the body. The priest who is under the in- 
flnence of the first principle, when he walks puts his foot down 
gently : both his feet are put down and lifted up in an uniform 
manner, and they are gracefully bent when moved. The priest 
under the influence of the second seems to plough the ground with 
htH feet, or to dig it ; he walks hurriedly, and lifts his foot with 
violence. The priest under the influence of the third has no uni- 
formity in his gait ; he puts bis foot down as if be were doubtful or 
afmid, and walks as if he were fatigued. This is declared by Budha 
in the Magandhiya Sutra. In like manner, when the first priest 
aita down or reclines, it is done gently ; hia feet and hands are put 
in the proper place, and he rises in a quiet manner. The second 
sits down quickly, and rises as if in displeasure. The third throws 
■ Wiwdbi Un^ga Sannc. t Ksmmawkcban. J FAjbwaliya. 


himeelf down in any way, puts his hand and feet in any posture 
that suits his convenience for the moment, and when he rises it is 
as if with reluctance. 

2. The work that is performed. The first priest, when he pre- 
pares to sweep any place, takes hold of the broom in a proper 
manner, neither too firmly nor too loosely, and sweeps evenly. The 
second seiiws the broom with violence, sends the dust or sand here 
and there, and sweeps without any uniformity. The third holds 
the broom loosely, throws the dirt away carelessly, and does not 
sweep clean. It is the same with all other things. The first does 
them in the best manner, the second with a bang, and the third 
negligently. The first, as another instance, puts on his robe in 
such a manner that it appears round and full ; the second wraps it 
closely round his body ; and the third puts it on loosely. 

3. The food that is eaten. The firet priest likes food of a deli- 
cious flavour ; he makes the rice into neat round balls, and throws 
it into his mouth gently. The second likes sour things, or those 
that are highly seasoned ; he fills his mouth and eats in haste. 
The third has no partiality for any parlicukr kind of food ; he lets 
it fall whilst he is eating, and throws it into his mouth without 

4. The objects that are seen. The first priest, when he sees any 
common thing looks at it as if it was something wonderful ; if it is 
only good in a trifling degree, his attention is arrested ; he looks 
over any faults that there may he, and is loth to leave that which 
pleases him. The second, when he sees anything that is not pleas- 
ing, turns awoy from it at once. If there he only a triiling fault he 
is angry j he does not acknowledge the good that there may be, 
and be turns away as if it was unworthy of his regard. The third 
looks at all things without manifesting any emotion ; if anything 
is depreciated he commends it, or if it is praised he commends 

6. The general conduct. The first priest does not see bis own 
faulta ; he boasts to others of things he does not possess ; he is 
deceptive, proud, and covetous ; he likes his bowl, rohc, and per- 
son to appear to the best advantage. The second cannot cnduro 
the faults of another ; he seeks to destroy the good name of other 
priests, envies their prosperity, and goes about to injure their pos- 
sessions. The third goes on without diligence or care ; his mind 

is in doubt ; he ia never settled ; he is unwise, without discrimina- 
tion, and does not perceive error. 

When the priest who is under the influence of the first principle 
enlcra upon the exercise of the ordinances, it will be an advantage 
to him lo reside in some plnce that has a dirty floor and clay walls, 
or under the shelter of a rock, or in a hut made with straw, or in 
■ome place that is covered with duet, defiled by birds, broken down, 
very high or very low. and altogether uncomfortable ; there should 
be no good water near it ; the road to it should be infested by wild 
beasts, and in bad order ; such furniture will be good for him as is 
covered with cobwebs and of a disagreeable appearance ; his robe 
should be lorn at the end, threadbare, like a net, rough, heavy, and 
therefore difiicult to keep out of the dirt ; his atms-bowl should be 
of dirty cluy, or pierced with nails, or of heavy iron, disgusting as a 
skull ; be should go lo seek alms where there is a bad road, a great 
distance to go, the houses are far asunder, and the people difficult 
to find ; where the food will be given him by a low slave, and be 
made in a filthy manner, of inferior rice, with bad whey, toddy, or 
rotten fruit; nor is it well for htm to lie down, but to stand or walk 
about ; and his kasina-mandala (a magical circle that will afterwards 
be explained) should be made in some disagreeable form. By this 
means his pride or evil desire will be subdued. 

The priest under the influence of dwesa should reside in a place 
that, on the contrary, is clean, pleasant, and beautiful, and where 
there arc plenty of people ; his robe should be made of the cloth of 
China, Sochara, Kosala, or Kosi, or of fine cotton, or of goat's hair, 
light and graceful ; his bowl should be round as the bubble ; the 
village that he visits should neither be too near nor too distant; nor 
is it good for him to sit or to lie down, but lo stand or walk, and 
his kasina-mandala should be made in some agreeable form. By 
this means his anger or hatred will be subdued. 

The priest under the influence of moba should reside in an ojwn 
place, not surrounded by trees ; he should be where there are plenty 
of people ; it is good for him to walk, and his kasina-mandala should 
be the size of the brazen dish called teti ; not smaUcr- By this 
means his ignorance will be subdued. 

I'here are three other states: — 1. Sardhdva, confidence- 2. 
B6dhi, wisdom. 3. Witnrku, reasoning. The priest who is under 
the influence of Otc first principle may be known by hu being 
ulwaya cheerful ; he delights in hearing baua ; he dues not asso- 


ciate with the worldling ; he does not hide hia own faulU ; nod he 
seeks the assistance of tht? three gems. The priest under the in- 
fluence of the second is kind and tractable ; he eats his food slowly, 
and IB thoughtful; he avoids much slecji, and does not procras- 
tinate; and he reflects on such subjects as impermanency and 
death. The priest under the influence of the third talka much ; he 
delights in being where there are many people ; his mind is never 
settled } at night he thinks he will do this or that ; indeed he is 
ulways thinking ; but he does not try to do in the day what he had 
resolved upon at night, and his thoughts continually pass from one 
Buhject to another. Such a priest should reside in a place where 
the doors are thrown open ; it i« a disadvantage when there are 
people near him, or gardens, tanks, or green hills. It is therefore 
better for him to live in some such place as a cave, or in the midst 
of trees ; his thoughts must be restrained, or he will continually 
reason ; and his kasina-mundalu must be small.* 

In an inscription, cut about the year 262 in the rock near the 
temple of Mihintala, in Ceylon, the following passages occur; — 
"The resident priests at this wihara shall make it a constant 
practice to rise at the dawn, meditate on the four preservative 
principles, perform the ablution, and then, having attired them- 
selves witli the robe, in the manner prescribed in the Sekhiy4, they 
shall resort to the ^t wihara, and having there performed the re- 
ligious ofHccs, afterwards partake of rice-gruel and rice, and shall 
duty administer to the priests who could not attend on acconnt of 
sickness, such things, at their respective cells, as the ])hysicians hod 
prescribed. ... To the expounders of the Abbidhannma pitaka shall 
be assigned twelve cells ; to those who preach from the Sutra pitaka 
seven cells ; and to such of the resident priests as read the Winaya 
pitaka, five cells, with food and raiment. ... All the lands that 
belong to this wihara shall, with the products thereof, be enjoyed 
by the priesthood in common, and shall not be subdivided and pos- 
sessed separately. . . . When orders iirc issued to the dependants or 
retainers, or when any of (hem are to be dismissed, it shall be with 
the concurrence of the whole community of priests, and not by the 
will of an individual. . . . Those who have services and offices allotted 
to them shall attend duly at their respective places, excepting those 
who may have gone on wihara service to a distance ; those who 
have to attend at the place where rice is issued, and at the place 
* Wisuilhi Morggm Saiuiii. 


where rice &nd gruel are prepoTcd in the morning, will not be allon-ed 
to be absent. ... If the servants allachcd to the places where offer- 
inffs are made embezEle or squander the offerings made thereat, 
tnbnrious work shall be imposed \ippn them. . . . Those who haye 
only Assumed tbe yellow robe, but engage in traffic inconaistently 
therewith, and destroy life (by such oceupuiions as the chase) shall 
not he permitted to dwell around the mount. . , . Throughout the 
domains of this wihara, neither palm-trees, nor mee-trecs, nor any 
other fiuil-bearing trees, shall be felled, even with the consent of 
the tenants. ... If a fault he committed by any of the cultivators, 
the adequate fine shall be assessed according to usage, and. in lieu 
ihpiTof, the delinquents shall be directed to work at the lake, in 
making an excavation not exceeding sixteen cubits in circumference 
and one cubit in depth. If he refuse so to labour, the assessed fine 
shall be levied." • 

Kot long previous to hie death. Gotama Budha, in the city of 
Rajagaha. propounded unto Ananda various precepts, in sections of 
»cvcn, which were declared to be imperishable. The first series was 
to the following effect : — The priests were enjoined to meet fre- 
quently (for the performance of religious ordinances), and to assem- 
ble in great numbers ; to rise from these meetings simultaneously, 
nnd simultaneously and unanimously discharge their sacerdotal 
doliea ; to abstain from establishing that which has not been pre- 
scribeil, from abrogating that which has been established, and to 
accept the precepts as they are laid down, and inculcate and main- 
tain them ; to support, reverence, respect, and obey the elders of 
the priesthood, of great experience, venerable by their ordina- 
tion, fathers of iho communitj-, and chiefs of the sacerdotal body, 
and to learn from them that which ought to be acquired : to 
overcome the desires that cause the wish for regeneration in ano- 
ther mode of existence ; to delight to dwell in the wilderness, and 
to keep their minds emhued with pious aspiratioDB. It is declared 
thai, 08 long as these precepts are observed, the designs of the 
prieat^ must prosper, and cannot fail. 

The priests were enjoined in the second series to abstain from 
cxceisive indulgence in allowable gratili cat inns i to abstain from 
unprofitable gossip ; to abstain from on indolent existence ; lo avoid 
the omission of meeting together in chapters ; to ahun the society 
of evil-doers ; lo abstain from becoming the friends of the unwise ; 
and never to relinquish the purNiiit of the rahalship, 
• Tli» Cfvlon .Vtnuuuc. 1831. 


In Ibe Analysis of the Tibetan Kah-gyur, by Csoma Kcirosi, there 
arc allusionE to many of (he observances of the priesthood, among 
whicb Ihe following may be enumeraled ; — The observances ate of a 
very comprehensive description, extending not only to moral and cere- 
nionial duties, bnt to modes of personal deportment, and the different 
articles of food or attire. The precepts arc interspersed with legen- 
dary accounts, explaining the occasion on which Sakya thought it 
necessary to commanicate the instructions given. The order in 
which converts are received into the order of the priesthood, either 
by Sakya or his disciples, ia particularized ; two presidents are ap- 
pointed, and five classes of teachers ordained ; the questions to be 
propounded are given, and Ihe <lescriplioii of persona inadmissible 
from bodily imperfections or disease explained ; a variety of rules 
on the subject of admission is laid down ; the behaviour of the 
person aAer admission is regulated ; the cases in which be should 
require the permission of his jirincipal specified, and various mora] 
obligations prescribed, particularly resignation and forbearance, 
when maltreated or reviled. No person is to be admitted except in 
full conclave, nor any one allowed to reside among the priests 
without ordination. Confession and expiation should bo observed 
every new and full moon, in a public place and congregation, the 
ceremony being fully detailed. There arc a number of precepts of 
a whimsical character, such as that a priest shall not wear wooden 
shoes, nor lay hold of a cow's tail in assisting himself to cross a 
river. There is a treatise OU ihc subject of dress. paTticiilarly on 
the titness of leather or hides for the shoes of the priests, and on 
the drugs and medicaments Uie priests are allowed to use or c.-ury 
about. The priests are permitted to eat treacle, to cook for them- 
selves in time of famine, to cook in ten kinds of places, to eat meat 
under certain restrictions, and lo accept gifta from the laily. They 
are to wear not more than three pieces of cloth, of a red colour, to 
wear cotton garments when balhing, to be clean in their dress and 
in their bedding, and never to go naked. Kefractory or disputa- 
tious brethren are first to be admonished in the public congregation 
(of the priests), aud If impi^nitent to be expelled from the com- 

■ Ab*tnu-t uf till- ConlcntB of the Dul-v&, or Br«t Portion of the Klih-ffyur. 
from the AruJyni of Mr. Alciuidor C«ma 4c KSrv). By H. II. WUsoii, 
Sec. A. 8. Journal of the Austic Sodcty of Bengal. No. 1, Jan. 1S32. 


la the commencement of Budhism Ihere was an order of female 
recluses. The names they receive Eire generally equivalent to those 
that are ^iven to the maleH, with a feminine termination ; but the 
name of priestess is applied to them less properly than that of priest 
to the men. In their ease, as well as in that of the otlier ses, it is 
not an intact virginity that is lauded, but the future abandonment 
of sexual intercourse. 

The iirst female admitted to profeasion was Maha Prajapati, the 
foatet -mother of Gotama Budha. The wife of the sage, Yasodhara, 
and several other of his principal female relatives, abandoned the 
world at a subgequcnt period. It was stated upon the admission 
of the queen-mother that there were eight ordinances to which the 
priestesses would he required to attend. " Women are hasty," said 
Gotama ;* " they are given to quarrel, they exercise hatred, and 
are full of evil. If I exalt them to the principnl places in this in- 
stitution, they will become more wilful than before ; they will 
despise my priests ; but unto them who act thus there can be no 
benefit from profession ; they cannot attain the paths [^that lead to 
nirwana). There must therefore he eight ordinances of restraint, 
that they may be kept in. as the waters of the lake are kept in by 
the embankment. I. The female recluse, though she be a hundred 
years old. when she sees a samanera novice, though he be only 
eight years old and just received, shall be obliged to rise from her 
seat when she perceives him in the distance; go towards him, and 
offer him worship, 2. The female shall not be permitted 
to go to any place at their pleasure. When they go to receive in- 
atruclion, they muni retire at the conclusion of the service, and not 
remain in any ])lace beyond their appointed limit. 3. Upon the 
day of every alternate poya festival they must go to the priest and 
request to be instructed. 4, At the end of the performance of wnss 
they muxt join with the priests to conclude the ceremony. 5. Any 
female who wishes lo perform the act of meditation called wap may 
bo allowed to retire for the purpose during the period of two poyae, 
ot fifteen days, but not for a longer time, 6. When any female 
recluse wishes lo become upasampadu, and receive the BUperior 
profession, she must previously exercise herself in all things that 
• Pdjltwolijft. 


are appointed, for the space of two years, and at the end of this 
period muet receive the privUege in a chapter composed of the pro. 
fesscd of both seiea. 7. The female recluse is not to speak to the 
priest in lenna of diBparagemenl or abuse. 8. She must not be 
allowed to teach the priest, but must herself listen to the instruc- 
tion he gives, and obey his commands. These eight ordinances 
are enjoined upon all the female recluses who would receive pro- 
fession in this iostitate, and are to be observed continually unlil the 
day of their death," The better sen is not treated with much re- 
spect by Budhist writers. One sentence will be sufficient to show 

— Matu gimo n 
sin ;" i. e. she is not v 
GoUma said, " Any woi 
tunily, and can do it in 
which is wrong, howc 

o p&po.* " That which is named woman is 
riciouB, but vice. Upon another occasion 
iman whatever, if she have a proper oppor- 
ret, and be enticed thereto, will do that 
r ugly the paramour may be ; nay, should 
he be even without hands and without feet." But in order to show 
that this declaration is not true, the king of Sagal, in one of his 
conversations with Nagasena, repeated ihe instance of a woman, 
Amara, who, though a thousand times solicited by a man whose 
appearance was like that of a king, in a place where there was no 
second person to see what was done, resisted his entreaties, and 
kept herself pure. Nagaa^a replied, that the declaration of Budha 
was made when relating the crime committed in a former age by 
the queen Kinnara, who secretly stole away from the palace when 
the king slept, and committed sin with a man whose hands and feet 
had been cut off, and who was ugly as a pr^ta sprite. " And think 
you,'' said the priest, " that Lf Amara had met with a proper oppor- 
tunity she would not have done the same ? This opportunity was 
not presented ; she was afraid of others, and of the sorrow she must 
have endured in the world to come ; she knew the severity of the 
punishment she would have to receive for such a sin ; she was un- 
willing to do anything against the husband whom she loved ; she 
respected that which is good and pure ; she abhorred that which is 
mean ; she was a faithful and virtuous wife ; and all these things 
(with many others of a similar kind) took from her the opportunity 
of doing wrong. She might have been seen by men ; if not seen 
by men, she might have been seen by the prHa sprites, or by (he 
priests who have divine eyes, or by the prclas that know the 
■ Gofserlj'a Essay on Ttansraignlion and Identity. Ceylon Friend, Ori. 


thoughts of others ; or, if unseen by any of these, she could not 
have hid herself from her oivn sin and its consequences ; and it nas 
by these causes she was prevented from doing wrong." This was 
■t curious mode of confirming the declaration of Budha ; but it un- 
folds before ua the fiudhistical motives for resisting sin. 

In the works I have read there are few allusions to the female 
recluses, and it is probable that this part of the system, from being 
found to be connected with so many evils, was gradually discon- 
tinued. The priestesses carried the alms-bowl from door to door, 
in the same manner as the priests, and are represented as being 
present at the meetings of the sangba, or chapter. They could only 
be admitted to the order by a chapter composed entirely of females. 
The convents were in some instances contiguous to the residences 
of the priests ; but the intercourse between members of the two 
orders was guarded by many restrictions. To violate a priesteaa 
involves espuhsion from the priesthood, without the possibility of 

Clemens Alexandrinus, in his account of the eastern ascetics, 
notices the virgins called Si/Avm. In one of the caves of Ajunta 
there is painted a female worshipper of Budha, in the act of teach- 
ing, surrounded by a group of smaller figures wbo are attenlively 
listening, one of whom is supposed to be a Brahman, There ore 
at present no female recluses in Ceylon. It is said by Robert Knos 
that, at the period of his captivity, the ladies of Kandy were accus- 
tomed to beg for Budha. " The greatest ladies of all," he says, 
*' do not go ihemselves, but send their maids, dressed up finely, in 
their stead. These women, taking the image along with them, 
carry it upon the pnlms of their hands, coi'cred with a piece of white 
cloth ; and so go to men's houses, and will say. We come a begging 
of your charity for the Budha, towards hi« sacrifice. And tlie 
people arc very liberal ; they give only of three (four?) things to 
him ; either oil for his lamp, or rice for his sacrifice, or money, or 
cotton yam for his use.'' Occasionally, in more recent times, a 
female has been known to shave her bead and put on a white gar- 
ment ; but these instances are rare. 

Ihc priettcsacs or numi, in Burma, are called Thilashcn : they 
are far less numerous tliun the priests. The greater part of them 
art! old women ; but there are also some that are young, who, how- 
ever, forsake the sisterliood us soon as they can procure husbands. 
Tlie Burman nuns shave the head, and wear a garment "f a parti- 



cular forra, generally of a white colour. They live in humfele dwel- 
lings, dose to the monasteries, and make a vow to remain chaslo 
BO long as they continue in tJie order ; but the}' may quit it when- 
ever they plesse. Any breach of their vow is punished by thtir 
secular chief. The profession of a nun is not much respected by 
the people, and in gcnerul may be looked u}>on a» only a more re- 
spectable mode of begging. They openly ask for alms in the publii' 
markets, contrary to the custom of the priestii. who only " cKpcct 
charity." There are a few recluses of a more respectable class, 
commonly widows, who have funds of their own, or are supported 
by their relatives.* The nuns in Siam are less numerous than in 

The nuns in Arrakan are said to be equally common with the 
priests : they either reside in convents, or live separately in some 
bouse constructed near a temple, superintending the offerings, and 
leading a life of religious abstinence. The greater part have re- 
mained in continence horn their youth ; others have retired From 
the world at a more advanced age, and in some instances after mar- 
riage; but only when that marriage has not been productive of 
children. Their dress is similar to that of the priests, and their 
discipline in every other respect alike. The may -thee- laying are 
an inferior order, wearing white dresses, and having their beads 
shaven. They live in convents of their own, and their discipline 
is less severe than that imposed upon llie priests, as their know- 
ledge of the doctrines of the faith is less eitensive.t 

In China the nuns are said, by Bishop Smith, to be generally 
women of coarse manners and UDpre}>os messing appearance. Their 
dress ia very like that of the priests, their heads being entirely 
shaven, and their principal garment consisting of a loose flowing 
robe. An abbess whom he saw wore a black silk cap over her 
crown, in the centre of which was a hole, through which her bore 
head was perceptible.} 

Frequent mention is made by travellers of the worship of the 
Queen of Ileovcn by the Budhists of China. It appears that her 
name ii Tien-bow, and that she is equally venerated by Confucians 
«ad Budbista. According to tlie legend she was a native of the 
province of Fokien, in early life distinguished for bcr devotion and 

" Orawfiinl'B Embaoy to the Court of Ava, 

t Foley'* Tour through Rambrcc. Joora. As. Soc. Jui. 11135. 

X Smith'* China. 


celibacy,* It wna in the tliirteenth century, under the Soong 
dynasty, that she became deified ; and though her worship is not 
inconsiHtent with the principles of Budhism. she was of course un- 
known to its earlier teachers. 

The eight ordinances of restraint enforced by Gotama, as above. 
are enumerated by Remuaat as being known to the Chinese, with 
slight variations.! There are also eight sins and eight acts that 
are mentioned by him as demonstrating, when committed, that the 
female recluse has abandoned the precepts of fiudha, and deserves 
\o be shunned by all. The acts are, to hold the hands of a man 
with an evil intention, to touch his dress, [o be with htm in a re- 
tired place, to sit with him, to couversc wilh him, to walk with 
him, to lean upon htm, and to give him a meeting. 

Among the followers of Pythagoras there was an order of females, 
the charge of which was given to his daughter. The Druids ad- 
mitted females into their sacred order, and initiated them into the 
mysteries of Ihcir religion. The piicstcsses of the Saxon Frigga. 
who were usually king's daughters, devoted themselves to perpetual 
virginity. At an early period of the church, virginity begun to be 
unduly exalted, end in nearly all places there were females who, 
though not recluses, were regarded as possessing a virtue more ex- 
cellent than that which fell to the portion of the other members of 
the Christian polity. At first admired, they were then looked upon 
a« being super-human, and at last as being super- angelic, Inasmuch 
aa they continued in this state from choice, and were enabled to 
retain their purity by the reception of special grace, whilst the 
angcU were chaste from the necessity of their original constitution. 
When in the church they were separated from the rest of the wor- 
■bijipors by a partition, ]irobably similar to the latiice-work screen 
that is now used to separate the women from the men in the eastern 
chuiches and the synagogues of the Jews ; and sentences of Scrip- 
ture were painted upon the walls for their instruction. But they 
resided with their relations at home, convents being then unknown ; 
and, from the cautions that were given to them by the fathers, we 
may infer that they were not always willing " to see the stir of llie 
great Babel," without sometimes " feeling the crowd." We have 
evid«Dce that their situution, as well as that of other fcniatcs, ro- 
^ the anxious attention of the nilers of the church, Irom the 
t of works upon this subject still extant, that were written 
li'n ChioMc. t l{emu*at'( Relstioit . 

;i:rn unNAcaisu. 


at iLe pcrioil preceding the dUruption of the Roman empire, when 
the last generations of a mighty nation revelled in the undisturbed 
enjoyment of the luxurica transmitted from their more energetic 
ancestors, and the votaries of pleHsnre were hurried on towards the 
goal of eternity amidst sc«nes of revelry that, in the rapidity of their 
succession, the seductiveness of their character, and the magnifi- 
cence of their preparation, will probably have no parallel so long 
as the world shall endure. By Tertullian were written : De Cullu 
Focminarum ; Ad Uxorem ; De Virginibus Vekndis. By Cyprian : 
De DiBcipUnart Habilu Virginum. By Ambrose: De Virginibus ; 
De Virgiois Institutionc ; De Hortatione ad Virginitatem ; and, 
doubtful, De Virginia Forma Vivendi ; De Virginis Ijapsu. By 
Chrysostom : Quod Hcgulares Foeminae Viris cohabitare non de- 
bent; In Eos qui Sorores adoptivaa habent; De Virginitate; Ad 
Viduam junlorem. By Gregory Nyssen : De Virginitate vera et in- 
corrupta.* And these works were in addition to many allusions to 
the same Gubjccts in their letters. homiUes, and other writings. 
The " canonical virgins" and " virgins of the church," are recog- 
nized by Tertullian and Cyprian ; and in the fourth century mo- 
nastic establishments for females were introduced. They were 
also called ascetiioe, monastriae, caslimoniales, sanctimoniales, and 
nonnae. The inmates were not obliged to remain for life in this 
seclusion, and in certikin cases were permitted to retract their vows j 
but they could not return lo the world without e 
to great scandal. It was said of them (Hie 
nubant, si se non poasunt continere ; 
nubere." Monks or nuna might profesi 
ticular monastic rule in the hands of a 
consecration of a virgin was reserved expressly for the bishop. 
We learn from Ambrose (De Virg. Inst.) that when a virgin was 
professed ahe presented herself before the altar, when the bishop 
preached to her, and gave her the veil which distinguished her from 

!\[)Dsing themselves 
n. Ep. 97) " ut aut 
aut contineant, si nolunt 
» their obedience to a par- 
a abbot or abbess ; but the 

other virgins ; but her hair u 
In many instances the nunnery aSbrded a si 
protected female from the violence of the n 
who then almost every where abounded. 

In some instances, monlu and nuns resided ii 
It is said in Tanner's Notitia Monaalica that, after the Conquest, it 
was usual for the great abbiee to build nunneries upon some of ibeii 
* Cave's Uvea of the Fatheri. 

of monks, 
retreat to the un- 
humon ahape 

1 the same convent. 


tnanoTB, which should be priories to tbcm, and subject to their visi- 
tation. In some instances the nunneries belonged to a different 
otdei from the house to which they were subject ; as at Shouldbam, 
where the canons observed the rule of Augustine, whilst tbe nuns 
were under that of Benedic!, Lingard says that, during the first 
two centuries after tbe conversion of our ancestors, nearly all nun- 
neries were built upon tbe principle of those attached to Fonte- 
vrautt, which contained both monks and nuns under tbe government 
of an abbess, the men being subject to the women. The abbey of 
St. Hilda, at Wbitby, was of tbis kind. In one port was a sister- 
hood of nuns, and in another a confraternity of monks, bolli of 
whom obeyed the authority of the abbess. " There were two mo- 
nasteries at Wimbomc,'* says Ralph of Fulda, who wrote the life of 
St. Lioba, " formerly erected by tbe kings of tbe country, sur- 
rounded with strong and lofty walls, and endowed witb competent 
Of those, one was designed for clerks, the other for 
; but neither (for such was the law of their foundation) was 
ever entered by any individual of tbe other sei. No woman could 
obtain permission to come into the monastery of the men ; nor could 
the men come into the convent of the women, witb the exception of 
the priests who entered to celebrate mass, and withdrew the mo- 
ment the service was over."* The princess Bridget, of Sweden, 
built a monastery in which she placed sixty nuns, and, in a sepa- 
rate enclosure, thirteen priests, four deacons, and eight lay-brothers. 
The men were subject to the prioress in temporals ; but in spiri- 
tuals the women were under the jurisdiction of the friars, as the 
order was instituted principally for the women, and the men were 
only admitted to render them spiritual assistance. The convents 
were separated by an enclosure ; but bo near, that both classes made 
UM of the same church, in which the nuns kept choir above in a 
doxal, and the men underneath, without their being able to see each 
other. Sion House, near London, was the only mooaateiy of this 
order in England. f 

In Italy tborc arc orders, as of the CoUallncs, or Oblates, the 
members of which reside in a monaster)-, but make no vows except 
a promise of obedience. They can go abroad, inherit property, and 
the rcatrictions under which tbcy ore placed are few. Some abbiea 
of thi< description are said to be filled by ladies of rank. 



The Budhos, tbe sacred books, and the priesthood, arc regarded 
as the tbree most precious gemii. They are ull asaocialcd in the 
tlireefuld formulary repealed by the Budhist when be names, as on 
act of worBhip, the triad lo which he looks as the object of his con- 
fidence and his refuge. There is thus among the Budhists the 
same reverence paid to the number three, that we witness in nearly 
all ancient systems, as in the Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva of tbe 
Brahmans ; the Amoun-ra, Amoun-neu, and Sevek-ra of the 
Egyptians; and the Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto of the Oreeka 
and Romans. 

The importance of tbe possession of a written code, regarded as 
having been given by inspiration, may be seen in the fact that no 
system of religion baa yet become extinct that has presented a 
record of this description. However absurd the document may 
be in it«elf, or however unintelligible the style in which it is writ- 
ten, it has appeared as the palladium of the system it contains. 
Hence the missionaries to the east have a difficulty to contend with 
that was not presented to tbe early messengers of ttie cross in uny 
of the countries where they principally laboured. But from the 
same cause the priests of India are encumbered by weopons that 
may be wrested from their hands, and used to their own destruction. 
When it is clearly proved to them that their venerated records con- 
tain absurdities and contradictions, they must of necessity conclude 
that their origin cannot have been divine ; and tbe foundation of 
the systems being once shaken, the whole mass must speedily fall, 
leaving only the unsightly ruin, as a monument of man's folly, when 
he endeavours to form a religion from the feculence of his own cor- 
rupt heart, or the fancies of his own perverted imagination. And 
there is another thought that must not be forgotten. Whenever 
the Scriptures have been translated Into any language, from that 
time there have always been individuals speaking that language 
who have believed in the truths they contain, so long as the dialect 
has continued in use as a vernacular medium of intercourse. 

In our notice of the sacred books of the Budhists we piopose to 
consider : — 1. Their names and divisions. 2. The history of their 
ti-anamission. 3. The honours tbcy receive and the benefits they 
confer in return. 

1. Namet and Dirmoiu. — The second of [lie three great treasures 


is called Dhammo. or in Singhalese, Dharmma. This word haa 
various meanings, but is here to be understood in the sense of 
truth. It is not unfrequenUy translated " the law/' but this interpre- 
tation gives an idea contrary to the entire geaius of Budhism. The 
Dharmma is therefore emphatically, the truth. In common conyer- 
eation this venerated compilation is called the Bana ; the books in 
which it is written arc called bana-pot ; and the erection in which 
it is preached or explained is called the bana-maduwa. The word 
bana means literally the word ; from the root bana, or wana, to 
sound. In the names that have been given by different religionists 
to their sacred books there ts a considerable similarity of meaning, 
which is generally marked by simplicity. Thus, we have the Scrip- 
tures, or the writings ; the law, torah, from the root torah. instruc 
tion ; the Talmud, from the root lamad, to learn ; the Gemara, from 
a root of similar meaning, gamar. to leam ; the Mishna, from the 
root shamah, to repeat ; the Koran, from the root kuraa, to read ; 
the Zand Avasta, from zand, the Persian language, and avasta, 
word; and the Veda, from vida, to know. The different portions 
of the Dharmma, when collected together, were divided into two 
principal classes, called Suttani and Abbidhammani. These two 
classes are again divided into three collections, called respectively 
in Singhalese : — 1. Winaya, or discipline. 2. Sutra, or discourses. 
3. Abhidharmma, or pre- eminect truths. The three coUections, as 
already intimated (page 1), are called in Pali, Pitakattayan, from pita^ 
kan, a chest or bosket, and tayo. three ; or in Singhalese, Tunpitaka. 
A Glossary and a Commentary oa the whole of the Pitakas were 
written by Budhagosha, about the year &. d. 420. They are 
cailed in Pali, Atthakatha, or in Singhalese, Atuwawa, The Rev. 
D, J. Gogcrly has in bis possession a copy of the whole of the 
■acred text, " and the principal of the ancient comments, which, 
however, form but a small portion of the comments that may exist.'' 
As this gentleman resided in 183^, and some subsequent years, at 
Dondra, near which place the most teamed of the priests in the 
maritime provinces in Ceylon are found, he had admirable facilities 
for securing a correct copy of the Pitakas. Mr. Tumour states 
that the Pali version of the three Pitakas consists of about 4,500 
leaves, which would constitute seven or eight volumes of the ordi- 
nary size, though the various sections arc bound up in difierent 
forms for the coavenience of reference. 

I. The Wiiuys Pitaka contoins the regulations of the priesthood. 


Il is BBJd to be (be life of the religion of Budha, an where discipline 
is at an end, religion is at aa end. It is divided into five books : — 
1. ParajikS. 2. PachiU. 3. Maha Waggo, or Maha Waga. 4. 
Chula Waggo, or Chula Waga. 5. Pariw^ra Fata. " The P4ra. 
jika and Pjichiti contain the criminal code; the Maha Waggo and 
Chida Waggo the ecclesiastical and civil code ; and the PoriwarA 
I'ata is a recapitulation and elucidation of ihe preceding books, in a 
kind of catechetical form." 

This Pitaka contains 169 banawaras, wldch appear to rescnible 
the sidarim into which the books of the Old Testament were divided 
by the Jews, being tbe portion read in the synagogue upon one 
Sabbath day. The £rst eixty-four banawaras constitute the lihik- 
khuni-wibhango ; the next eighty, the Maha Waggo; and the last 
twenty-five, the Pariwani Patd. As each banawara contains 260 
stanzas, called gatbas or granthas, composed of four padas, or 
thirty-two syllables, in this Pitaka there must be 42,250 stanzas. 
The Commentary o;i it, called Samantapasadika, contains 27,000 
stanzas. Thus, in ihc whole of the Winaya Pitaka, including the 
text and the comment, there are 69,2S0 stanzas. 

The Parajika occupies l&l leaves; the Pachiti 154; Ihc Maha 
Waggo 199 ; the Cimla Wnggo 196 ; and the rariwara P4t4 146 ; 
each page containing about nine lines, and averaging 1 foot 9 
inches in length. 

2. The Sutra Pitaka contains seven sccdons. It is said in (he 
commentary called Sumangala Wilasinf, aa translated by Tumour, 
that the Sutlan is so called " from its precise definition of rigbl ; 
from its ciquieile lenor, ham its collective excellence, as well as 
from its overflowing nchnesn ; from its protecting (the good), and 
from its dividing as with a line (or thread)." For each of these 
epithets varioua reasons are given. It is said to overflow, " becanse 
it is like unto the milk streaming from the cow." It is like a line, 
" because as the line (sultanj is a mark of definition to carpenters, 
BO is this suttan a rale of conduct to the wise." In the same way 
that flowers strung together upon a thread, or line, are neither 
scattered nor lost, " so are the precepis which are contained herein 
united by this (suttan) line.*' The seven sections, called cangis, 
are aa fallows : — 1. The Dighanikiiyo, or Dik-sangi, written upon 
292 leaves, with eight lines on each page, and 1 foot 10 inches 
long. It contains three warggas, Silaskhonda, Maha, and P&ti, and 
has M bonaworas, or 16,000 stanzas, including 34 sulras of greater 


length (dighn, long) Ihon the rest, the first being the Brahmajfila- 
sutra. 2. The Mojjhima-nikayo, or Medum-sangi, w-ritten upon 
432 leaves, with eight and nine lines on each page, and 1 foot 11 
inches long. It contains three pannasas, Miila, Majjhtma, and 
tipari, and has 15 warggas, including 60 banawaraa, 152 sutras, 
of moderate (majjhima. middle) length, and 21,250 stanzas. 3, 
The Sanyutta-nikayo, or Sanyut-sangi, written upon 351 leaves, 
with eight and nine lines oa each page, and 2 feet 2 inches long, 
It contains five warggas, Sata, Nidhana, Skhanda, Salayalana, and 
Maha. tt has 100 banawaras, 7,762 siilras, classed (sanyutto) 
under difierent heads, and 25,000 stanzas, 4. The Anguttara- 
nik^yo, or Angotra-sangi, written upon 654 leaves, with eight or 
nine lines on each page, and I foot 10 inches long. It has six 
nipatas, Tika, Oiatuska, Panchaka, Cbasattaku, Attbnnawaka, and 
Dasa-ekadasa ; and it has also 120 banawaras, 9,557 sutras, in 
different classes (.anga, members), and 44,250 stanzas. 5. The 
Khudaka-nikayo, or Kbudugot-sangi, contains 15 books, some of 
which are in the form of sermons, and has 44,250 stanzas :—(l.) The 
Khudupatan, wriifen upon four leaves, with eight lines on each 
page, and 2 feet 4 inches long. (2.) The Dhammapadan, or Dam- 
piy4wa, the Paths of Religion, written upon 15 leaves, with nine 
lines on each page, and 1 foot 8 inches long, 
gfithds, which appear to have been spoken on Tarious c 
and afterwards collected into one voliune. Several of the chapters 
hnve been translated by Mr. Gogerly, and appear in the Friend, 
vol. iv. 1840. The Singhalese paraphrase of the Paths, is regarded 
by the people as one of their most excellent works, as it treats upon 
moral suhjecls, delivered for the most part in aphorisms, the mode 
of instruction that ia most popular among all nations that have few 
books at their command, and have to trust in a great degree to 
memory for their stores of knowledge, A collection might he 
madt from the precepts of this work, that in the purity of its ethics 
could scarcely be equalled from any other heathen author. (3.) The 
Udanan, written upon 48 leaves, with nine lines on each page, and 
3 feet long. It contains compilations from other parts of Budha's 
diacourses. (4.) The Itti-att«kan, written upon 31 leaves, with 
eight lines on each page, and 1 foot 9 inches long, (fi.) The Sutlii- 
nipdtan. written upon 40 leaves, with nine lines on each page, and 
2 feet long. (6.) The Wimana-walthu, written upon 158 leaves, 
with seven and eight lines on each page, and 1 fool 9 inches long. 
(7.) The Peta-watUiu, written upon 142 leaves, with eight and nine 


lines on each page, and 1 foot 8 inches long. (9.) The Th&Ta-g4<h4, 
written upon 43 leaves, with nine lines on eucb page, and 2 feet 4 
inches long, contains instractiona to the priests. (9.) The Theri- 
galha, written upon 110 leaves, with eight lines on each page, and 

I fool 7 inches long, contains iaslructions to the priestesses. (10.) 
The Jatakan, containing an account of £50 births of the Bodhiaat 
who afterwards became Golama Budha. The text and coinmentarj' 
are blended into one ntirrative, in which form it is written upon 900 
leaves. (11.) The Niddeso (of the size of which I have not met 
with any account). (12.) The Palliisumbhidon, or Pratisarnbhiddwa 
itritten upon 220 leaves, with eight lines on each page, and 1 foot 

II incheslong. (13.) The Apadanan, nTitten upon 196 leaves, with 
ten lines on each page, and 2 feet long, (14.) The Budba-wnnso, 
written upon 37 leaves, with eig)it lines on each page, and 2 feet 
long. (1^0 The Charij'a-pitako, written upon 10 leaves, with eight 
lines on each page, and 3 feet long. 

It is said in the Sadharmmalankare that the whole of the five 
sangis contain 142.250 stanzas ; but this docs not agree with the 
separate numbers as stated in the same work. The commentary 
contuns 254,250 stanzas. Hence the whole of the Sutra-pitaka, 
including both the text and commentary, contains 396,500 stansas. 

3. The Abhidharnuaa-pitaka was addressed by Budha to the 
d^was and brahmas. " The books arc not in the form of sermons, 
but specify terms and doctrines with them, with definitions and ex- 
planations," It contains seven sections, 1. The Dhammasangani, 
written wpon 72 leaves. 2. The Wibhanga, written upon 130 
leaves. 3. The Katha-watthu, wTitten upon 151 leaves. 4. The 
Puggalan, or Pudgala-pragnyapti, written upon 28 leaves. 5. The 
Dhatu, written upon 31 leaves. 6. The Yamakan written upon 
131 leaves. 7. The Patthanan, written upon 170 loaves. The 
whole of these leaves arc 2 feet 4 inches long, and average about 
nine lines on each page. 

The text containa 96,350 stanzas, and in the commentaries 
ArthasfJiniya, Soinmowinudana, and Sattaka. there are 30.000; so 
that in the whole of the Abhidhamima-pitaka, including both Iho 
text and commentary, tlierc ore 126,250 stansas.* 

* For the muDM of ihs bnoks, thoir divisions and thdi rice, I am indebted 
to Tumour, and for ihc cbnTDCtcr of their content* to Goaerly, we Tumour'* 
Mahawanio ; Turaour'a Eiominuian of iho Pali Dudbisnol Aniudi, Journal 
Bengal As. See. July lS3Ti Gogerly'i Eway «a Budhisro, Jounial Ceylon 
Braneh Itoyal As. Soc. vol. I. part 1. The other (wrti of ihc infonnalian 
^ontai&ed in thia t«tioa are taken frain ihc Singhalfve SadbamtnAlankLi^v 

From the above etatcmenta it will be seen that whilst the com- 
raentary on the Winaya and Abhidharmma Fitakaa is smaller, tliat 
on the Sutra Fitaka is much larger, than the text. 

The Atthakatba, Atuwawas, or comrocntarica, as well as the text 
of the Pitakas, were defined and authenticated at a convocation (Co 
the history of which we shall presently refer), and repeated at a 
second and third, without any alteration, except that an account of 
the previous convocations was added. When Mahindo, son of the 
monarch Asoka, introduced the religion of Budha into Cejlon, ho 
carried thither in bis memory the whole of the commentaries, and 
translated them into Singhalese. By Budhagosha, about a.d. 430, 
thoy were again translated from Singhalese into Pali; and it iii this 
version alone that is now in existence, the original Pali Tcrsion and 
the translation into Singhalese having alike perished. These com- 
mentaries are therefore more recent than the text ; and from the 
■light opportunities I have had of ascertaining their contents, I 
should infer that they abound much more with details of miraculous 
interposition than the Pitakas that they profess to explain. It is 
said in the Mnhawaiiso, cap. sxxvii, that " all the theros and acha- 
riyos (preceptors) held this compilation in the same estimation aa 
the originckl text." Not long ago, this was also acknowledged by 
the priesthood of Ceylon ; but when the manifest errors with which 
it abounds were brought to their notice, they retreated from this 
position, and now assert that it is only the express words of Budha 
that they receive as undoubted truth. There is a stanza to this 
effect, tliat the words of the priesthood are good; those of the 
rahals arc better ; but those of the alt-knowing are the best of all. 
We leam from Cotebrooke, that " it is a. received and well-grounded 
opinion of the learned in India, that no book is altogether safe from 
chaiigcs and interpolations until it has been commented ; but when 
once a gloss has been published, no fabrication could afterwards 
succeed ; because the perpetual commentary notices every passage, 
and in general explains every word."* 

I. All the dincourses of Budha are saidf to be one, as to sang- 
wara, observance, and they are also one as to rasa, design. From 
the moment that Gotama obtained the state of a supreme Budha to 
the tim« of his dissolution, i. e. during an interval of forty-five 
years. In oli that ho uttered, to whatever order of intelligence, he 

' MiKdl 

t Ewaj-B, i. 90. 

t SnJharmmiUnlilLrf. &c. 


bad only une design, which w&s, lo aasi^t sentient beings in the 
reception of nirw^na, 2. The discourses of Budha were two-fold, 
as to the classes called Dharmma and Winaya. 3. They were 
three-fold, as to their division into root, centre, and summit ; and 
as to first, middle, and test ; and also as to the pitakas, Winaya, 
Sutra, and Abhidharmma. 4. They were five-fold, as to the 
nikayas, Dik, Madyama, Sanyut, Angottara, and Kudugot. 5. 
They were nine-fold, as to the angas, Suttan. Oeyyan, Weyyikaran, 
O&tba, Udanan. lliwiittokan. J^takan, Abbhuta-dharamo. and the 
Wedattan.* The Suttan includes the siilras ; the Goyyan includes 
the sulras that are partly in prose and partly ia metrical stanza ; 
the Weyyakaran includes the whole of the Abbldharmma, the 
prose sutras, and the words of Budha that are not included in any 
of the other angas ; the Udanan includes the 82 sutras delivered by 
Budha in the form of stanzas eKpressive of joy or satisfaction ; the 
Itiwutlakan includes Ihe 110 siitxas commencing with this formula. 
It was thus said by filiagawat ; the Jatakan includes the 560 
births of Gotama Bodhisat ; the Abbhuta-dhammo includes the 
eijtras that detail Bupetnatural events, and begin with the word 
"priest!" and the Wedattan includes the siitras that by their 
ntterance conferred the wisdom (of the paths) upon those who 
listened. 6. The discourses of Budha are divided into 84,000, as 
lo Die separate- addresses. This division includes all that was 
spoken by Budhn. " I received from Budha." said Ananda, 
" 82,000 khandtts, and from the prie»Ie 2,000 ; these are the 84.000 
khandas mainlalned by me." 7. They ore divided inU) 27d,2S0, 
as to the stanxas of the original text, and into 36),550, as to the 
stanzas of [he commentary. All the ducourses, including both 
those of Budha and those of the cummentalor, are divided into 
2,547 bunawaras, containing 737,000 stanxos, and 29,308.000 
Bcpurate hlfen. 8. They are osankya as to the matters upon 
which they treat. 

■ The NcpnuU^iie harp a ■imilardiviiioD, will the addition of three nantM 
that arc not fouml in thi" amuigcmcnl. -'Tho Bauddha Hriptumi axe of 
twelve kind*, known by the following twelve namn : 1. SOtra. 3. Oi-vB. 

8. VyUurana. t. Oltha. 6. Tdun. 8. Nidui. 7. liruku. 8. Jatnia. 

9. Vupul>-a. 10. AdbhuU Dhonnn. 11. AviuUn. IS. fpiidiM." The 
Ujudru oppcoTf to be ui uuauthoriiicd addition, from a Braliniiuiical uiurcc, 
•>■ it i* said to treat of " tho ootcric doctrinn uquivikli-nl to tnntrii. the rit(« 
and ccrcmoiiin being ■InuMl identical with tho«e of the U indoo tnlitms, but • 
the Phicf at^trU nf wunhip, diflerent, though many of the inferior o 
the Muwx"— llodgton's llfui— — ' — 


II. Hittoty ott'l Traiitnmsion. — The system propounded by G6- 
tama Budba was not committed io willing either by himself or his 
immediate disciplea. It ia aseerled Ibat his discourses were pre- 
BGTved in the memory of his followers during the space of 450 years, 
and Ihat after the elapse of this period they were reduced to writing 
in the island of Ceylon. The documents themselves are an evidence 
that some considerable period must have passed over between the 
death of Budha and the compilation of the Pitakas in their present 
form. They contain the record of numerous events thai can never 
possibly have happened ; and it would require a length of lime to 
elapse before simple facts could be distorted into fictions so palpably 
absurd, in those cases in which the account is founded in truth ; 
and a period equally long would be required before the legends 
they contain could be invented, or when invented become generally 
received ; as they abound in the grave recital of miraculous events 
and supernatural inlerferences, that any inhabitant of the earth 
would have known to be false, if published near the life-time of 
Budha. Four hundred years would be a sufficient period to allow 
of ihcBO perversions ; and us the Pali language, the dialect in which 
the Pitakas are composed, has long ceased lo be spoken, we may 
conclude that it could not have been at a much later era the sacred 
books were written. 

For the establishment of the test of the Pitakas, it is said that 
three several convocations were held. The first was at Rajagaha. 
at that time the capital of Magadha, in the eighth year of Ajasat, 
sixty-one days after the death of Budha, or b.c. 543. The whole 
of the text of the Pitakas was then reheBrsed, every syllable being 
repealed with the utmost precision, and an authentic version esta- 
blished, though not committed to writing. As the whole of tbe 
persons who composed this assembly were rahats, and had therefore 
attained to a state in which it waa not possible for them to err on 
any matter connected with religion, all that they declared was the 
truth ; every doctrine was correctly delivered, and in the repetition 
of the words of Biidlm, and of tbe other interlocutors, tbe ipsissima 
verba were faithfully declared. The rabats did not possess inspira- 
lion, if we consider this power to mean a supernatural assistance 
imparteil sb extra ; but they had within themselvex tbe possession 
of a power by which all objective truth could be presented to their 
intellectual vision. Tbey therefore partook of what in other systems 
would be regarded as divinity- The second convocation was held 


Bt W^s41i, at Ihnt time the capitnl of in the tenth year of 
hifl Tcign. one hundred years after the death of Budha, or b.c. 443, 
in conseijuence of the pretalence of certain usages among the 
priesthood thai were contrary to the teachings of Budha. The text 
of the Pitakas was again rehearsed, without any variation whatever 
from the version eatablished hy the former convocation. The third 
convocation was held at Patalipulra. near the modem Palna, in the 
seventeenth year of As6ka, 235 years after the death of Budha, or 
B.C. SOS. The Pitakas were again rdieaiEcd. without either re- 
trenchmenl or addition.* The history of Uie first of these convoca- 
tions is thus recorded in the Singhalese Sadharmmalankar^.f 

Whilst Ootama was yet in existence, he appointed Maha Kas- 
yapa to be the chief or president of his disciples ; and to him 
he committed the care of his religion when he should have attained 
nirwfina. J Accordingly, after the demise of Budha it was arranged 
that a convoc.ation should be held, to be attended by 500 of the 
most eminent of the rahats, with Maha Kasyapa at their head. On 
the twenty-first day after the death of the ^eat eagc, the priests 
who had been present at the burning of his body, went away to 
ihcir separate places of abode ; and the sacred edifices that were 
oat of repair were put in proper order.§ By degrees the 500 rahats 
arrived at Rajagalia (the place thai had been appointed for their 
assembly), after passing through the intermediate Tillages and 

* In the Tibetnn diviiion of the K&h-^^r the second convocatioii ii 
emitted ; the third cDnvocntion i> placed in die 1 1 Oth year afti-r the death of 
06tatna ; and the lost rcviiion of the Pitakos U said to hnvc takrn place uiily 
600, instead of Dearly 1000, yeara after hii death. But it is posoihle thai Ihu 
refbrcQcc may bo to some rcvisiou unknown in Ceylon, and not to that of 
Budhag6)iha. Joum. Bengal Aa. Soc. July, 1837. 

t An account of thc«a convocationa, tnnolaUd from the Pali commentary 
on the PitakoB, by the Hon. (1. Tumour, appean in (he Journal of the Bengal 
Asiatic Society for July and Septcmlier, 1837. 

t On ■ certain occasion ShtkyaaenllhehaU' of hisntting couch,orpiUow, 
to Uahakashfapoi one of hit principal disciples, to sit on with him, by which 
•ct he tacitly apnoiated him bia suocessor oi an hierarch after his death, 
ttema KiiiiJH. But in the Pali commentary it is oaid that 06lainaappcuntcd 
EiijrapB ■■ hii sueccawit, by inv«ling him with his own robe. 

I It is stated in the commentary that the prictits wtire afraid lest the 
tintakaa should say, "The pupils of GAIama kept up their wihirss whilat 
Iheir leochier wai olive : on his death they tuTc abandoned Ihcni." The 
prieata are aloo said to have >et tll?in£eivc« Co the reparation of the oacred 
BdiHcc* that they might prevent Ihoic rnentiea from reproaching them hy 
Hj^nfl. " 111* enormoua wealth bealowL'd by the (rrent (infbandinellieittruc- 
lurcs} is lo»t." lint if there be any truth at all iu the matter, it a probable 
that the priests Itanlencd borne to secure their temples, and thus prevent them 
fnm being appropriated by othR- teachen or reli^onista. 


towns. One of tbcir first acts was lo request a suitable place for 
the holding of the convocation front the monarcli of ihal clly, 
Aj^sat, now in the eighth year of his reign, who appobted for this 
purpose the cave Saptaparnni, near the rock Wehhara. This cave 
was painted in a beautiful manner, representations of various kinds 
of flowers and creepers appearing upon its sides, whilst many parte 
were inlaid with gold, silver, and gems. The floor was sprinkled 
with perfumes, and curtains of many colours were hung around. 
There were 500 seats covered with cloth for the priests ; and in the 
centre, looking towards the east, a throne for the person who recited 
the bana, with an ivory fan placed near it. Around the cave were 
seven circles of guards of different kinds, some of whom were giants, 
and others were mounted upon horses or elephants. When the 
whole had been prepared, AJisat informed the priests, who, as soon 
as they learnt that the cave was ready, went to the place and took 
possession of the seats that had been appointed for ihcm. There 
were 499 rahala. with Maha Kasyapa as their chief. It was 
ob<ierved that one seat was empty, and on enquiry it was found that 
it belonged to Ananda. Then Ananda, who only at this moment 
attitincd rahatship, to show the reality of its reception, arose up out 
of the ground in their midst, and took his appointed seat, the one 
that had hitherto been vacant. Upon this Maha Kasyapa, who by 
this token perceived that he had become a rahat, said that if Budha 
had been alive be would have said Sadhu on account of so great a 
wonder, and that it was therefore proper for them lo do the same : 
ao the whole assembly three times pronounced, Sadhu. 

As the convocation was now complete, Maha Kisyapa said. 
" Wliich shall we repeat first, the Winaya, or the Abhidharmma J" 
The priests replied, " The Winaya is the life of Budhisra ; if tbb is 
properly defined, our religion will continue to exist; therefore 
let us first define the Winaya Pitaka." The president enquired, 
"Whom shall wc appoint as the principal person to repeat and 
define this Piiaka?" "When Budha was alive," said the priests, 
"he declared that Upali was most perfectly acquainted with the 
Winaya, and that no one had a clearer understanding of the divine 
woiils than he ; therefore let it be Upoli." Accordingly, Up41i 
having received permission, rose from his scat, did obeisance to the 
assembly, and ancendcd the throne in the midst of the hall, when 
he took the ivory fan into bis band, and remained with his face 


towards the east. Maha K&syapa then enquired,* " What is the 
first section of the Winnya? When was it spoken? On wboae 
behalf? On account of what trnnBgreBsion ?" "The first section," 
said Upali, " was spoken by Budha in Weaali, on account of Sudinnn, 
who had transgressed the precept of chastity." In the snme way 
the investigation was carried on rcsjiecting all the other sections of 
the Wnnuya; and the cause, the person, the fault, the rule or ordi- 
nance established in conseqncncc. and the additional rule, were 
declared.! The enquiry was in all cases made by Moha Kasyapa, 
and answered by Upali, who repeated all things to the eonvocntion 
in a full and perfect manner, so that not a single letter, or the least 
particle, of the Winaya Pitaka, was lost. When the whole was 
concluded, Upali again did obeisance to the asaembly. and retired 

As the Winaya was thus completed, Maha Kasyapa enquired who 
was to rehearse the Suira Pitaka ; and the aosembly replied that it 
must be Anando, as his competency fur the task had been pro- 
cliumed by Budha. When permission bad been given, Ananda 
ascended the throne, and declared in order the place where, on 
whose account, and for what cause, the various sutras were deli- 
vered. The first sutra is the Brahmajala ; it was delivered in the 
garden of Arabalatlika, between Kajogaha and Nulanda, on account 
of Bruhmadalta, a raanawaka, and Suppriya, a psribrajika, who had 
a dispute with eiich other relative to the merits of Qolama. At 
the commencement of Ananda's discourse, the dewas who were 
present began to say to each other. " The most excellent Ananda is 
of the Sakya race ; he is a relative of Ootaraa; Gotama, when be 
was alive, proclaimed his pre-eminence ; and it may be that he 
also has become a supreme Budha." But as Ananda {lerccired the 
thoujihts of the dewas, he made known to them his real position ; 
and when they heard him say of the sutras he repealed that they 
were spoken by Gotama in Jetawanna, or in some other locality, as 
the ca«e might he, and that be only declared what he himself had 
heard, they knew from this that he was not a 8U|>reine Budha, as 
ihey had at first supposed. Nevertheless, when the whole had 
been rehearsed, the priests and dewas did him great honour. 

* The Pui&nns are invarinbly written in the fuim of a dJiUoguc, in which 
•omeperaoa reLtlui its L'Oilteuts, in uuwcr to the ciiquiriu of uiollu'r, 

t TliuiubjecCauelhuB euuiuenucd by Tuinour : the origin, the poity cun- 
cemed, the exhonation made, the «ci|uol or appUcntiQn M Uie cuuntation, 
and tha result ■■ to the conviction oi the acquittal. 


The Dik-sangi was delivered in charge to Ananda, that by him 
it might be preBcrvcd ; the Mcdiim-Bungi, to a disciple of Scriyut; 

the Banyut-Bongi, to Maha Kasypa and hi^ disciples ; and the 
Angotra-sangi, to Anurudha and his disciples. 

The Abhidhurmraa was recited by Maha Kisyapa, all the rest of 
the assembled tahats repeating simultaneously the words that be 

Id the establishtnent of this important matter, the canon of the 
aacied code, seven months were occupied; after which the convoca- 
tion was dissolved. As five hundred priests were present, it is called 
thePanchaSatakaSangba, or the Convocation of the Five Hundred.* 

The interest connected ivith the second convocation being chiefly 
histfirical in its character, I omit the account of its proceedings ; but 
as the reign of Asoka, in which the third convocation was held, id 
regarded by the Budhiats as the proudest era in their annals, and 
the monarch himself was a religious devotee of considerable emi- 
nence, we are not permitted to treat the great council held under 
his auBpiccs in the same summary manner. The native historians 
have described his reign in colours of the most exaggerated bril- 
liuice ; but this is in consistence with their general manner : they 
cover their sky with rainbows, or stud it with suns instead of 

In the 21dth year after the demise of 06tama Budho, PiyadSsa, 
son of Bindusara. and grandson of Cbandragutta.l became the sole 

■ It is olio called Patima 8an|{liiti, or the Fir«t Convocation, and Th^riki, 
becniuc it vax held exclusively by thfro pri«ts. 

t "This." it is wd by Protessor Wiiiioii, in his valuable Notes la the 
TUhnu Purina, "is the most impoTtonc muuD in all tlic lists, as it can 
•CHKcly be doubted th&t he is the Sandrocottui, or as Athenaeus writes more 
cnrectly, the: Ssnilntcopttu, of the Greelu. The relstive position* of ISittn- 
dmguplo, Vidmiaira or Binbisin, nnd Ajtasatru, serve to conllrm the iden- 
tiSc^otioD. Sbkya vrascotcmuorarv with botli the latlcr, dying in the eighth 
year of Ajilasntru's reign. Tlie Mahawaoiio savs he reigm^d twenty-four 
jBKtn afttfWBrdii but the Vi™ makes his whole reign but twenty-five 
'ould place Iho close of it b. 0.628. The rest -' -*-- "----'-- 
'ding to the Vtyu and Uateya, reigned 1 

yean, whtcli would place the close of it b. c. 528. The rest of the Saiauniga 
djmuty, according to the Vtyu and Uateya, reigned 113 or HO years; 
bringing their cloao to n. c 383. Anotlior century being dwiuctod for the 
duration of the Nuidaa, would place the accession of Chandmfupta a. □. 2H3. 
Chandragupta w>* the coteraporary of Seleucus Nicator, who began his reign 
~ ■?. 310, and concluded a treaty with him h, o. 806, Although [hctefbro tha 
10 nwy nut bo nuulu out quite correctly from the PauriniK pTcmiscs, yet 

Ihe error vannot be more than twcntv or thirty years. The result is much 
nuarer the truth than that fumishcd by Buddhist authoritlca. According to 
the Mohawanso 100 years had clapMd from the death of Buddha to the tenth 

year of Kilfnoko. He tcignod other ten yeore, and hia vma forty-four, 
nuking a total oflJIl yeanbetwien (he deaUi of SUya and the acecsfion at 
ChandjsgupU, which u egascqueiitly placed s. c. 380, or about seventy yMrs 


DionELrcIi of Jambudwipa. Previous to thia, whilst he reigned in 
Udeni be had a son, Mahindo, and a daughter, Sanghamitta. both 
of them extremely beautiful ; and as he daily increased in wcallh and 
majesty, and was successful in all hia engage ui en ta. he was called, 
in consequence. Asoka (literally, the sorrowleas). Riches, pleasures, 
nnd honourB, he poaseaaod in the greatest abundance ; but at thb 
period he practbcd many cruellies, and his name was in conse- 
quence again changed to Chandaaoka (the word chanda meaning 
wrathful, pussiunate). The dJrwas brought him daily from the 
An6talta lake* sisteen vessels of water ; also various kinds of 
medicines, supplies of beetle creepers to make splinters for cleaning 
the teeth, the richest mangos and other fruits, garments of five 
colours from the magical (kalpa) tree near the Chaddonla lake, 
napkins upon which to wipe the fingers, and the cloth called litra, 
resembling the jasmine. He had also fra^ant substances where- 
with to anoint the body, and coUyrium from the nago-loka. Parrots 
brought daily 9000 yalas of the rice that grows spontaneously upon 
the borders of the Cbaddanta lake, and it was freed from the husk 
by mice, that in the process broke not a single grain ; bees brought 
honey, which they prepared and left, without luking any for ihera- 
selves ; bears worked in the forges with sledge-hammers ; tigers 
yarded his cattle, and, until the herds were secured for the night, 
went not to seek their prey ; birds of sweet Kong perched near the 
pakce, and delighted the king with their music; and pea-fuwl 
danced in his presence, exhibiting their splendid plumage. 

Ino early. According tn iho Buildhint authoritlM, Chan-io-kuttii or Chun- 
drasuplB <<otiimciiccil hi* rcien 31)0 b, c. Burmese Table ; PrioHrp's Useful 
Tobies. Mr. Tumour, inhiii IiititiiluctioD.|{iviii2 to KiiliaokQ eiKhlpeo years 
■ubMH|uent to the century after Uudho, ptaeee Ctuudniigiipta'i acocsHon k. e. 
8S1, which, he obsrrvn, is sixty yeurs too noon ; dating, biiwovcr, the aocea- 
Hon nt ChandraKUMn ttam 333 n. c. nr unmcdiuiety upiin Alcxsnda's dcstli, 
B jwriod too carlT ay ciahi or uni jcars at least. The diMTcponcy of dalca, 
UT.Tunu>urism>[MHed to think, jirocecilj Irom mniG intcntinnal pervendoa 
of the Duddhistical ctuniioloKy. lntnid.p. L. The cemravut«lnl on our text 
Myi thalChandrnKUpta wMUCMUiof Nuidabya wi^nnmodUuri, wheat« 
he and hU descendants were colled Klsuryiu. Citt. T<hI ronaidera Uaurys a 
eomiption of Mori, the tame or a Rajput trit>«, llie Tikbon the Mahawaiuo 
builds a story on the fancied rcacinblaiiw of the wncA ui Maydra :i, Mori, 
Pr. a pMcock. There bcttu abumliwou nt jiea-liiwl in Ihc place where the 
fiikya tribe built a town, they eollnl it Mori, and their princea were thence 
called Uauryns. I'umour, Introduction to the MobawanKi, p. xxxix. Clian- 
drogupta reigned, occordine to ihc V*yu Pur&na, twenty-fonr ynm ; aecord- 
ins to the Mflhawiin*o, ihirty-fbur ; to the Bipawmtso, twenty-four." — 
WUwm'i Vishnu I'urino, p. 4ait. 

• It was not uiiuaual for king* to baie their water brought frwm s great 
diilance. ('ynu <lrank no water hut thai of the Choaspco, of which he ear- 
ri«4 with him a supply in rcwcis drawn by mulos. — Hood. L Itl. 


Like his fnther and grandfather, Aaoka gave alms daily to 60,000 
tirttakae in bis palace. One day he observed from an upper story that 
in eating their food they made a great noise, and were exceedingly 
rode. He therefore commanded his noblea to assemble in his pre* 
senco the different priests, of whatever kind, to which each indi- 
vidual noble was accustomed to give alms. In compliance with this 
command poodangas, paribtajikaa, nigandaa, ajiwakas, and other 
tirttnkas were collected together. Proper seats had been provided ; 
but when the king gave permission for thom to sit down, some sat 
on high scats, some on low, and others on seats of a middle eleva- 
tion; whibt others again sat on the mats that were spread on the 
ground; the whole without any order. After they had partaken 
of the food they were dismissed. The next day they were again 
assembled for a similar purpose ; hut the king observed that they 
who had sat on high seats the day before were now on low seats, 
and that (hey who bad sat on low seats were now an high seats, 
and that they stared about without any appearance of propriety in 
their behaviour. From this the king knew tUat they were all alike ■ 
ignorant of what was right. Not many days afterwards he saw the 
sam^cera Nigrodha, and was struck by the decorum of his manner. 
This Nigrodha had been the elder brother of the king in a previous 
birth, as will appear from ihc following narrative. 

There were three brothers, who were honey merchants. The 
elder brother was aceuslomt'd to collect the honey in the country ; 
the second took it to the city of Benares ; and the younger brotlier 
resided in the city to dispose of it by sale. It happened Uiat a 
Pas^-Itudha, who resided in the cave Nandamulaka, was sick ; and 
another Pas£-Budlia, who perceived that he might be cured by 
honey, went to Benares in older to procure some, and alighted in 
the street, where he was seen by a poor woman going to fetch water, 
who unkod him wbat it was that be wanted; and when he said 
ihat he was seeking honey, she pointed in the direction where the 
younger brother resided, and said that it might he prociired there, 
\Vhcn receiving the honey, the alms-bowl of the Budha overflowed, 
and «>mo of it wa« spilt upon the ground, which greatly pleased 
the brother, and ho thought thus ; — " By virtue of this deed may I 
become king of Jambudwipa. and as the honey is spilt upon the 
rsrth, may my power extend n yojana above the eurlh inlo the air, 
and a yojana below into the ground. When the Budha liad re- 
ceived ihr huney, the womaii brought a cloth (tha only one ahe 


possessed, aiid it had been washed for the puqiose), which she put 
round the bowl, and asked what was the wish that had been ex- 
pTcsaed by the merchant. When she had heard it, she also wished 
that, by virtue of what she had done towards the procuring of the 
honey, she might become his queen. The other brothers, on going 
home, aaked what had become of the honey ; and when they were 
told, they were angry with their younger relative ; one wishing that 
the Budha had been at the other side of the sea. and the other 
calling him an outcasle ; but when they were expostulated with, they 
became reconciled, and wished that they might partake in the merit. 
The younger brother became As6kB; the brother who wished thut 
the Budha were at the other side of the sea became Dewanunpi- 
yatiflsa, king of Ceylon, and tlic other brother, who called bim an 
outcaste, was bom in an outcaalc Tillage, at the foot of a baninn 
tree, whence he was called Nigr^dha. 

This Nigrodha was the son of Sumand, queen of Smuana, who, 
when she heard that her lord had fallen in battle. 8ed from the city 
. to an adjacent village inhabited by herdsmen, being at the time 
pregnant. The dcwa of a nigrodha (haman) tree, seeing her situa- 
tion, invited her to take up her abode near bis residence ; and fur- 
ther assisted her by causing a dwelling to appear, which he presented 
for her use, and then vanished away. It was here that Nigrodha 
was horn. The chief of the herdsmen waited on her like a servant, 
and provided for her all that she reqaiied. When the prince was 
seven years of age, the priest Maha Waruna, who had perceived his 
merit, requested permission from bis mother the queen to admit 
him into the priesthood, who consented ; and whilst he was under' 
going the initiatory process of having his hair cut off, he became a 
nhaU On the morning of a certain day, after he had rendered 
service to the superior priests, he resolved upon visiting his mother, 
and on his way thither he entered the city by the southern gate, 
and hod to cross the city that he might reach the northern gate ; 
but be did not look about him beyond tlie distance of a yoke, and 
passed along in a manner that gave great delight to all who saw 
him. It happened that as he approached the palace he was seen 
by the king, who, after he had observed him aomo time, thus re- 
flected :— " When any one ia in fear, he looks hither and thither os 
he passes along ; but thia child, to whom ptny would be nataral, 
remains with his eyes fixed, and cnrriea his limbs in the most grace* 
fd manner ; the faith of this child, whutevot it be, is certainly that 


wliich was taughl by the Excellent." It vtas by nicana of the 
merit he had attained in a previous a^ that his attention was now 
attracted to the s&man^ra. The king commanded him to be called -, 
but, when appronrhing the loyal presence, his manner was not 
changed, neither did his eyes wander. The king aaid'thal, if there 
was any seat proper for him to occupy, he wos requested to sit down. 
Nigriidha looked round, and when he saw that no superior priest 
was present, he );avc his alms-bowl into (he hands of the king, and 
suuled himself u[ion the throne. On seeing tliis, the king Uiought, 
" He will this *cry day become the chief of the palace ;"' and he 
then gaTc him the food that had been prepared for himself, of which 
he took as much as he required. Asoka, greatly delighted, asked 
him if he were acquainted with the doctrines of Budha ; and when 
the samanera replied, that as he had only lately been admitted to 
the priesthood, he was not able to declare them to any great extent,* 
the king requested him to make known to them a little of what he 
knew. The priest reflected ; — " This is a cruel king ; he takes life ; 
he delays to acquire merit ; it will be right to say sometliing that 
will be a]iplicabte to his circumstances." He therefore began to 
deliver the discourse called appamfida-waggo (the word apjvamada 
moaning non-dilatoriness ; haste, diligence) ; but when he had 
spoken two lines of the first stanza, the king said that he would not 
trouble him to repeat further, as his doubts were now solved, and 
he received the true faith. The neit day Nigrodha visit«d the 
palace in company with thirty-two other priests, and after they had 
said bana, the king repeated the tlirecfold protective formulary, re- 
cciTed the five precepts, and had the faith of a novice. On the 
following day he was invited to bring double the number of priests ; 
and tbo day after a similar invitation was gi\-en. Thus, the number 
invited was doubled every successive day, until those who attended 
vrcrc 60,000, nil of whom received as much food as they required. 
The king erected the Asokararaa monastery, and presented it to the 
priesthood. NigriJdha. when twenty years of age, received the 
upAsampodi ordination, and afterwards became president of tbe 

From this period the king was called Dharmm^soka. Every day 
he gave in alms five lacs of treasure, for the support of the faith. 
Not reckoning what was received from the eighty-four tliousond 


cities of the kingdom, the fifty-sis. treasure cities, the ninety-nine 
maritime cities, and the ninety-six kelaa and one lac of towns, and 
HBj'ing nothing of the amallcr pluecB, he received daily from the 
lolls taken in the melropolia five lacs; viz., one lac at each of the 
principal gates, and one lac at the hall in the centre of the city. 
The lae received at the central hall was expended in providing 
requisites for the priests of the Asokfirama monastery alone, after 
four pools had been made into halhs for the priests at a vast expense. 
Of the four lacs received at the gales, one was expended in pro- 
Tiding 6owers, oil, rice, and similar offerings, U> be presented in 
the name of Budha ; another in providing requisites for the priests 
who said bana ; and a third for the rest of the priesthood. The 
remaining lac was presented to Nigrodha, who received every day, 
at three several times, morning, noon, and night, upon festive 
elephants, in grand procession, robes, perfumes, food, and 500 vases 
of flotvers. By this means vast numbers of the priests throughout 
Jambudwipa were clothed, and received sustenance. 

In the fourth year of the reign of Asoka, the sub-king Tissa, and 
Aggibrahmana. the king'a son-in-law, with a lac of other persona, 
embraced the priesthood and became rahats. In the same year, as 
he was one day presciiting gift« to the 60,000 priesla in tlie wihiira 
of Afokatama, be enquired of Ihem how many discourses Gotama 
bad delivered ; and when he was told by Moggaliputta- tissa that 
the number was 84,000, he resolved upon building a monastery in 
84,000 of the cities of Jambudwipa.* For this purpose he gave in 
one day ninetj-six. kelas of treasure. The king then asked who had 
made the greatest oficring that had ever yet been presented to 
Budha, and Moggaliputta- tissa replied that the monarch himself 
was the principal donor, as no one had offered gifts so rich as he. 
even in the lifetime of the sage. The king, on hearing ihia, 
enquired if he might consider himself as a partaker in the failh, or 
aa admitted into the grand privileges of Budhlsm ; but he was 
informed that lie was not. Then said he, " if one who has jia'. 
Bcnlcd so many gifts, and exercised so much faith, is not a partaker 
in Ihc^e privileges, who is?" The priests made known to him, as 
they saw the ftdvanlages (he faith would thereby receive, that if 

* In IS13, an iiucriptiira in Pais rcfciring to nnc of the 34,000 ahrincs, that 
had Ininn vntjted upon tho suntr spot, wu foiuid at Rudhs Usyu; and in 
Hivnl other parts of IndlB, monunicDta boaring this mgnorch's nanic are aiiU 


any one were to cnuse his aon or daughter to enter Ibe priesthood, 
he woiild be considered as a true religionist. The king looked in 
the face of the prince Mahindo, at that lime about twenty ye&rs of 
age, and asked him if be were willing to enter the priesthood. The 
prince, who had eameHtly desired it from the lime that htH uncle 
Tissa had embraced the sacred poBBesaion, replied, "Sire, 1 am 
willing." The princess Sangbamitt^ was also near, about eighteen 
years of age, and the king looking towards her said, " Mother, can 
you also take the vowfl?" and as she had wbhcd to do so from the 
time Aggibruhmana, her husband, bad eeporated from her for tbe 
umfl purpose, she replied, " It is good, sire ; I will become a 
priestess." When this was concluded, ibe king, with much satis- 
faction, enquired if he were now regarded as one of the faithful, and 
the answer he received was in the affirmative. Moggaliputta- tissa 
became the president (upajjhayo) and Maba Dewa the reader, on 
the admission of the prince to the prioathood, as a samanera ; and 
when lie received the upasampad^ ordination, at which time he 
became a rabat, Majjbanli was the president. On the admission of 
the princess to Ibe sacred profession, the rahat Ayupalj was the 
president, and Dharmmapalini the reader ; and she also became a 
rahat on the day that she received the upnsampadu ordination. It 
was in the sixth year of the king's reign that these two illustrious 
personages emhrsccd the jiriestbood. The prince acquired the 
understanding of the three Pitakss, with the various ordinances, in 
three years, and became the principal disciple of his preceptor. 

When the tirttakas saw the- prosperity attendant upon the reli- 
gion of Budha, they sought odmtssiou into the priesthood ; but they 
contiuned tbe practice of many things that were contrary to the 
Winaya. When these abuses came to the knowledge of Dharm- 
m&soka, he commanded Moggaliputla-tissa to cipel from the priest- 
hood 60,000 tirttakas who had transgressed the ordinances, and from 
00,000 faithful priesU to choose a thousand for the holding of a 
convocation of which he was to be the president. These commands 
vvre obeyed, and the convocation nsHcmblcd in the monastery of 
As6karima. The recitation of the sacred code occupied nine 
months ; after which the priests were dlsmiHsed to their respective 
residences. Thii was the third great convocation. It was held in 
ibo lilh year of the reign of Dhanumasoka, and in the 23i>th 
year after the dissolution of Budha. 

This account is Inkeu by tho Singhitlese Iranslalot from tho Com- 


incntary on the PitAkns, written by BuiUiag^sha, and must h&ve 
been compiled upwards of 700 years after the thiTd convocalion. 
The narrative haa received many additions that we must reject as 
inconsistent with the tnith ; and though many of these fictions are 
too absurd to deserve serious contradiction, it is of some importance 
lo notice, that the accuracy of the dates given to these assemblies 
has been called in question by the late Mr. Tumour, in his " Exa- 
mination of the Pali Budhistical Annals," inserted in the Journal of 
the Bengal Asiatic Society, Sept. 1837. Mr. Tumour, though he 
BBw no reason to doubt " the correctness of the Budhistical era, 
founded on the death of Sakya, or b. o. 543," distrusts the date 
given to the second and third convocatioos. It is said in the ori. 
gmal authorities that no fewer than eight of the leading members 
who officiated at the second convocation had seen Dudha. As the 
earliest age at which they could be admitted as novices was seven 
years, they must have been at least 107 years old. Moreover, it is 
said that Sabbakami, who presided in the same convocation, had 
lived in the possession of the upasampada ordination 120 years; 
and he must therefore have been at this period 140 years old, as 
tills rite cannot be received under the age of twenty. Yet, the 
third convocation, only 135 years later, was ptcaided over by 
Moggaliputta-tiasa. at that time seventy-two years of age, who is 
reprcacQt«d as being the sixth remove in regular succession from 
the death of Q6laina. It may be said that these are not absolute 
■mposgibilities ; but there is another argnment against their cor- 
rectness, founded on data of an entirely different description. The 
third convocation is said lo have been held in the seventeenth year 
of the reign of As6ka, or n. c. 308. But it was in the year D. o. 326 
that Alexander invaded India, at which time Sandracottus reigned 
at Palaliputra; and if Sandracottus is the same as Chandagutta. 
there must be a discrepancy between the European and Budhistical 
chronologies of about siity-five years. It would therefore seem, 
that the date of the last convocalion haa been falsified, in order that 
the introduction of Itudhism into Ceylon* might bo invested with 
the greater lustre, from being effected by the son of so illustrious a 
monarch as the supreme ruler of India, and one who had rendered 
so much assistance to the religion of Ootama upon the continent. 

Thf adjustments of these dales is. however, of minor importance. 

compared with the question of the credit due to the history of the 

• SkM) the chmptci entitled, The Modtru Priesthood. 


conTOCBtiouB as a statement of facts. It is possible that the convo- 
cationa tools place, and for the purposes specified ; but it U not 
credible that the t-atirc text of the Pitakas could be retained in the 
memory for the space of six generations, allowing that the state- 
ment relative to the number of the hierarchs is correct. Yet it 
TCould be unfair not to notice, that from our own personal expe- 
rience we can form no idea of the retcntiTeneGS of the memory 
under other eircuraslances. Herodotus was astonished at the 
powers of memorj- exhibited by the Egj-pljan priests. The Druids 
are said by Caesar to have been able to repeat a great number of 
verses by heart, no fewer than twenty years being sometimes ex- 
pended on the acquirement, as it was accounted unlawful to commit 
their statute? to writing. It is supposed that the poems of Homer 
and Hesiod were presen-ed in the memories of the rbapsodists, by 
whom Ihey were recited, for the space of 500 years ; and in the 
middle ages the poems recited by the minstrels were of considerable 
length. The rythm of the verse would aid the memory ; and as a 
great part of the Pitakas is in metrical stanza, the priests would have 
a similar assistance. They would have another advantage in the 
great number of repetitions, not only of epithets and comparisons, 
but also of historical details and doctrinal formulas, that are con- 
stantly presented. But with every artificial aid it was possible to 
possess, it is utterly incredible that the whole text of the Pitakas 
could be retained in the memory of any one man, however extra- 
ordinary might be his power of mental retentivcncss. 

The idea of the preservation of revealed truth by tradition was 
already familiar to the Budhists, from the manner in which it was 
supposed that the Vedas were originally transmitted. The original 
Veda is believed by the Hindus to have been revealed by Brahma,* 
and to have been preserved by iradition. until it was arranged in 
its present order by a sage, who thence obtained the surname of 
Vj&sa, or Vadavyasa, that is, eompiler of the Vedas. The sacred 
books were divided into four parts, wbich are severally entitled 
Rich (from the verb rich, to laud, as properly signifying any prayer or 
hymn, in which a deity is praised) ; Yajush (from the verb yaj, to 
wor.''hip or adore) ; S4man (from the root Bh6, convertible into s6 
und sfi, and signi^^g to destroy, as denoting sometliing which 

* The Budhiats aa,j that the three Ycdns wore propounded originally by 
Mnhn Brnhnin, at whirh time they were pctfeel truth ; but Ihcy hove lUico 
been comiplvd by Xlm Uralinuuu, and now rontoin diuij- crron. 


deatToys sin) ; and Atliarvana. Each of tliese parts beara the com- 
mon denomination of the Veda. The Atharvana is commonly ad- 
mitted as a fonrth Vcdu, but is regarded as of less authority than 
the others ; and it is supposed by Wilkins and Sir W. Jones [o be 
of more modem origin. There arc also divers mythological poems, 
entitled llihiiga and Furanas. which are reckoned as a lifth Veda. 
Vyasn taught the several Vedas to as many disciples : viz., the Hicli 
to Paila. to Yajush, to Vaiaamp^yana, and the Saman to Jalminl ; 
also the Atharvana to Sumantu, and the Itih&Ba and Puranas to 

Different parts of the Pitakas may have been remembered by 
different persons ; and the pnrtionis remembered by each being 
collected together, the text may have been compiled therefrom 
itccording to its present arrangement. This, indeed, appears to 
have been the method in which the Koran was in part compiled. 
Whenever Mahomet revealed a new portion of matter, it was taken 
down by a scribe, and copied by his followers, who also learnt it by 
heart. At the warrior's death, these writings were all in confusion ; 
«id as Abu Itekr reflected that already muny were slain in the wars 
who were acquainted with different passages that had been rcrcaled, 
he ordered lliat the whole should be collected, both those that had 
been written and those that were retained in the memory, lest any 
poilion should be lost ; and from these he compiled the Koran 
under it« present fotm.f As the conten"* of the Koran are con- 
fessedly thrown into great confusion, it is probable that this tradi- 
tion is founded upon truth ; and though the text uf the Pitakas is 
presented under a greater regularity of arrangement, we may con- 
clude that its origin was after a similar method. The mtdeus of 
the sacred books was probably formed at an early period, after 
which successire additions were made, until some council or convo- 
cation invested with the proper authority established the canon, and 
prevented lite innovations that would otherwise have been attempted. 
When the style in which the Pitakas are written has been more 
carefully examined, differences may be noted from which the rela- 
tive antiquity of the several parts may be ascertained ; as the differ- 
ences of style between the books of the Sepluagint are decisive evi- 
dence that they were not simultaneously translated, in the manner 
maintained by tlie ancient Jews- 

Thoa wc see that the transmission of tlie test to the period of the 
■ Colcbnioku's UitcvUuicous Bway t, L 10. t Sale's Konm. 

tliird convocation, in the mode set forth in the work itself, was not 
possible ; even allowing that in the first convocation a canon pro- 
fessing to be authoritative vras eslablished. But this is not the 
oniy difficulty. It Ls further stated that the t«st was preserved in 
the same way from the time of As6k& to that of Wattaganioni, 
who reigned in Coyion from d. c. 104 to B.C. 76. It was then, 
according to the Mahawanso, cap. xxk, first committed to writing. 
" The profoundly wise priests had theretofore orally per])etuated the 
test of the Pitakattayan and the Atlhakalha. At this period these 
priette. foreseeing the perdition of the people (from the perversions 
of the true doctrines) assembled ; and in order that religion might 
endure for ages, recorded the suime in books." The traditions of 
the Burmans are in accordance with these statements. They say 
that " the communicntions of Ot'itama, made at first to bis imme- 
diate disciples, were by them retained in memory during five cen- 
turies or more ; and were afterwards agreed upon in several suc- 
cessive general councils, and finally reduced to writing on palm- 
leaves in the island of Ceylon, in the 94th year before Christ."* 
The three I'itakos are therefoTC not ti record that has come down to 
us from the age of Oolama. They were writleu in the 94th year 
n. c. ; and though it is said by the lludhists that they were orally 
preserved, in a manner the most perfect, from the death of Budha 
to that period, the statement is not worthy of credit, as it would be 
impossible under ordinary circumstances, and we deny that men 
with powers like those attributed to the rahats ever e&isted. 

In the enumeration of the sacred books of the Budhists by Csoma 
Kdriisi, no mention is made of their oral transmission, nor of their 
being reduced to writing in Ceylon. "The great compilation of 
the Tibetan sacred bookn, in 100 volumes, is styled Ka-gyur, or 
vulgarly. Kau-gyur, i.e. Translation of Commondment.t on account 
of their being translated from the Sanscrit, or from the ancient 
Indian languogc, by which may be understood the Pracrita, or dia- 
lect of Mogadha. the principal seat of the Budhist fiiith in India at 
the ]>criod. Theao books contain the doctrine of Shukya, a Builha, 
who is supposed by the generality of Tibetan authors to have lived 

• Crawford'* BmtMuay to Av». 

t A Lifpv of Itiii coUectiaa, ju 100 volume*, was nttide at the expense of 
llie IlcnKnl A^tic Society, under tlio direction of Csohib Kiirusi, which co«t 
1 3.000 franca. This Bugniflwnl work was presented bv th*t Society to 'I"- 

ic Sticiety uf Piri», and aRvrwanla placed in the Cabinet of Hauuncnpu 
rx-ixiiuing (o uic tbtyal Lihnurv, that it might tie carefully ptcservnl uicl at 
the aune time rendunid bcoohuiIo to all oriental aludenla. 


about 1000 years before the beginning of the Christian em. They 
were compiled at three different timcii. in three different placcB, in 
ancient India. First, immediately after the ilealh of Shikya ; after- 
wards in the time of Ashoka, a celebrated king, whose residence 
was at Pataliputra, 110 years after the decease of Shakya. And, 
lastly, in the time of Kaniska, a king in the north of India, ujiwards 
of 400 years from Shakya, when his followers had separated them- 
Belves into eighteen sects, under four principal divisions, of which 
the names both Sanscrit and Tibetan are recorded. The first com- 
pilers were three individuals of Shakya's principal disciples. Upidi 
compiled the Vinaya Sulram ; Anandah, the Siitrantah ; and Kash- 
yapa, the Prajnya-paramita. These several works were imported 
into Tibet, and translated there between the seventh and thirteenth 
centimes of our era. butmostly in the ninth. . . . The Ka-gyur collec- 
tion comprises the seven following great divisions, which arc in fact 
distinct works. 1. Vinaya, or Discipline, in thirteen volumes. 2. 
Prajny^-p^amita, or Transcendental 'Wisdom, in twenty-one 
volumes. 3. Buddha- vata-sanga, or Buddha Community, in six 
volumes. 4. Rntnaklita, or Gems heaped up, in six volumes. 5. 
Sutranta, or Aphorisms, or Tracts, in thirty volumes. 6. Nirv^a, 
or Deliverance from Pain, in two volumes. 7. Tantia, or Mystical 
Doctrine, Charms, in twenly-two volumes : forming altogether 
exactly 100 volumes. The whole KS-gyur collection is very fre- 
quently alluded to under the name, in Sanscrit, TripiCakah, the 
three Vessels or Repositories, comprehending under this appel- 
lation, 1st, the Dulva, or Vinaya; 2nd. the Do, or Siitra ; 3rd, 
the Shor-ch'hin, or Abhidharmah.'" • From this extract, in which 
I have omitted the Tibetan names, it will be seen that the sacred 
books of Tibet must in a great measure be the same aa those of 
Ceylon ; but from another extract from the same author, it will 
appear that the account of their origin is widely different. It 
is translated from the Index or Introduction to the 100 rolumcs 
of the Ka-gyur. and is there taken from the fourth Commentary on 
the Kala Chakra Tantra. " After Tathagata, the most accom- 
plished Iludha, the Bhagav&n, had been delivered Irora pain (or 
sorrow, i. e. had died) here in Aryadcsha, the compilers writing in 
three hooka, the three vehicles (or works on three-fold principles) 
they expressed all the three true repositories of Sutra, of Tathagata, in 
his language. The Prajnya-pdramilA and the Mantras in Sanscrit; 
* AiuJvsia of ihc Dulrk, by Akx. f'loma Kiirusi, A^atic Bewarchw, 



the several aotta of Tantras in several languages, Sanscrit. Praerit, 
Apabranshs, in that of the Diountamcer«, and all sorts of nielechcbas. 
The compilers thus collected all the doctrines taught by the all- 
knowing. Accordingly all the three Vehicles (yanam) in Tibet 
were written in the Tibetan language ; in China, in Chinese ; in 
Great China, in Great Chinese ; in the Parsika country, in the 
Parsik language. On the north of the Sila (Jaxartes) river, in the 
language of tlie Champaku country, the Ape or Monkey country, 
and of the Gold land."* The traditions of the Nepaulese upon 
the same subject differ in a degree equally greal from those of 
Ceylon. " The most important work of the speculative kind now 
exlant in Nepaul is the Raksha Bhagavati. consisting of no less than 
125,000 slocas. lu arrangement at least, and reduction to toriHng, 
are attributed (as are those of all the other Bauddha scriptures) 
to Sakya Sicha. Whatever the Budiihashave said (sugutai desita) 
is an object of worship with the Bauddhoa. Sakya having collected 
tliese words of the Buddhas, and secured them in a written form, 
they are now worshipped under the names of Sutra and Dharmn." \ 
These statement are so much at variance with each other, that no 
cuodusion can be come to as to the age in which (he I'itokas were 
compiled, until further researches have been made ; and as the 
subject has been purposely mystiiied by the Budhists, it is probable 
that it never will be established upon a basis so firm as to leave no 
room for doubt. 

Until an analysis of the Pitakas has been published, and its more 
important portions have been translated at length, no compendium 
of Budhism can be formed containing an authoritative and perfect 
exhibition of its doctrines. This task is not beyond the capacity of 
one individmd ; but it would require for its right accomplishment an 
early attention to languages, a familiar acquaintance with the lilc- 
ratine of metdpbysics, indomitable perseverance, the opportunity of 
reference to the more learned of the native priests, and a more 
lengClienod ])eriod of residence in au eastern clime than b usually 
the lot of the severe student. The core of the systfm appears to 
lie in n very narrow compass, and as we have frequently bad to 
notice, its repetition! are endless. " I had contemplated the idea," 

* JaiimBl RpDnJ Ai. Sof. March, 1S38, 

t ItDdeiuni'* ifiiutrBCinnc. But at a imbM?qurnt period the same auilior 
toyi, " S^uyo, like oUicr IntHnn BngcA. tnUKht oraily, and it is doubtful if he 
biuucU'RKlut-i.'il bin dorlrinra to a 1117111111 code, though ths great Ecriptiuts of 
iho sect arc scncrally attributed to him." 


Mr. Tumour writes, " at one period, of iilt<?inpling the analysis of 
the entire Fitaknttayan, aiilcd in the un Jecliiking by the able assiit- 
nnce afforded to me by the fiudhist priests, who arc my constant 
coadjutors in my Pali researches ; but I soon found that, iodepeU' 
dendy of my undertaking a task for the efficient performance of 
which I did not possess sufficient leisure, no nnalysia would suc- 
cessfully develop the contents of that work, unless accompanied by 
annotations nnd ex[iliina^ons of a magnitude utterly inadmissible 
in any periodical." * 

In siee, the I'itakas surpass all western compositions, but arc ei- 
ceeded by the sacred books of the Brahmans. The four Vcdas, 
' when collected, form eleven huge folio volumes. The Furinas. 
which constitute but part of the first of the Up-angns, eilend to 
about 2,000.000 of lines. The Ramayana rolls on to 100,000 
lines ; whilst the Mahabharut quadruples even that sum. The 
poems of Homer extend to 30,000, and the ^Sneid of Virgil to 
nearly 10,000 lines, 'llie old epic poem called Danai's or Danaides, 
mentioned in the Tabular Itaica, but now lost, contained 5.500 
verses. The Ethiopia of Arklinus contained 9,100 verses. Dio- 
genes Laertius asserts that Aristotle wrote forty-four myriads of 
lines ; and yet that Epicurus wrote more than Aristotle, and Chry- 
sippus more than Epicurus. Joscphus mentions that his own 
Antiquities contain GO.OOO lines. 'Vhe Cierman I'ercival, a loraauce 
of the middle ages, has nearly 25,000. and the German Tristan 
more than 23,0(H) verses. The Paradise Lost of J^Iilton has about 
10,000 lines. The Koran has about 6.000 verses, 77,639 words, 
and 328.015 letters. The Hebrew Old Testament, according to the 
Masontes, contoms SlJ.HO letters. The English Old TesUmcnt 
has 692,439 words, and 2,728,800 letters ; the English New Te»U- 
ment. 181,353 words, and 838,380 letters; or in the entire English 
Bible, 773.692 words, and 3,567.180 letters. But according to the 
computation of Tumour, the text alone of the Pilakas contains 
4,500 leaves, each page being about 2 feet long, and containing 
nine lines. Thus 4,500x2x9=81,000 lines. Tbeae lines are 
written without any space between the words, and we may there- 
fore conclude tliat in one line there arc at least as many as ten lines 
of any ordinary poetical measure. Therefore Sl.OOOx 10=810.000. 
Again, the commentary extends to a greater length than the Pit- 

■ Journal Btng&l Ai. Soc. July, 1X37. 


akas, so that there must be nearly 2,000,000 lines in the whole of 
the sacred hooks. 

It was ut one time supposed hy many orientalists that the sacred 
books of Uie Budhisls were originally written in Sanskrit, find after- 
wards translated into ihe different languages in which they now 
ap|)eur. This idea arose, in part, from the fact that numerous 
Budhistical works arc found in this language in Nepaul; but Mr. 
Hodgson, who was long of this opinion, which he defended with 
much re:icarch and his uauai energy of expression, now states "that 
the honours of Ceylonesc lilcralure and of the Pali language are no 
longer disputable." The Budhistical works in Sanskrit discorered 
by that gentleman are now found to be copiously inlcrapcrsed with 
passages in various Pracrils. Pali among the rest, pretty much in 
the manner of the Hindu drama, wherein this mixture of less 
finished dialects with the Sanskrit is of common occurrence.* It 
was oanounecd that " the original books of Budha " were at Jessol- 
mere, and they were called " the Sybolline volumes which none 
dare even handle ; " but at a later period, when Major Dixon, in 
compliance with the wish of the Bengal Asiatic Society, made en- 
ijuiry OS to the supposed existence of this extensive Budhist library, 
he could only hear of one single work relating to the religion of 

The Pali was the vernacular language of Magadha in the time of 
Ootama Budha. The decj^ihering of the alphabet, by the late J. 
Prinsep, in which the ancient inscriptions scattered throughout 
India arc written, as well as the legends upon ancient coins, has 
led to the establishment of the fact that " the wonder-working 
Pali" held universal sway during the prevalence of the Budhist 
faith in India, and tliat even in Bactria and Persia this language, 
or something very closely resembling it. prevailed. According to 
M. Bopp, the relation brlween these two idioms is nearer than that 
which subsists hetweeu most of the distinct branches of the Indo- 
Kuropean system, and it may be compared to the degree of affinity 
which Uio l^atin bears to the Greek, or the old Norse to the Maeso- 
Gothic.^ The high state of cultivation lo which the Pali language 
wan cuTicd, aod the great allcution that has been paid to it in 
CeyloD. may ho inferred from the fact, that a list of works in the 
poaiiCHslon of the Binghulesu that 1 formed during my residence in 

lUuntniiloiw, 1S41. t Joumat IttnKiu Ai. Sor. Ui 
rrlchard's PhyHcal Uulory of Mankind, iv. S2. 


that island, includes tbiKy-fivc works on Pall grammai, some of 
tlicm being of considerable extent. The oldest of the grammarB 
referred to in these works is by Kacbchayano, but the original ia 
nut now extant in Ceylon. It contains the well-known stanza : — 
'* There is a language which is the root (of oil languages) ; men 
and brahmas al the commencement of ihe kalpa, who never before 
heard ot uttered a human accent, and even the supreme Budhas. 
epoke it ; it is M^^adlii." The Singhalese suppose that it is 
also the language of the d^wa and brahma lokas. They have 
a legend na to its antiquity similar in character to the story related 
of Psanunitichufl, when two new-bom infants were abut up in a 
Bolitary cottage, attended by a shepherd who was not to speak to 
them, that by the language they first made use of to express their 
wants, the primitive language might be known. 

m. The Ilonouri received by Ihe Sacred Books, and the BmeJiU they 
confer. — The Dharmma being regarded as the second of the three 
greatest treasures in the possession of either men or dewas, the 
honours that it leceiveB are commensurate with the estimation in 
which it is held. It is lilenilly worshipped, and benefits are ex- 
pected to he received in cnnacquence of this adoration, as much as 
if it were an intelligent being. The books arc usually wrapped in 
cloth, and when their names are mentioned an honourific is added. 
equivalent lo reverend or illustrious. Upon some occasions they 
are placed upon a kind of rude altar, near the road-side, as I have 
seen the images of saints in Roman Catholic countries, that those 
who pass by may put money upon it in order to obtain merit. The 
same custom is mentioned by Rnox as being ^quent during the time 
of his captivity. The Nava Dharma and other works are regularly 
worshipped in Nepanl. The Hindus pay a similar respect to their 
flhaatraa, anointing them with perfumes, adorning them with gar- 
lands, and oflbring to them worship. 

The praises of the bana are a favourite subject with the nati»e 
authors. Whenever an opportunity is presented they launch out 
into A strain of commendation, heaping cpiibet upon epithet with 
untiring seal ; and tn some works the same phrases are many times 
repeated, with an cxactuess that is very distasteful to the western 
reader. A few extracts from ihis prolific source are here inserted. 

The discourses of Budha are as a divine charm to cure the poison 
of evil desire ; a divine medicine to heal the disease of anger ; a 
lamp In the midst of the darkneis of ignorance ; a fire, like that 


which buros at the end of a kalpa. to destroy the evils of repented 
esUtencc ; a meridian sun to dry up the mud of covetouanesa ; a 
great rain to quench the flame of sensualily ; a thicket to block up 
iJie toad thai loads to the narakaB ; a ship in which to sail to the 
opposite shore of the ocean of exisleucc ; a collyrium for taking 
away the of heresy j a moon to bring out the night- blowing 
lotus of merit; a succession of trees bearing immortal fruit, placed 
here and there, by which the traveller may he enabled to cross the 
desert of existence ; a ladder by which to ascend to the dewa-lokas ; 
a Btraighl highway by which to pass to the incom]).irable wisdom ; 
a door of CDtrance to (he eternal city of nirwana ; a talismanic tree 
lo give whatever is requested ; a flavour more exquisite than any 
other in the three worlds ; a treasury of the best things it is pos- 
sible to obtain ; and a power by which may be appeased the sorrow 
of every sentient being. 

The dharmma is perfect; having nothing redundant, and nothing 
wanting. But it requires attention, that ihc benefits it offers may 
he received. Though the teacher may attain great happiness, and 
enter nirwana, it docs not follow that the disciple will necessarily 
[Kisiess the sanio privileges ; he may be lihc one who binds the crown 
upon the head of another. Therefore each one for himself must 
exercise meditation, and observe the ordinances, thai he may attain 

For the right understanding of the discourses of Budha, a know- 
ledge of the following subjects is required : — the five kliandas, the 
aix ayatonas, the four dhatus, the four satyas or great truths, and 
the paticlia-samuppada, or circle of culstenee. These five subjects 
ore called bbuini, or the ground. Sila-wisudhi, the right observ. 
once of the precepts, and chilla-wisudhi, purity of mind, are called 
mula or root, as being the root set in the previous ground. Drisbti- 
wifludhi, purity of knowledge, kankha-witarana-wisudhi, the entire 
removal of doubt, maggAmagga-gny^nH-dBsaana-wisudbi, the know- 
ledge of what belongs to the paths (leading to nirwana) and what 
docs not, pBtipada-gnyiina-ilassaaa-wiHudIti, llie knowledge of what 
U necciwary to bo done in order to atlain felicity, aud gnydua- 
daasana-wisadhi, aro called serira, the stem or trunk. Thus tlie 
five principle* called bbiiim will be aa the ground, and the five sub- 
jects a* the rout, from which will be produced the serira as tlie tree, 
by the exutciae of tnedilatiun ; and from that will be produced the 


atUinmeiit of the paths. The four paths, the fruition of the pat)i5. 
nirwuna, and the bans, arc the ten dharmmaa — dasa dhannma. 

On a certain occasion the pricat Ealftbudharakshila, who resided 
iu the cave called Kajagiri, near Anuradhapura, repeated the Kfila- 
karama-sitra, at the foot of a timbiri tree. Whilat thua engaged, 
he began to perspire ; but the sun appeared in one quarter, and the 
moon in another, and caused a breeze to arise that he might thereby 
be cooled. At the same time, tike a beautiful woman opening her 
mouth so that her teeth may just be perceived, all the buds of the 
trees tn the forest began to unfold themselves partially ; all the bees 
began to murmur an offering of praise ; all the pea-fowl, doves, and 
other birds remained in silence, lest they should disturb the sound 
of the bana, and they listened attentively for the commencement of 
the recitation, thinking every moment that it would begin ; even 
the apes and other animals all remained in anxious expectation. 
When the priest began to speak, his voice rose from the midst of 
the assembly like thunder from a rain-cloud : from rainbow lips his 
tongue moved, like the play of the lightning ; and the words come 
from his rain-cloud mouth, falling upon the hearts of those who 
listened, like a shower of divine instruction, filling as many tanks 
and pools. At that time Sardha-tissa was king of Anuradhapura, 
who, having heard that the priest KalAbudharakshita was about to 
say bana, took with him seven of his faithful attendants, and went 
to the timbiri tree, where he remained during the whole of the 
night watches without being perceived. When the day dawned, 
and the darkness had passed away, like evil desire from the hearts 
of the worshippers, the priest imparted the five obligations to the 
assemblage. The king then came from his coaceatment, com- 
mended the skill of the priest, and look the obligations. On being 
asked at what time he had come, he said that he anived during the 
recitation of the first stanza, and had remained there ever since. 
The priest replied, that his majesty was of a delicate frame, and 
that it must hare fatigued him to remain so long ; but he graciously 
made answer, " If you were the speaker, I could remain to hear 
bona during the whole of either of our Uvea. I have heard every 
word, and I woiild rather inherit only so much of this realm of 
Lanka as could be covered by the point of a goad, than have missed 
the privilege of hearing it." The king then lauded the priest ; and 
the priest, the people, and tha d^was praised the king. After tliis 
Sanlbii-tisaa informed the priest that he had never previously heard 


bana of the same description, and asked him how he had learnt bo 
many pnrticulars respecting the virtues of Budha, and if more could 
be declared upon the same subject. Kalabudharakshita replied, 
that it was from the three pitakas, the discourses on the 550 births, 
the 299 katha-wastus, and ihe 17,675 stiltas, he had learnt these 
things. " ^\'hat !" said the king, " is there more bona, in addition 
to that which you have repeated to us?" The reply of the priest 
was this : " 'Wliat I have declared bears the same proportion to ail 
the saj'ings of Budha that a single grain does lo the harvest of a 
thousand fields ; or a. drop of water, the size of a mustard seed, to 
the whole body of the ocean ; or the portion of earth taken up by 
a small bird, to the enlire mass of the earlh ; or the atom that an 
ant lAkcs into its mouth, to the carcase of on elephant ; or the rain 
that merely covers a splinter of wood, to the flood that would over- 
flow the four continents; or the portion of sky covered by the wing 
of a bird when flying, to the whole espanse of the heavens. That 
which I have declared is little; that which I have not declared is 
immeasurable." The king was so much delighted with what he 
bad beard, that he said, if he had been a universal emperor he 
woidd have given the four great continents to those who say bana ; 
if he had been king of Jambudwipa, he wouid have given the whole 
of that portion of the world ; if he had been king of the dewas, he 
would have given the d^wa-lokas ; but that as be was only king of 
Lanka, this small realm was all thai he could give ; yet this he 
freely offered. The priest said in answer. " We accept what you 
have given, that you may enjoy the merit of the gift ; but wc re- 
turn it to you again, as we have no need of two kingdoms ; that of 
Ihe dhamuua is sufficient for us. It«spcct the three gems, regard 
the precepts, reign righteously, and be blessed both in this world 
and the next.'' The king, after worshipping the priest, returned to 
bis palace in the city. 

The advantages lo be received from listening to the hana are re- 
pmented hy the native auiliors as being immensely great ; and 
there is scarcely any benefit presented to the mind of the Budhist 
that may not be derived from the esercbe. This is in conformity 
with tile sentiment* generally entertained in the east, as the Brah- 
mans also assert of their puriina«, tliat " it is an act of the greatest 
merit, extinguishing all sin, for the people lo read these books or 
hpar them read." In tlie earlieat ages of Budhism. when the bona 
was in the Tcmocular language of the people, wc may suppose that 


great effects were produced by its recitation, and by the discouTBes 
that were delivered in explaining its doctrines and duties ; but its 
reliearsa] has now degenerated into an unmeaning form, leading the 
people to found their hope^ of blessedness upon an act that cannot 
in any way be beneficial. A few additional estraets may form a 
euitnble conclusion to our account of the Sacred Books. 

I'he Brahmsns Buy that the destruction of evil desire may be 
effected by the reading uf the Bbarata or Ramayana ; but this is not 
possible. It ia only by listening to the bans of Radha that this 
effect can be produced. 

There are two principal modes of d&na, or almsgiving. 1. 
Dharmraa-dana, providing for the recitation of the bana, or the 
giving of religious instruction. 3. Amisa-dfina, presenting rubci, 
alms'bowls, and other requisites of the priesthood : and giving cattle, 
garments, and ornaments, to supply the necGBsilies of the poor. 
Of these two modes, the former is the most meritorious. 

The d^waa in Tawutisa being on one Dcca«ion assembled toge- 
ther, propounded to each other four questions: — 1. What is the 
jirincipal dana ? 2. What ta the principal taste or enjoyment } 
3, What is the principal desire ? 4. What is the principal evil ! 
The dewas of 10,000 Eskwalan considered these questions con- 
tinually for the space of twelve yearn, hut were unable to come to 
any conclusion. They therefore went to the four guardian deities, 
called waram ; but neither could Ibey determine the questions. 
I'pon which ihcy referred the matter to Sekra. who said that they 
hod belter go at once to Budha ; and when they went, he accom- 
ponied (hem. After hearing these questions, Gotnma replied. " I. 
Of all roodei of dana, dharnuna-dana is the chief. 2. Of all enjoy- 
ments, tliat of tlie dharmma is the most exquisite. 3. Of all desires, 
that of the dharmma is the most e»cel!ent. 4. Of all evils, the re- 
petition of existence is the greatest." Budha said further, " Were 
any one to give the three robes to Budha, the Pas^-liudhns, or the 
tahats, though the materia! of their fabric were ns soft and mdooiIi 
u the tender bud of the pkniain. ibe hearing or reading of one 
single stAnxa of the bana would bring liim a greater reward ; indeed 
its reward would be more than sixteen times greater." 

Were any one to fill the bowl of Budha wiih the ehoicesl food, or 
to present od, sugar, honey, or other medicaments in the greatesl 
abundance, or to build thousand* of wihams splendid as those of 
Anniiidhapura, or to present an offrr'uig to Budha like that of 


An^pidu, the hearing or reading of one single stanza of the bana 
would be more meritorious than all. He who listens not to the 
bana is unable to procure merit. Even Seriyut, whose wisdom was 
vast Qs the rain ihat falls duiing a whole kalpa, could not attain 
nirwana without hearing the bana of Budha ; it was from bearing n 
Blonz,-! repealed by Assnji that be was enabled to enter the paths. 

The dharmma brings to those who listen to it with affection, 
though it be only for a little time, all the happiness of the dewa- 
t6k)iB, the joy of the brahma-lokas, received during myriads of 
years ; the greatness of the cbakraivartti, and the other advantages 
of the world of men ; (he pleasures that are to be obtained in the 
worlds of the nligas, auparnnas, and other beings ; and llie wisdom 
of the supreme Budbas. 

There was a virgin in KapUawastn, of the Sakya race, who heard 
hnnn, and had great merit. As she was a woman slie could not 
become Sekra, or Maha Brahma, or a chakrawartti ; but when she 
died she became a dewa, changing ber sei, and received a glory 
like that of the ruler of Tawutisa. 

There was a certain dewa, who was aware that in eight days he 
must die, and be re-bom in a place of torment ; but as he perceived 
ihal Budha, and he alone, had the power to help him, he went and 
heard bana, by which he was ennbled to enter the paths. 

It may be nsked why all who heard Budha had not the power to 
become mhats, and the reply is this ; — " When the king partakes 
of food, he gives a portion to the princes who arc near him, and 
they receive as much as their hands will hold. In like manner, 
when the Budhas say bana, it can only be effectual to those who 
listen, in proportion to iheir capacity for receiving its advantages, 
though in itself it is always good." 

In the time of Kasyapa Budha ihcra were two priests who lived 
in a cave, and were accustomed to repeat aloud the Abhidharmma 
Pitaka. In the name cave there were 500 white bats, that were 
fill«d with joy when they heard the bana of the priests, hy which 
they actiniied merit, so that ihey afterwards became dewas, and in 
the time of Ootama were bom in the world of men. They were the 
500 prientn who kept wnss at Sakaspurn. with Seriyut, when Budha 
viaited him from the d^wa-lokn. Now if these bats, merely 
f^m hearing the tound of the words of the Abhidharmma, without 
undentandinif thorn, received so great a reward, it is evident that 



the reward of those ivho both hear and vmdersUnd them must bo 
something beyond computation. 

The dhannma soflens the hearts of even such obdurate beings as 
Angulimahi, Suchiroma, Khararoma, Bahabbrahma, Sachaka, and 
D6wa(Iatta. It estabhBhes friendship between beings that have 
naturally the greatest antipathy to each other, aa between the aaurs 
and the dewas, the nagas and the garundas, snakes and frogs, elc' 
phants and lions, tigers and deer, crows and owU, and cats and rats. 
It is as a witness to tell the beings in the world of men, that they 
who are under the power of demerit wiU be bom in a place of 
misery, by this means saving tlicm from this awful state ; even as 
Asoka, lliQ king, was saved &om his inveterate scepticism, and led 
to attend to the precepts. It shines upon the darkness of the 
world, as the raya of the sun, when this luminary has ascended the 
Yugundhara rucks, shine upon the lotus flowera of the lake, causing 
them to expand, and bringing out their beauty. 


The Budbists of the present age are image- worshippers ; but it is 
not known at what period ihey adopted this custom, nor indeed 
at what period it was introduced into India. The firf^t notice of 
idolatry is in connexion with the history of Abraham, whose father 
" sen'ed other gods," and there is an ancient tradition, that he was 
a maker of idols. All the nations with which the patriarchs had 
intercourse appear to have been image -worshippers. But if we 
may trust the most ancient uninspired writcra, both eastern and 
western, this practice was of more recent establishment among 
otlier nations. Among the Greeks, the first objects of worship 
were nothing more than a pillar, a log of wood, or a shapelcas 
stone. The original image of the Ephesian Artemis, as seen npon 
coins, was little more than a head with a shapeless trunk. When 
statues were introduced, they nere of the rudest form ; and it would 
have been regarded as sacrilege to make any innovation upon the 
ancient model. The profession of idol-carvers being hereditary 
would seem lu indicate that they had originally belonged to some 
Other race. According to Eusebius, the Greeks wore not wor- 
shippers of images until thv time of Cccrops, and Lucian tells us 


that even llie ancient Egyptians had no alatues in their tuukpk-s 
In the Hoineric poems there is on]y one allusion to o statue as a 
work of urt. The subatituiion of images for the more ancient ob- 
jects of worship was supposed to have been brought about by 
Egyptian settlers." Numa forbade the Romans to set up an image ; 
so that for'the apace of 170 years from the founding of the city, 
" they made no image, nor statue, nor so much as a picture." — 
Clemens. Alex. Strom, lib. 1. Tlic British Druids had no images 
among them ; oa it wiia contrary to the principles of tlie Celtic reli- 
gion to represent any gods by the human figure.! 

It is Baid by Professor Wilson that the religion of the Vedas was 
not idolatry, their real doctrine being the unity of the Deity in 
whom all things are comprehended. The prevailing character of 
their ritual is the worship of the personifiGd elements. Image-wor- 
ship is alluded to by Manu, but with an intimation that the Brab- 
mas who subsist by ministering in temples are an Inferior class. { 
With this agrees the testimony of Dr. Stevenson. " It is manifest," 
he etiyB, " from every page of the Sama and Rig Vedaa, that Agni 
was adored under the element of fire, that Mitra had no emblem 
but the sun which sliines in the firmament, and that Vayii's pre- 
sence was only knotra by hearing his voice resound through the 
sacrificial hall. The genius of the pestle and mortar is indeed 
addressed as well as the genius of the mortars ; but no image in 
any human or bestial form appears ever to have been made, except 
when the genius of the oblation was addressed ; the barley-meal of 
which it was composed being farmed into something like the shape 
of A human head. But with this doubtful exception, no image was 
introduced intu the Jyotishtoma, Somayaga, or other sacred farah- 
manicdl rites authorised by the Vedos. Polytheistical the worship 
undoubtedly is, but not idolatrous In the proper and distinctive 
aenseof that term."! 

The Builhiats of Ceylon have a legend that in the lifetime of Gotama 
Budba an image of the founder of their religion was made by order 
of the king of Kosala, and the Chinese have a similar story ; but it 
is rejected by the more intelligent of the priests, who regard it as 
an invention to attract worshippers to the temples. The images of 
Budha are called Pilomas, which means literally a counterpart or 

* Sm nUtnriM of Greece, by Thirlwall and Oral«. 
t Smilb'* Itclieion of Ani-ii^Tit Uritaiii. 

{WiUmi'* Vuhnu Purano, Prelate. 
Jouraftl Royal A*. Soc. vol. viii. 


ItkeoeM, luid thoiigli they are not coeval with Budhism, they must 
have come into use at on early period. In t}ie inscription at Mihin- 
tala, A. D. 246. mention is made of the great house of the (lilama. 
Fo Hinn. a. d. 400, saw many of these images in his trarela. At 
Tlio li. in northern India, he saw a statue of wood, 80 feet high, of 
the future Budha. Maitri, the likeness of whom had been brought 
from the fourth heaven by a rahat. At Sewct he saw the statue of 
sandal-wood made by the king of Kosala, which was said to be the 
model of all the statues afterwards erected. At Anuradhapura he 
Euw an image of blue jasper, 23 feet 6 inches high, set with pre- 
ciouB stones, and sparkling with inexpressible splendour. In its 
right hood was a pearl of great value. At Amarapura there is an 
image of Budha, 20 cubils high, said to have been made during the 
life-time of the sage. 

The wiharas in which the images are deposited are generally, in 
Ceylon, permanent erections, the walls being plastered, and the 
roof covered with tiles, even when the dwellings of the priests are 
mean and temporary, Near the entrance are frequently seen figures 
in relievo, who arc called the guardian deities of tlic temple. Sur- 
rounding the sanctum there is usually a narrow room, in which are 
images and paintings ; but in many instances it is dark, the gloom 
into which the worshipper passes at once, when eniering during 
the day, being well calculated to strike his mind with awe; and 
when he enters at night the glare of the lamps tends to produce an 
effect equally powerful. Opposite the door of entrance there is 
another door, protected by a screen ; and when this is withdrawn an 
image of Budha is seen, occupying neatly the whole of the apart- 
ment, with a (able or altar before it, upon which flowers are placed, 
causing a sense of suffocation to be felt when the door is first 
opened. Like the temples of the Greeks, the walls arc covered 
with paintings ; the style at present adopted in Ceylon greatly re- 
sembling, in its general appearance, that which is presented in the 
tombs and temples of Egypt, The story most commonly illustrates 
some passage in the life of Budha, or in the births he received as 
Bodhisnt. The wiharos are not unfrequently built upon rocks, or 
in other ramanttc situations. The court around is planted with the 
trees ihat bear the flowers most usually oflered. Some of the most 
celebrated wiharas are caves, in part natural, with excavations car- 
tied further into the rock. 

The images of Budha ore sometimes recumbent, at other times 


iiprigiht, DT in a sitting poatare, either in the act of contemplation, 
or \Tith the hand uplifted, in the act of giving inHtruction. At 
Cottu, near Colombo, there is a recumbent image 42 feet in length * 
Upon the altar, in addition to the flowers, there arc frequently 
Bmaller images, either of marble or mcla], the former being brought 
from Burma and the latter from Siam. In the xhape of the images, 
each nation appears to have adopted its own idea of beauty, those 
of Ceylon resembling a well-proportioned native of the island, 
wbibt those of China present an appearance of obesity that would 
be regarded as anything but divine by a Hindu. The images made 
in Slam are of a more attenuated figure, and comport better with 
OUT idea of the ascetic. According to Hodgson, there are in Ncpaul 
images of Budha with three heads and sis or ten arms. Bishop 
Smith gives a lively description of the idol- manufactories in China. 
In one of the narrow streets of Anioy he entered an idol-shop, 
where idols of every pattern and quality were procurable, the prices 
varying from several dollars eaeh to the low sum of sis cash, equal 
to obout one farthing. The licensed permission of the mandarins 
to pursue the vocation of idol-maket was visibly depicted on a sign- 
board in the shop. On anoUier board was a notice that precious 
Biidhas were there manufactured or repaired. A large number of 
idols, of every shape, and in every stage of manufacture, were lying 
around. Another idol -manufactory had the sign suspended over 
the door, " The golden Budha shop." These shops were to be 
seen at every quarter of a mile, and presented groups of images, 
some black with age and sent thither for legilding, and others 
gaudily painted and fresh from the hand of the ortiat. Some had 
stem visages ; some wore the expression of pleasure ; and all looked 
exceedingly grolesque.f 

In the couTt-ynrd of nearlf all the wiharas in Ceylon, there U a 
small dewaln, in which the brahmanical deitiefl are worshipped. 
The persons who officiate in them are called kapuwas. They 
marry, and arc Dot distinguished by any particular costume. The 
incftntations they use are in Sanskrit ; but they do not understand 
the meaning of the words, and repeat them merely from memory. 
EuTDpvans ore not allowed to enter the dcw^las, and it is difEcult 
to ascertain the exact nature of the rites therein performed. In the 
sanctum are the anuletn or foot-rings of Pattia6,| or the weapons 

• SeUlrk'd BenillMTtimis of Ctylou. t Smith's Chins. 

I Allrod ri^iiiinil Oulhrum and the ullin' Uoniah chicb to iiwcsi ou tlitr 
liniy riiii;. iir Itrnrvlct, eoiuccrntcil to Odin, on oath wtuph more than »ay 
"thiT tli'-y WLTe f(<urful lo violalc. 


of the other deities, wiih a painted screen before them ; but there 
are no images, or none that are permanently placed ; in some of the 
ceremonies temporary images are made of rice, or of some other 
material equally perbhablc. In some instances, as at Lankatilaka, 
near Kandy. the wibara and di'wala are under one roof. 

The cave-temple at Darabulla is one of the most perfect wiharns 
novf existing in Ceylon, and as it is also one of the most interesting 
spots in the island, the following description of it will not he re- 
garded as out of place. It ia from the pen of Forbes, to whom ihc 
island is greatly indebted for the manner in which he has illustrated 
its early history and present anUquities. 

" The rock of Dambulla appears to be about 400 feet in height. 
On the north side it ts hare and black. To the south its huge 
overhanging mass (about 150 feet from the summit) by some art 
and much labour, has been formed into wiharas. The ascent to 
them is over a bare shelving rock, except where the ateep path 
leads through a patch of jungle, and the entrance to the platform 
in front of them is through a miserable gateway. 

" The wihara called Maha Dewiyo (supposed to have been built 
by the assistance of Vishnu) is narrow, and requires lo be lighted 
by torches. It contains a gigantic figure of Budha recumbenl. the 
statue, as Weil as tltc bed and pillow on which it reclines, being 
formed from the solid rock. The figure is well cseculed, and is 47 
feet in length. At its feet stands an attendant, and apposite to the 
face a statue of Vishnu. This long, narrow, and dark temple, the 
position and placid asjiect of Budha, together with the stillness 
of the place, tend to impress the beholder with the idea that lie is 
in the chamber of death. The priest asserU that the position and 
figures are esacl, both in resemblance and size ; that such was 
Budha, and such were those who witnessed the last momenta of 
hia mortality. To favour this illusion, the priest takes care to 
place the few lights in the best position, and to keep the faeo 

" The front of the Maha Riga, and indeed of all the temples, is 
formed by a wall under the beetling rock ; and these sacred caverns 
are partly natural and partly excavated. The Maha R^a wihiira 
ia 172 feet in length, 75 in breadth, and 21 feet high at the wall ; 
but the height gradually decreases to the opposite side. The bad 
vfloct of this angular shape is in part done away by a judicious dis- 
tribution of the figures and their curtains. In this temple there sre 

XIX. MOUKS OF vroKsuiP. 203 

upwards of iifty figurea of Budba, most of them larger than life ; 
also a statue of each of the dewas, Saman, Vishnu, Natha, and the 
dewi Patting, and of two kings, Walagam Bahu and Kirti Nissanga. 
Walagam Bahu was the founder of this temple, b. c. 86. Kirtti 
Nissanga, after he had repaired the dilapidations occasioned by the 
Malabar invaders, a.d. 1195, caused all the statues to be gilded ; 
and so ornamented the place that it obtained the name of Rangiri, 
or the Golden Rock. There ia a very handsome dagoba, the spire 
of which touches the roof at its highest part ; and in a small square 
compartment, railed in, and sunk about two feet below the level of 
Ihe Moor, a vessel is placed to receive the water which constantly 
drops from a fissure in the rock, and is exclusively kept for sacred 
purposes. The whole of the interior, whether rock, wall, or statue, 
is painted with brilliant colours, but yellow much predominates. 
In one place the artist has attempted to depict part of the early his- 
tory of the island, beginning with the voyage of Wijaya, which is 
represented by a ship with only the lower masts, and without sails; 
find alongside are fishes as large as the vessel. In representing the 
building of the great dfigobas at Anuradhapura, the proportions are 
not heller preserved ; and these artificial mountains appear to be 

little larger than the persons employed in finishing them The 

ornamental paintings, where proportion wevs not of paramount con- 
sequence, are very neat; and all the colours appear to be permanent 
and bright, although some have not been renewed for upwards of 
fifty years. 

" The Pass Pilama and two Alnt Wiharas are formed on the 
same plan, but are inferior in size and ornament to the Maha Raja. 
In one of them is a sUlue of king Kirtti Sri, the last benefactor of 
Dambulla. and a zealous supporter of Budhism. On the rock plat- 
form, which extends in front of all the temples, a bo-tree and several 
cocoa-nut trees, have been reared, and have attained a great sixe, 
despite their bare situation, equally exposed to tempests, and to 
the scorching heat and long drotighu to which Dambulla ia liable. 
Near the Maha Dewiyo wih^ra, neatly cut in the rock, ia a long 
Singhalese inscription of considerable antiquity, and on other parts 
of the rock are several inscriptions.* ITie summit of the rock 
commands a delightful view. ... It was once surmounted by three 

* Thcuc inwriptionB arc in the chsracKr ilpFipherpd by the lato Junes 
Prinsop, a name thai ought never to be meationeil b; the oricnlalist without 
•ome cxprCHion of rcujievt for his varied uccompliiihnieDtA, and o( rcgrrt for 


dagobas, which have been crumbled down and been washed away. 
About fifty feet from the summit there is a pond in the rock, which 
the priests assert is never without water." * 

The author of this description possessed great facilities for giving 
an accurate account of the places here mentioned, as he was many 
years the agent of Government for the district in which they arc 
situated, a respectable artist, and well-acquainted with the Sin- 
ghalese language. I visited Dambulla in 1829 ; and again in 1838, 
with my wife and infant, who were returning from Trincomale, after 
being shipwrecked on the eastern coast of the island. Upon my 
last visit I noticed a considerable difference in the brilliancy of the 
colours. When upon the summit of the rock, alone, I was sur- 
rounded by a tribe of white monkeys. By their antics and inces- 
sant chattering they appeared anxious to impart to me some matter 
of grave import ; but as it is probable that none of them were ever 
Englishmen in former states of existence, nor I a monkey, we could 
hold no communication with each other, and our interview led to 
no*'practical result. 

It is said that there were sixty-four sacred caves near the city of 
Anuradhapura, in the days of its Budhistical eminence. In several 
narratives connected with the history of Gotama Budha cave- 
temples are s|>oken of in such a manner as to induce the belief 
that they were then of common occurrence. The places that he 
visited are frequently said to be gal-lenas. In some instunccs there 
appear to have been monoliths, with conical roofs. Mugalan re- 
sided in a place of this description when beset by a band of robbers 
at the instigation of some rival tirttakas. The keyhole of the door 
was the only aperture it contained. The spots in which Budha and 
his disciples had resided would probably be first adopted as places 
of worshi]), when it became the custom to adore their relics. 

In the ancient legends the wiharas in which Gotama resided are 
represented as being extremely splendid; indeed they are to be 
C(|uallcd *only by the talismanic structures of the Arabian genii. 
One near the city of Sewet, the capital of Kosala, erected by the 
merchant Anepidu, is said to have cost 180 millions of golden 
masurans. From the remains yet in existence upon the continent 
of India, we are warranted in concluding that at an early period the 
temples in which the Budhists worshipped, and their priests re- 
sided, were of elaborate execution, and some of them extensive. A 

• Tho Ceylon Almanac, 1834. 


papcT was read before the Royal Asiatic Society. Dee. 5, 1843, 
entitled, " On the Rotk-cut Temples of India, by James FcTgusson, 
Esq." This papei is inserted in ihe Journal of the Society, No. xt, 
and was reprinted, with some additions, in illustration of a work 
he published, containing views of the Ajunta and other rock-cut 
temples, in one volume fnlio. Nearly nil the temples of this de- 
scription in India were Tisited by Mr. Fergusson. The whole are 
classed under the following heads ; — First, wihara, or monastery 
caves ; the first subdivision of tliin class consisting of natural caverns 
or caves slightly improved by art ; the second, of a verandah 
opening behind into cells for the abode of the priests, but without 
sanctuaries or images ; in the third this arrangement being ex- 
tended by the enlargement of the hall, with a recess, in which is 
generally a statue of Budha, thus making it both an abode for the 
priests and a place of worship. By far the greatest number of 
Budhist excavations belong to this last division. The most splendid 
are those at Ajuntn, though one at Ellora is also fine ; and there 
are also some good specimens at Salsette, and perhaps at Junir, 
The second class consists of chaitya (tlagoha) caves, one or more of 
which IB attached to evfty set of caves in the west of India, though 
none exist in the east«m side. The plan and arrangement of all 
thtisc caves are exactly the same. Mr. Fergusson believes that the 
Karli cave, which is the most perfect, is also the oldest in India. Tho 
caves that do not come under these two classes are brahmonical. 

As it was stated that the paintings in these eaves were rapidly 
going to destruction, the Court of IJirectors of Ihe East India Com- 
pany issued orders that means should be adopted for llieir preserva- 
tion. In consequence, the Government of Madras has employed an 
officer of their establishment, Capt. R. Oill. to clear out the caves 
of Ajimta, to furnish full detaib of their construction, and moke 
copies of the paintings. Fourteen paintings have already been 
transmitted from this interesting spot, and are now in the library at 
tlie India House. They arc thus artistically described in the Athe- 
naeum, Feb. 3, 1849; — " The paintings, considered as the produc- 
tion of so early a period, may be regarded as objects of very high 
import in pictorial art. In many of them certain striking coinci- 
dences with Siennese and Pisan art, under the influence of Byzan- 
tine taste, are to be remarked. Tliere are the same diagrammatic 
manifestations of the human form and the human countenance ; 
similar conventions of action and of feature ; a like constraint in 


the choice of action and the ilclincation of form, in conacqucnce of 
a like deficiency in knowkilge of the human subject ; and a hkc 
earnestness of intention and predominance of dramatic display. 
That these pictures were exocuted at distinct times and by various 
hands there is internal eTidence. While however they offer such 
pTOofs of the progress of ait, there is in some of lliem one quality 
too singular not to be remarked on. There is n complinnce with 
the principles of perspective in architectural details in the very 
pictures in which these same principles are viololed in the relative 
Rcales of the parts in the assemblage of human forms. The sense 
of light and shade, or the art of making figures obvious and clear 
at a distance, is found in these coinciding with the early Italian art 
before alluded to. The sense of colour is little more advanced in 
them than in Egyptian art, as made known to us through the me- 
dium of Rosellini, or than in most other aboriginal conditiona of 
art. Assigning the date of these pictures to the period suggested 
by the author of the preceding memoir (a very learned authority on 
such subjects) it is at least remarkable that evidence of perspective 
should be found so very much earlier than the date of any existing 
specimens known in Southern Europe. 'Ae earliest examgdes of 
the application of perspeclire principles In Italian art date some- 
where about the middle of the fourteenth century." 

The temples of Burma arc said by Crawford to be inferior to 
those of Siam, where the sacred edifices have the doors, windows, 
and roofs of richly carved wood. WTiilst the Siamese temples are 
spacious buildings, much ornamented in the interior, the majority 
of the modem temples in Burma are mere masses of brick and 
mortar. But for every temple in Slam there are twenty in Burma ; 
none but the rich and powerful building temples amongst the 
Siamese, whilst among the Burmans it is a common mode of obtain' 
ing merit, even with the inferior classes, who thus eshibil their 
respect for religion, ralhci than in endowing monaatcries.* 

No wih^ra has recently been erected in Ceylon of durable ma- 
terial or imposing appearance. The enthusiasm of the masses in 
favour of the religion of their ancesiors haa passed away, and Indl- 
Tidnala arc too poor to be able to lavish large turns upon the 

Attached to one of the wiharas in Kandy, near the burial-place of 

the kings, there is an area which was regarded as a sanctuary under 

* CrawCord's BmbMay to the Court of Ava. 


ihe native government. The right oF sanctuary agrees well with 
monastic pretension and principle. Matthew of Westminster says 
of Uic sanctuary at Hexham, "Now, if a malefactor, flying for 
refuge to thai church, was taken or apprehended within the four 
croesea, Ihe partye that tooke or laid holdc of hym there, did for- 
feit two hundredh ; if he tooke hym wilhyn the toivne, then hee 
forfctted four hundredh ; if withyn the waltes of the churche, then 
six hundredh; if withyn the churche, 1200; if withyn the doorcs 
of the ([uire, then 1800 besides penance ; but if hee jiresoomcd to 
take hym oulo of the stoone chair near the altare. called fridstol, or 
from the holie relics behinde the altare, the oScnce was not re- 
deemable with anic sommc." These places were frequently com- 
plained of as a great grievance. Stow says in his Chronicle, 
" Unthrifta riot and run in debt upon the boldness of these places ; 
yea. and rich men run thither with poor men's goods ; there they 
build, there they spend, and bid their creditors go whistle them ; 
men's wives run thither with their husband's plate, and say they 
dare not abide with their husbands for beating ; thieves bring 
thither their stolon goods, and live thereon ; there devise they new 
robberies, nightly they steal out, they rob and reave, and kill, and 
come in again, as though these places gave them not only a safe- 
guard for the evil they have done, but a liecnee to do more."' The 
vcslnl virgins were permitted to demand the release of any criminal 
they might meet accidentally in the street. The priests of Budha 
in Burma had until recently bo mneh authority, that they even 
withiirew condemned criminals from life hand of justice. Capital 
punishment was a rare occurrence in the kingdom ; for no sooner 
did the priests hear that a criminal was being led to execution, than 
they issued from their convents in great numbers, with heavy sticks 
concealed under their habits, with which they furiously attacked 
the ministers of justice, put them to flight, and led away the culprit 
to their temple. Here his head was shaved, the yellow robe was 
put upon liim, and by these ceremonies ho was absoh-ed from his 
crime, and his person rendered inviolable ; but they do not now 
venture upon these bold measures, unices they are sure of the pro- 
tection of the mandarins.* 

The limits of the wihikra. as well as of the places in which bana 

is publicly road, are to he dcfmed by « chapter. The form to be 

used appears in the Kanimawiichan. Il is not a consecration, but 

* SanKCTRiBno'* Bu n iw ia Bmpire. 


simply an appointment of boundaries : an net of this kind being 
necessary in relation to all places where regulars are |iermitted to 
congregate. The consecration of churches began in the fourlh 
century, and appears to hare been connected with the jus asyli 
vbicb was then claimed. It ie a fitting rito when properly con- 
ducted ; but when tbe spot thus consecrated is regarded as a place 
in which ihe whole of the ministerial dut)' may be performed, or as 
conferring upon the word preached, or the aupplication presenlcd, 
a power which it docs not possess in other places, a consequence is 
produced thai is in opposition to the estenl of privilege conferred 
upon the church by Christ. The whole world, to its utmost limit, 
has been consecrated by the shedding of the Redeemer's blood ; 
and, OS if in reference to Ihe coming down of the glory that over- 
powered tbe priests at the dedication of tlie tabernacle, it is ex- 
pressly slated, that " all the earth shall he filled with the ^lory of 
the I^rd,'' 

A glowing description is given in the Mahawiuiso of the conse- 
cration of a site at Anuradhapura, by Dewananplyalisso. who began 
to reign n. c. 307. When the monarch was about to define the 
limits of a garden that he intended to devote to Ihe priebthuod, he 
approached the priests worthy of vcncrolion, and bowed down to 
thomi and then proceeding with them to the upper ferry of the 
river, be mode his progress, ploughing the ground with a j^Idun 
plough, I'he superb state elephants Mahapadumo and Kuujaro 
having been harnessed to the golden plough. UewanonpiyatiHSo, 
accompanied by the priests and attended by his army, himself 
holding the shaft, defined the line of boundary. Surrounded by 
vases exquisitely painted, which were carried in procession, and by 
gorgeous flags, tinkling with the bells attached to tlicm ; sprinkled 
with red sandal dust, giiurded by gold and silver staves, tbe con- 
course decorated with mirrors of ({littering glnis and with garUnds, 
and with baskets borne down by tlie weight of flowers ; triumphal 
arches mode of plantain trees, and females holding up umbrellas 
mid other decorations ; excited by the symphony of every descrip- 
tion of music ; encompassed by the martial might of his empire ; 
overwhelmed by the shouts of gratitude and festivity which wel- 
comed him from the four quarters of tbe earth ; — this lord of the 
land mode his progress, ploughing amidst enthusiastic nccloroo- 
tion«, hundreds of waving handkerchiefs, and the exaltation pro- 
dncod by the presenting of «uperb olferings. Having perambulated 

the precincts of ihe wibdra, as well as the city, and again readied 
the river, he completed the demarkation of the consecrated ground.* 

It U to be supposed that an athelntical sy^jtciii will pay little 
regard to acta of worship. The people, on entering the ivihara, 
prostrate tbemaelvea before the image of Budha, or bend the body, 
with the palms of the hands touching each oiher and the thumbs 
touching the forehead. They then repeat the three. fold formulary 
of protcctioD, called lun-sarana, slating that they take refuge in 
Budha, in the Dharmma, and in the Sangha ; or they take upon 
themselves & certain number of the ten obligations, the words being 
first chanted in Pali by a priest, or in his absence by a novice. 
Some floivers and a little rice are placed upon the altar, and a few 
coppers ore thrown into a large vessel placed to receive ihem ; but 
no form of supplicalioa is used ; and the worshipper goes through 
the process with feelings kindred to those with which he would 
irrigate his field, or cast his seed-com into the ground, knowing 
thai in due time, as a natuial conHequence, he will reap the reward 
of his toil. When special ofleriugs are presented, or a particular 
wihara vinitcd, or a ceremony attended that is out of the common 
course, it is usually with the expectation of receiving some specific 
boon, which may be relative either to this world or the next. 

The a-tgistance derived from the three gems, Budhii, the Truth, 
and the Associated Priesthood is called sarana, protection. The invo- 
cation of the triad is noticed by a Mahometan traveller in Tibet, who 
calls its constituents Qod, his prophet, and his word. By Remusat 
it is translated " Boudha, la loi et le clerge." A king of China, of 
the dynoaty of Siang, once sent a present of all kinds of perfumes to 
a prince of Korea ; but Ihe prince did not know for what purpose 
ihcy were intended, until informed by a priest of Budha recently 
come to the country, who loW lum that they were lo be burnt, and 
ihot if whilst they were burning any wbh was formed, the triad to 
whom the perfume was grateful would cause the wish to be accom- 
plished. The king's daughter was at this time sick. The priest 
was therefore commanded to burn the perfumes in ihe proper 
manner, that her disease might be removed ; and as the cercmony 
had its desired effect, he was amply rewarded. f Thcie are minor, 
jwrhaps csientiul. difference! in the Budhixm of different countries ; 
but the worvhip of the triad appears to be universal. 

The protection derived from the three gems is said to destroy 

■ Tunioar'i UahaWMUo, cop. xv. t R«muMt's Relation, p. 13. 

the fear of ie|Koduct>on, or •accesufe exisleace, aod to take away 
tbe tear of the mind, the {mm to which the bodf is eobject, and the 
miaery of tbe lonr hcll». The protection of Bodha maj be obluned 
fay listening to the bona or keeping the precepts ; and bj its aid 
the e*3 caaseqaenres of demerit aie oTereome. The prolecUon of 
the dhaimma b like a steed to one who is tiarelling a distant 
jtmaej. The protcctioa of the sangha ib ensued by a small gift 
in alms or ofierings. Bjr reflecting on the three gems, scepticHni, 
doobt, and reasoning will be driven away, and the mind become 
(dear and calnt. There is no other way of overcoming the eril «on- 
aeqneiicea arisiug from the ceqoence of existence but by trust in 

When the king is worshipped, on account of his greatness ; or 
the teacher, on aeoonnl of his learning, the benefit is small : but if 
any one worships the three gems, he will receive their pratedkia. 
When any one is worshipped on account of reUlionship, or Inau 
few, or from respect, there mav be no wrong commilled ; but by 
the wotaliip of the three gems the benefit of the paths will be 
gained, and relief from all sorrow. The protection of Badhs it 
denied to any one who goes near a dagoba, or other Kscred [daee, 
and does not worship ; or to any one w ho, when la sight of a tacied 
place, oi an image of Budha, covers his shoulder with hla garment, 
holds an nmbrella ore* his head, rides in any vehicle, bathes, or 
goes aside fox any private purpose. The protection of the dhannma 
cannot be received by any one who refuses to hear bona when 
called for the purpose, or who listens to it in an irreverent manner, 
or who does not keep its precepts, or who does not affectionately 
proclaim its excellencies to others. The protection of the eangha 
cannot be received by any one who site near a priest without per- 
mission, or who says bana without being appointed, or opposes a 
priest in argument, or remains in the presence of a priest with his 
shoulders covered, or holding an umbrella, or remains seated tn 
any vehicle when riding near him. An offence done to one single 
priest is done to the whole sosociation ; and he who transgresses in 
any one of these waj*B is gtiiltjr of disrespect to the tun-sorana, and 
can derive therefrom no assistance. 

There was an upAsoka in the lime of Anomadassa Budha, who 
was unable lo become a priest, as his parents were blind, and he 
hod to support Ihem. But he received the tun-sarana from a cer- 
tain priest, by means of which he enjoyed eight blessings during 



min; myriads of years; never, in the whole of this period, being 
bom in hell, but always in the world of men, or a dewa loka. 

In a former age, six hundred merchants set out by sea for a 
distant country, intending there to trade ; but during the voyage a 
storm came on, and they were In great danger. As one of the 
merchants remained fearless and calm, though the others were 
greatly agitated, they enquired whence his trannuillily proceeded ; 
and he informed them that previous to embarking he had received 
the sarana from a priest. He then, at their request, imparted to 
them (he same sorana, and they repealed after him the formulary 
of protection in sections of a hundred. As the first hundred re- 
peated it, tbey were up to their ancles in water ; the second hun- 
dred, on repeating it, were up to the knee ; and the third hundred, 
nearly over head. The ship was lost, but the merehants were all 
bom in a dewa-loka ; and through this repetition of the sarana 
received many blessings in future ages. 

A youth, after completing his education, was tatting a large sum 
of money to pay hia teacher for the instruction he had received ; 
but as Budha foresaw that he would bo waylaid by a robber, and 
murdered, be seated himself by a tree near which the youth would 
have to pass, and when he came up stopped him, and taught him 
the tun-sarana. A little time afterwards the youth was killed, but 
as he was meditating at the time on the sarana, he was bom in a 

I one occasion said to Nagasenn, " You 
on live in sin a hundred years, taking life 
les, if he thinks of Budha once when at 
lU be horn in a dewa-loka ; this I cannot 
You say again that if a man only once takes life, and 
docs not think of Budha. he will be bom in hell ; this also I cannot 
believe." N&gss^na replied, " How so ? If we put ever so small 
a pebble in the water it will sink ; but a hundred yfdas of stones 
may be put into a boat, and floated across the river without diffi- 
culty ; and it is the same with (hose who acquire merit." 

These legends, witli the exception of the last, are selected from 
a work that is very popular in some ports of Ceylon, the name of 
which I waa not able to ascertain. They bear testimony to the 
fact that the repetition of the tun-sarana ia regarded as an optu 
operatum that will be « sure defence against every calamity ; but it 


The king of Sagal, 
declare that although a 
and committing other ci 
the point of death, be i 

212 EAB-ruBS M<jsiciii3«. 

leads to the sikrae evil consequences Ihat are presented by all people 
among whom similai formularies are in common use. 

Although it is supposed that image- vvocship received no sanction 
from Qotama, it is generally allowed that the woriihip of the bo- 
tree under which he attained the Budhaship vtaa of very ancient 
origin. Near this tree the city of Budha Gaya was afterwardB 
erected, which, from the vast eiient of ita ruins, must at one time 
have had a numerous population ; but it appears lo have fallen at 
rapidly as it arose. When visited by Fa Hian, in the fifth century, 
it was completely deserted. A bo-tree flourishes at present at the 
same place, which is regarded by the fiudhists as the very tree 
under which Gotama sat ; but it is thought by European Iravellera 
to bo not more than a hundred years old. In 1833, it was visited 
by two envoys from the king of Burma, who were accompanied by 
Captain G. Bumey ; and a translation of the report they presented 
on their return, made by Colonel H. Bumey, appears in lite Asiatic 
Researches, vol. ix. In the court-yard of neaiiy every wihara in 
Ceylon there is a bo-tree, which b said to be taken from the tree at 
Anur4dhapura, brought over to the island in the beginning of the 
fourth century b.c. as will afterwiu'ds be more particularly noticed. 

The authority to worship the bo-tree is derived from the follow- 
ing occurrence. At the time when tlie usual retndctice of Gotuma 
was near the city of Sewel, the people brought flowers and perfumes 
to present to him as offerings ; but as he was absent, they threw 
them down near the wall, and went awuy. ^VheD Ancpidu and the 
other upasikas saw what had occurred, Iliey were grieved, and 
wished that some permanent object of worship were appointed, at 
which they mif^ht present their oflerings during the absence of the 
sage. Ad the same disappointment occurred several times, they 
made known their wishes to Anonda, who informed Budha on his 
return. In consequence of this intimation, Budha eaid lo Ananda. 
" The objects that are proper to receive worship are of three kinds, 
sertrika, udd^sika, and panbhogika. In the last division is the 
tree at the foot of which I became Budha. Therefore send to ob- 
tain a branch of that tree, and set it In the court of this wihara. 
He who worships it will receive the saoio reward as if he wor- 
shipped me in person," Wlien a place had been prepared by the 
king for iu reception, Mugalan went through the air to the spot in 
the forest where th« bo-tree stood, and brought away a fruit that 
had begun to germinate, which he delivered lo Anonda, from whom 

it passed to ihe king, and from the king to Actpidu, who received 
it in a golden Teasel. No sooner was it placed in the spot it was 
intended to occupy in the court. Ihan it at once began to prow ; • 
and as ihe people looked on in wonder it became a tree, large as a 
tree of the forest, being 50 cubits high, wilh five branches estend- 
ing in the five directions, each 50 cubits in length. The people 
presented to it many costly offerings, and built a wall around tt of 
the seven gems. As it had been procured by means of Ananda, it 
was called by his name. Budhn. was requested to honor it bjr 
sitting at its foot as he had sat at Ihe foot of the tree in the forest of 
Uruwehi ; but he said Ihat when he had sat at the foot of the tree 
in the forest be became Budha, and that it was not meet he should 
sit in the same manner near any other tree.f 

The vastness of the ruins near Budha Oaya is also an evidence 
that the original bo-tree must have been visited by great numbers 
of pilgrims, and have been regarded with peculiar veneration. It is 
Bitid that not long after the death of Gotamn a number of priests 
went to worship thia tree, among whom was one who in passing 
through a village was accosted by a woman as he sat in ihe hall of 
ivfleciioii ; and when she learnt whirher he was bound, and Ihe 
advantages to be gained by making nn offering to this sacred object, 
she listened wilh much pleasure, but regretted that as she was poor, 
working in the house of another for hire, and had not so much as a 
measure of rice for the next day, it was not in her power to make 
any offering besides the cloth she wore; and this cloth, after wash- 
ing it, she presented to the priest, requesting him to offer it in her 
name to the bo-tree. Umt she might receive the merit resulting 
therefrom. The priest acceded to her request, and offered the 
cloth as a banner. At midnight (he woman died, hut was bom in 
a dcwa-loka, where she lived in the greatest splendour, arrayed in 
the most beautiful garments. The day after the priest visited the 
Ireo he retired tothe forest, ond fell asleep; whenafemale appeared 
to him. wilh many attendants, singing sweetly and playing the 
must enchanting music. The priest a»ked her who she was, und 
she Bsid, " Do you not know me ? I am the female in whose name 
you presented the cloth. Yesterday I was mean and fillhy, but to- 

• Two days after Atl>ciu win burnt by lh» Per»imw, the olive pUred by 
Minerva in the dtodcl wo* obverved to liave Krown a cubit, according to 
llcrudotiu, or two rubtla, ao(<ordinii t<> I'uiaaniaa. 

t Pansiyn-paiuui-jitika-pnta. 


day I am clean and beautiful; and this I have gained through the 
merit of the offering at the bo-tree.'' 

The Singhalese suppose that it is not now possible to visit 
this tree, on account of the savage nature of the country in 
which it flourishes. A cerlain queen is said to have found access 
ta the spot, but ahe went to it through the air on a magical hone. 
It is thought by the Budbists generally that it is exactly in the 
centre of the earth. The Greeks had a similar superstition relative 
to Delphi, which they called umbilicus teirac. They said that two 
birds were sent by Jupiter, one from the east and the other from 
the west, in order to ascertain the true centre of the earth, which 
met at Delphi. When at Jerusalem, in 1833, I saw the Greek pd- 
grinis presenting lights to a marble pillar in their own part of the 
CliuTch of the Sepulchre, under the supgwsition that it stands in the 
centre of the world. Sir John Mandevil notices (he same custom 
as being in existence 500 years ago. " And ther nygh wher our 

liord was cnicyfied is this writen in Latyn, Hie Deus noster 

RoK ante eecula, operatus est salutem in medio lerre ; that is to 
seyc. This Ood owre Kyng, before tlie worldes, hath wrought hele 
in mydds of the erlhe." The CUitiese also regard their country as 
tlie centre of a system, and call it choong-kuo, or the central 

The similarity has been remarked between the b6-[ree aud ihe 
aspen of Syria, with regard to the constant quivering of their 
leaves.* The Budhisls say that out of respect to their great sage, 
the leaves of the bo-tree " have always an apparent motion, whe- 
ther there be any wind stirring or not ; " and the Syrian-n " aver 
that the wood of the cross of our Saviour was made of aspen, and 
that the leaves of the aspen have trembled ever Eiiuce in commemo- 
ration of that event." Near Belligam, a village on the southern 
coast of Ceylon, is the figure of a king, cut in the side of the rock, 
called Kusbta Kaja, or the Leprous King. It is not know^n who 
he was, but the tradition b, tliat he was struck with le])rosy for 
having one day passed under a bo-tree without paying it the proper 

It is usual to plant a b6-trcc upon the mound under which the 

athes of the Kandian chiefs and priests have been deposited. Kohert 

Knos tells us that it is considered an act of merit to plantone of these 

trees, as it is supposed that in a little time afterwards the planter 

* Bcmivtt'i Ceylon and ita I'-aiuibilitie*. 

VODK8 OF WOltaHIP. '215 

will be taken lo heaven ; but he says that " the oldeat men only 
that are Dearest death in the course of nature do plant them, and 
none else, the younger sort deairing to lire a little longer in this 
world before they go to the other." The same writer informs us 
of a ceremony that I do not remember to have met with during my 
rc-sidcnce in the island, " Under the tree, at some convenient dis- 
tance, about ten or twelve feet nl the outmost edge of the platform 
they usually build booths or tents ; some are made slight, only 
with leaves, for the present use ; but others are built substantial, 
with hewn timber and clay walls, which stand many years. These 
buildings are divided into small tonements for each particular 
family. The whole town joins, and each man builds his own 
apartment, so that the building goes quite round, like a circle ; 
only one gap is left, which is to pass through the bo-tree, and this 
gap ia built over with a kind of portal. The use of these buildings 
is for the entertainment of the women, who take great delight to 
come and see these ceremonies, clad in iheir richest and beat 
apparel. They employ themselves in seeing the dancers, and the 
jugglers do iheir tricks, who afl«rwarda by their importunity get 
money from them, or a ring off their fingers, or some auch matter. 
Here also they spend their time in eating betle, and in talking with 
their consorts, and showing their fine clothes. These solemnities 
are always in the night ; the booths all set round with lamps ; nor 
are they ended in one night, but last three or four, until the full 
moon, which always puis a period to them,"* 

As the bo-tree (ficus religiosa) is dedicated to G6tama Budha, so 
the banian (fieus Indica) was dedicated to his predecessor, and other 
Budbas had also their appropriate tree. The next Budha, Slaitri, 
will have the n&, iron-wood tree. 

In the inscription upon the lat of Fcroz Bh&h. near Delhi (with 
which the inscripdons at Allahabad, Mattiah, and Radhia substan- 
tially agree) no mention is made of any kind of worship besides 
that which is paid to the b6-trec. These pillars were erected by 
Aa6ka. who flourished in the 218th year of the Budhist era. Tliese 
ancient records make it the more probable that image-worship ia of 
more recent introduction. " It is tolerably certain," nays Mr. Fcr- 
gusaon, " that the adoradon of images, and particularly of that of 
the founder of (be religion, was the introduction of n later and 

■ Knox'n Act'ount of Iub Csplivity In CrylDn. 


more corrupt era, and unknown to the immediate followers of the 

Few specieB of idolatry have been more common than arbor- 
olatry. It has been said ihal, among the Greeks and Romans, 
nearly every deity had some particular liee ; and that nearly every 
tree wan dedicated to Bome particular god. It was under the oak 
that the Druida pcrrarmed their most sacred riteH, and the principal 
tree of the grove was consecrated with ceremoniea of a description 
peculiarly aolcmn. The ancient inhabitants of Canaan appear to 
have been greatly attached to the sacred groves in which tliey were 
Bccu!itomed to worship ; and the IsrselileB were eapeciaUy com- 
manded to destroy them. Perhaps the solemn gloom they pro- 
duced would have overpowered the minda of the Hebrews, and 
have led them to admire and venerate, and then partake in the 
idolatry; or they might be used for abominations that the people 
of God were lo flee from as from the pestilence. Yet these gardens 
and groves were a snare to them, and drew them away from the 
service of the sancluar}'. 

" tVhen I had brought them into the land 
^Vliich I swore that I would gite unto them. 
Then they saw every high hill and every thick tree : 
And there they slew their Ticdms ; 

And Iheto they presented the provocatiou of their offerings ; 
And there they placed Ihpir sweet savour ; 
And there they poured out tbcir Lbations." — Kcek. u. 28. 

" On the tops of the mountains thpy racrifice. 
And on the hillit they bum incense ; 
Under the osk and the poplar, 
And the ilci, because hur shade is pleasant." — Hos. iv. 13. 

It was declared by 06t;ima Budha to Ananda. in the legend in- 
serted above, that the objects proper to be worshipped are of three 
kinds: — 1. Seririkn. 2. L'ddfsika. 3. Parihhogika. The first class 
includes the relics of liii body, which were collected after his 
cremation. The second includes those things that have been 
erected on his account, or for bis sake, which, the commenla'.ors 
say, means the images of his person. And the third includes the 
articles he possessed, such as hi? girdle, his alms-bowl, the robe he 
put on when he bathed, the vessel from which he drank water, and 
his seat or throne. There is another threefold division of the same 
objecU, 1 . Paribhogika- 2. DhSlu. ,3. Dharmma. The second 


includes the same things as the Rrat division of the preceding series ; 
and the third refers to the doctrines that Budha taught, the bana, 
or the sacred books. All these are called chaityaB, on account of 
the satisfaction or pleasure they produce in the mind of those by 
whom they arc properly regarded. 

Tn nearly every place where there are evidences of Budhiatical 
worship, the dSgoba is In be seen ; in some instances rising to an 
elevation that has only one parallel among the works of man. Tlie 
name i.i derived from da, d^tu. or dhatu, an osseous relic, and geba. 
or gorbha, the womb. The word lope ia not unfrequently used in 
the same sense, from thfipa, a relic. " A tope," says Professor 
Wilson, " if, or has been, a circular building of stone, or brick 
faced with stone or stucco, erected on a platform, which has been 
built upon either a natural or artificial elevation. It is distinguinhed, 
according lo Mr. Masson, from a tumulus, by having a distinct 
cylindrical body interposeil between a circular basement and a 
hemispherical cupula. Tliis is, no doubt, the ease at Samath, and 
in most of the topes of Afghanistan. In the great tope of Manik- 
yala. however, the perpendicular part between the basement and 
dome scarcely constituted a perceptible division. At Bhilsa, Ama- 
ravati, and still more in Ceylon, time, vegetation, and decay have 
effaced these distinctions, and the lope occurs as a mound rising 
conicolly from an irregularly circular base. Steps usually lead up 
to the basement of the building or the platform on which it stanils. 
It seems not unlikely that the cupola was crowned by a spire. 
Such embellishments usually terminate temples in Buddhist coun- 
tries, to which these topes are considered analogous, as well as the 
dahgopas. which present other analogies. They arc also found 
upon what may be considered miniature representations of the topes 
which have been discovered within them ; and the Ceylon lopes 
have evidently been thus terminated. Traces of spires are visible 
on (be summits of the great mounds of Abhayagiri and Jaitawana, 
Tlie dimensions of the topes vary considerably. Many of those in 
Afichanistan are small, and the largest are not of great size : the 
circumference of few of them at the base exceeds 1 SU feet, and their 
elevation apparently does not often reach 60 feel. , . . Many of the 
lopes have yielded no return to ihe labour expended upon opening 
ihnn ; others have been rich in relics. It is a curious circum- 
Btance, noticed by Mr. Masson, that where these suhnlances which 
nppear to be the remains of a funeral pile, us ashes and animal 


exsvia, auxt abound, ihc relks of antiquity are least abunilanl. 
the sunt eoosiucuoug objects arc, in gencritl, vessels of stone or 
m«tal; Iheyaie of various shapes and sizes; sgme of them have 
been fabricated on a lathe. They cominonly contain a silver box 
or casket, and within that, or sometimes by itself, a casket of gold. 
This is sometimes curiously wrought. One found by Mr. Masson 
St Deh fiimaran is chased with a double scries of four figures, re- 
presenting Oautama in the act of prcachiug ; a mcndicaot is on his 
right, a iay-follower on his left, and behind the latter a female dis- 
ciple ; Ihcy stand under arched niches resting on pillars, and be- 
tween the arches is a bird ; a row of rubies is set round the upper 
and lower edge of the vessel, and the bottom is also chased nilh 
the leaves oF the lotus: the vase had no cover. Within these 
vessels, or sometimes in the cell in which they are placed, are found 
small pearls, gold buttons, gold ornaments and rings, beads, pieces 
of white and coloured glass and crystal, pieces of clay or stone with 
impressions of figures, bits of bone, and teeth of animals of (he ass 
and goat species, pieces of cloth, and folds of the Tu2 or Bhurj leaf, 
or rather the bark of a kind of birch on which the Hindus formerly 
wrote ; and these pieces bear sometimes characters which may be 
termed fiucttian ; but they are in too fragile and decayed a state to 
admit of being unfolded or read. Similar characters are also found 
superficially scratched upon the atone, or dotted upon the metal 
vessels. In one instance they were found traced upon the stone 
with ink. Within some of the vessels was also found a liquid, 
which upon exposure rapidly e\'aporatcd, leaving a brown sedi- 
ment, which was analysed by Mr. Prinsep, and offered some traces 
of animal and vegetable matters." * 

The dagoba of Samath, near Benares, is a solid mass of masonry, 
from forty to fifty feet in diameter, originally shaped like a beehive, 
the upper part having crumbled down. It is cased eitemally with 
large blocks of stone, well fitted and polished, and has a. broad belt 
of ornamental carving near the ba;ic, which represents a wreath. 

The Shwadagon pagoda at Rangoon stands on the summit of an 
eminence, and is 33S feet high. In shape it is said to resemble an 
inverted speaking trumpet, and it is surmounted by a tee of brass, 
richly gilded, forly-five feet high. Its circumference at the base is 
13fi& feet. It is Uie most ancient monument in the country, more 
thau 2600 years having cUpscd since its foundation was laid. It is 
• Wiikoii's AriuiB Antii|u«. 


said that underneath it are relics of the four last Budhaa ; vie. the 
stuff of Kakusanda, the water-dipper of Konagama, the bathing 
ganncnt of Kasjapa, and eight hairs from the head of Gotama.* 

The height of the Budhistical monument at Manikjala, in the 
Punjab, from the summit of the artificial mound upon which it is 
situated, to the summit of the structure itself, is said by Elphinstone 
to be about 70 feet, and the circumference is 150 pacea. Accortlini^ 
to the same author, " some broad steps, now mostly ruined, lead to 
the base of the pile round the base to a moulding on which are 
pilasters about four feet high and sis feet asunder; these hare 
plain capitals, with parallel hncs and headings. The whole of this 
may be seven or eight feet high, from the uppermost step to the top 
of the cornice. The building then retires, leaving a ledge of a foot 
or two broad, from which rises a perpendicular wall about six feet 
high ; about a foot above the ledge is a fillet, formed by stones pro- 
jecting a very little nay from the wall, and at the top of the wall is 
a more projecting cornice." Above this complex basement, which 
may be taken to be from sixteen to twenty feet high, rises a dome 
approaching in shape to a hemisphere, but truncated and flat near 
the Bunimit. The greater part of the outside is cased with stones 
about thioe feet and a-half long, cut smooth, and so placed that the 
ends only are exposed. In 1830, General Ventura, in the service 
of Runjit Sing, sank a perpendicular shaft in the centre of the 
platform on the summit, and at various depths found repositories, 
one below another, at intervals of several feet. These contained 
coins of gold, silver, and copper, boxes and vessels of iron, brass, 
copper, and gold. The copper coins were considered to be some of 
those struck by the Indo-Scythian kings, Kadphiaes or Kanerkcs, 
who are thought to have reigned about the latter part of the first 
and the commencement of tbe second century. There are fifteen 
other dagobas in the same neighbourhood, one of which was opened 
by Court, another officer in the service of Runjit Sing, and was 
found to contain a coin of Julius Caesar, one of Uarh Antony, and 
none of a much later datcf 

Tlie Nepaulese have s work entitled DwavinsBti Avadan, which 
contains an account of the fruits of building, worshipping, and cir- 
cumambulating the dagoba. At the base of the structure are placed 
images of thu Dhyani Rudhas. 

■ Aiiotic lic«cnrrhc«, vul, xvi. 

r lliomttni'i UuGCtvi't, ml. Maiiikjala. 


The principal dagobas in Ceylon are at Anurfidhapura ; ami 
though time has divested them of a part of (heir original majesty, 
they are yet most imposing in their appearance. The Abhaysgiri 
was originally 405 feet high, being only about fifty feet less than 
the highest of the pyramids of Egypt, or the dome of St. Peter's, 
Bt Rome, and fifty feet higher than St. Paul's, nt London. Its eleva- 
tion is not now more than 230 feet. The wall aronnd the ptalfonn 
upon which it is built eitends to the distance of one mile and three- 
quarters. The JaitawanarSma, completed a.d. 310, was originally 
ai5 high, bwt is now reduced to 269 feet. It has been caleulaled 
that the contents of this erection are 456,071 cubic yards, and that 
■ brick wall twelve feet high, two feet broad, and ninety-seven miles 
long, might be built with the materials that yet remain. The Tupfi- 
r4ma exceeds the others in elegance and unity of design, and in the 
beauty of the minute sculptures upon itb tall, slender, and graceful 
columns.* Around two of the dagobas are rows of pillars that 
appear to have supported a roof, and before the dilapidation of the 
city the portico to which they belonged must have afforded a grale- 
fill retreat ftom the sunbeam, that in this vast plain seems to come 
down with unusual power. All the mounds in this neighbourhood 
have been built of brick, and covered over with a preparation of 
lime, cocoa-nut water, and the juice of the paragaha. This compo- 
Miiiun is of BO pure a white, and can be so highly polished, that 
when perfect the structures must have resembled a crystal dome or 
a half-melted iceberg. 

In 1820, a dagoba was opened in the Raigam Korle, on the 
western coast of Ceylon, by C. E. Layard, E?q,, at that lime col- 
lector of Colombo. The interior contained a small square com- 
partment of brick-work, mnlhcmalically correct in its bearings 
towards the cardinal points, iind having in (he centre, in a vcrtic-al 
line from the supposed position of the apex, a hollow va!>c of stone, 
with a cover of the same material. 'Within this receptacle was 
found a small piece of bone, and some thin pieces of plate-gold, 
which was probably used as ihe covering of a relic; a few old 
rings, three small pearls, crystal and cornelian beads, small speci- 
mens of the white gircon, ruby, sapphire, and glass ; a small pyramid 
of ccmoDt, solid, a few clay images of ihe sacred niiga ; and two 
lamps, one of brass and the other of clay, and similar to those at 
preacnl used in Ceylon.f 


Uy the Cbmese iravcUer, Fa Hian, mcniion is mode of a sacied 
mound at Anuradbapura, 122 metres high, covering an imprint of 
Budha's foot. Ua saw another mound in Kandahar, which was 
216 metres, or 708 feet high, and one at Khotan, in Taclary, 250 
feet high. Remuuat, in his Notes (o the Fof KouS Ki, enumeralea 
eight principal topes that were in existence at the period of Fa 
Hian'H travels. They nere situated at the wihara of J^tawana, 
one of the principal teBidences of Ootama; at Kapila-wastu, his 
birthplace ; on the bank of the river Niranjara, near which he be- 
came a Budha; at Benares, Kanoudj, Rajagaha, and BeUe Ville, 
(Kalyina near Colombo?) and at Kusinara, on the spot where he 

In the most ancient times of which we have any autbeniic record, 
subsequent to the deluge, the erection of structures bearing a re- 
eembloiice to the dagohn appears to have prevailed. Without men- 
tioning the ruin at Babylon, supposed to be the remains of the 
lower of Babel, we may notice that there is a mound at Accod, 
Gen. s. 10, surmounled by a mass of brick-work, rising to the 
height of 12S feet above the sloping elevation upon which it stands. 
The ruin consist of layers of sun-burnt bricks, cemented together 
by lime or bitumen. Bimilar piles are found near many of the an- 
cient Babylonian towns. The mound near the ruins of Nineveh, 
culled by the natives Koyonjuk-tepe, is said to be a truncated 
pyramid, with regular steep sides and a Hat top. It was measured 
by Rich with a cord, which gave 178 feet for the greatest height, 
nnd 1850 feet for the length of the summit. The tomb of Alyatles, 
father of Croesus, consisted of a large mound of earth, supported 
by a foundation of great stones. This monument still exists. 
Hamilton says, in bis Researches in Asia, that it took him about 
ten minutes to ride round its base, which gives it a circumference of 
nearly a mile. Towards the north it consists of the natural rock. 
The upper part is composed of sand and gravel. On the top there 
is a circular alone ten feet in diameier, placed there as an orna- 
ment for the apex of the tumulus. It was considered, in the time 
of Herodotus, as being inferior only to the gigantic edifices of Egypt 
and Babylon. — Herod- i. 92, iii. 843. Alyattca was cotemporary 
with Ootama Budha. The mausoleum erected by Artemiaia to 
perpetuttte the memory of her husband rou»t also have been a 
monument of great splendour. It is worthy of remark, that three 
• Bemiuu'* ndation, p. ITt). 


of Uie Kven wonden of the world weie sepulchral in their cha- 

The ancient edifices of Chi Chen, in Central Ametiea, bear a 
Btrikiag resemblance to the topes of India. The shape of one of the 
domes, its apparent size, the small tower on the summit, the trees 
growing on the sides, the appearance of masonry here and there, 
the style of the ornaments, and the Hmall doorway at the base, are 
so esBctly similar to what I had seen at AnuHtdhapura, that when 
my eye first fell upon the engravings of these remarkable ruins, I 
supposed that they were presented in illustration of the dagoba;: of 

No comparison can be formed between the Budhistical structures 
and the pyramids of the Nile, as to the effect they produce upon the 
beholder. The testhetical character of the EgyptiFio edifices would 
be entirely changed if they had been exposed to tho common influ' 
ences of the atmoiiphere, and if, as is the case with nearly all the 
topes of India, trees were growing in rich profusion upon their sides 
and summits. In the neighbourhood in which I now reside there 
is the chimney of a cotton mill, circular, of considerable altitude, 
that gradually decreases in diameter from the bottom to the to|>. 
The foundation restii upon the ground, without any pedestal ; nnd 
there are buildings at a little distance, leaving an open space around 
it like a court, litis column gives me, when seen from its base, 
and especially in some particular shades of light, a more perfect idea 
of the interminable than any other object I ever saw, though I have 
visited the pyramids, and seen many of the most remarkable edifices 
in the woild. From this circumstance 1 have sometimes been led 
to suppose that if the pyramids were seen through the openings, 
properly arranged, of a portico similar to those that were originally 
carried round some of the dagobss at Anur&dhapura, the effect 
would be much more striking than when viewed from any position 
in which they can now be seen. The unbroken lines of the pyramid 
agree well with the severity that prevails throughout the architec- 
ture of Egypt ; but any idea of the interminable is entirely foreign 
to the mind of the Budhist ; it docs not enter into any one of his 
OMOcialions ; and in the sacred mounds by which he endeavours to 
present nn objective manifestation of that which he regards as the 
most wonderful, the sight is relieved by the rounded form in which 
It appears, still telling of repetition and revolution, rather than of 
the litnilless and infinite. The westerns, with their characteristic 


(InrmgDcss, have token the dome of India and pnised it in the air ; 
and aa they have made it hollow, so ihat it can be seen from be- 
neath, an additional effect ta brought out that con never be pro- 
duced by a solid construction. The Chinese, in their pagodaa or 
towers, have retained the Budhistical type, but have adapted it to 
their own ideas of taste. 

The circumambulation of the dagoba is frequently mentioned in 
the books as being practised by the ancient ascetics. Among the 
Ncpaulese it is regarded as one of the most pious acta of Budhiet 
devotion. According to Ward, the firahmana regard the circum- 
ambulating of a temple as a work of merit, raising the person to a 
place in the heaven of the god or goddess whose temple he thus 
walks round. 

Any mark of disrespect to the dagoba is regarded as being highly 
criminal, whilst a contrary course is equally deserving of reward. 
When Elaro, one of the Malabar sovereigns, who reigned in Ceylon 
B. c. 205, was one day riding in his chariot, the yoke-bar accidenily 
struck one of these edifices, and displaced some of the stones. The 
priesla in attendance reproached him for the act ; but the monarch 
imniediately deccended to the ground, and prostrating himself in the 
street, said that they might take off his head with the wheel of 
his carriage. But the priests replied, " Great king ! our divina 
teacher delights not in torture ; repair the dagoba.'' For the pur- 
pose of replacing the fifteen atones that had been dislodged, Elaro 
bestowed 15,000 of the silver coins called kahapana. Two women 
who had worked for hire at the erection of the great dagoba by 
Dutiig^mini were for Ihb meritorious act bom in Tawulis^. The 
legend informs us that on a subsequent occasion they went to wor- 
ship at the same place, when the radiance emanating from their 
persons was so great that it filled the whole of Ceylon.* 

The NepBuIese repeat mental prayers during the circumambula- 
tion of the dagoba. and a small cylinder, fixed upon the upper end 
of a short staff ur handle, is held in the right hand and kept in per. 
pctuol revolution. t Fa Hian mentions that the Samaneans of Ki^- 
tchha, a country that, according to Kiaprotfa,has not been identified, 
used whccU, in the efficacy of which they had great confidence. 
These wheela are called in Tibetan, hGor-lcc, in Mongol kurdou, 
nn<l in Sanscrit cbakra. In Tartorj- and tlic adjacent cuunlries they 
are stilt much usmI : and arc KU[)poscd by Rcmusut lu reproKnt 
* Tumaur'* Uahpwanko. f HndgnMiU Illiutratiaas, 

u at the universe ; but it ia more ])robabIe 

J exhibit the sequence of sentient existence. 

to the dagobas arises from the supposition 

The minieles performed by the " holy 

224 I 

the pcriodicat rcvolutic 
that they arc iuteaded 

The reverence puii! 
that they contain rclii 
bones" of the Budhas and their disciples vie in the absurdity of their 
character with the legends of the saints ; and although the errors 
elaborated in the time of the later fathers, and during the middle 
ages, present many striking paralleHsms to the practices of the 
Budhists, the resemblance is here the most perfect. In the fourth 
century, when J'a Hian commenced his traveb, relic-worship appears 
to have been univerBal among his co-religionists. The bones of 
Gotama, the garments he wore, the utensils he used, and the ladder 
by which he visited heaven, were worslupped by numbers of devout 
pilgrims ; and happy did the country consider itself that retained 
one of these precious remains. In order to procure them, splendid 
embassages were dispatched, armies were collected, and batlleH 
were fought. Kor were the remains of Gotama the only treasures 
of this kind that were then possessed. One city is suid tu have re- 
joiced in the possession of the entire bones of Ka^yapa, a Budha 
who preceded Gotama ; but the existence of relics so ancient is in- 
consistent with the system as received in Ceylon. The bones of 
Qotama were collected after his cremation ; * and the manner of 
thcii dispervioD and their subsequent history is still upon record. 
The most celebrated relic now in e^ustcnce ia the Dalada, or left 
canine (oolh of the sage. 

The natives of Ceylon believe that this relic is now in their pos- 
session. It is an object of worship to all Dudhists, and by the 
Kondions is regarded as the palladium of the country, the sovereign 
power of the tsltuid being supposed to he attached to its possession. 
It ia a piece of discoloured ivory, ur bone, slightly curved, nearly 
two inches in length, and one iu diameter at the base ; and from 
thence to the other extremity, which is rounded and blunt, it con. 
siderubly decreases in size. The sanctuary of this relic is a small 
chamber in the uihara attached to the palace of tlie former kings of 
KiUidy, where it is enshrined in six cases, the largest of which, 
upwards of five feet in height, is formed of silver, on the model of 
a dagoba. The same shaixi is preserved in the five inner ones, two 
uf them being inlaid with rubies and other prccioud i<lonc*. The 
outer ciue is ornamented with many gold oruomenta and jewels 
■ Relation, c«[i. v. note fl. r T'hCipa-wonM. 

XIX. M01)K4 OF WORSHII'. 225 

nfaich have been ofTcrcd to the relic ; and at nighl, when the place 
is lighted up by lamps, ita appearance is \ery brillisnt, far surpass- 
ing that of the British regalia, as 1 saw ihem some years ago in the 
Toivcr of London. In a woik called the Daladawansa, composed 
about the year a.d. 310, in Elu, and translated into Pali verse by 
DharmmarokkLitfi, in tlie reign of queen LJIawati, who nas deposed 
\.D. 1200. it is said that KhC>ma, one of the disciples of Budha. 
procured the left canine tooth of Gotama when his relics were dis- 
tributed, which he took to Danlapura, the capital of Kalinga. Here 
it remained 800 years, when the Bruhmans informed Pandu, the lord 
paramount of India, who resided at Patallputra, that his vaaHal,Gii- 
hasiwa worshipped a piece of bone. The monarch, enraged at this 
intelligeuce, sent an army to arrest the king of Kalinga, and secure 
the bone he worshipped. This commission was executed, but the 
general and all his army were converted to the faith of Budhism. 
Piindu commanded the relic to be thrown Into a furnace of burning 
charcoal, but a lotus arose from the flame, and the tooth appeared 
on the surface of the tlower. An attempt was then made to crush 
it upon an anvil, but it remained embedded in the iron, resisting all 
the means employed to take it therefrom, until Subaddha, a Bud- 
hist, succeeded in ita extraclioD. It was next thrown into the 
common sewer; but in an instant this receptacle of filth became 
sweet as a celestial garden, and was mantled with flowers. Other 
wonders were performed, by which Pandu also became a convert 
to Budhism. The relic was returned to Dantapura ; but an attempt 
being made by the princes of Scwet to take it away by force, it was 
brought to Ceylon, and deposited in the city of ,\nuradhapura. 
In the fourteenth century it was again taken to the continent, but 
was rescued by Pniknima Bahu IV. The Portuguese say that it 
was captured by Constantino dc Braganza, in 1560, and destroyed; 
but the native authorities assert that it was concealed st this time 
at a village in Safl'ragam. In 1S16, it came into the possession of 
the British government ; and although surreptitiously token away 
in the rebellion of 1818. it was subsequently found in the possession 
of a priest, and restored to its former sanctuary.* From tliis time 
the keys of the shrine in which it was deposited were kept in the 
custody of the British Agent for the Kandian Provinces, and at 
night a soldier belonging to the Ceylon Ititlc Regiment mounted 

piinrd in the temple, there beinp from time to lime public exhibiliona 
of the pretended tooth, umler the sanction of the British authorities, 
b<r which the cause of healhenism waa fj^tcatly atrengtbened and 
the minds of sincere Christians were much grieved ; but in 1839 a 
pamphlet was published, entitled " The British Government and 
Idolatry." in which these untoivnrd proceedings were exposed, and 
the relic hns since been relumed to the native chiefs apd 
a decree from the Secretary of State for the Colonies. 

The Budhists teach, that they who, according to their ability, 
oHer to the dagobas seats, flowers, lamps, nr similar articles, with 
acta of worship, made with an ntTcctionate mind, and accompanied 
by meditation, will be rewarded in this world and the next, and by 
receiving nirwiina. On one occasion Golama said In Ananda, 

Though neither flowers nor anything else should be oflcred, yet 
if any one only look with a pleasant mind at a dagoba or the court 
of the bo-tree, he will undoubtedly be born in a dewa-loka ; it is 
unnecessary to say that he who sweeps ihenc sacred places, or 
makes offerings to them, will have an equal reward : furthermore, 
should any one die on his way to make an offering to a dagoha, he 
also will receive the blessedness of the dewa-lokas." This was 
declared by Budha previous to his dissolution, as he lay in the 
garden, between the two sal trees. 

The sent upon which Qotama was accuetomed to sit when alive, 
came^'inlo the possession of a certain priest : and there was aaso- 
cialed with him an upfisaka, who huilt fur it a dagoha, in which it 
was placed. Near t!)e same place was a priest of Iswara, with 
whom they had frequent disputes as to the superiority of their 
respective objects of worship. As they could come to no decision 
they appealed to the king, who said that the victory should be 
awarded to the priest who on the seventh day from that time could 
exhibit the greatest miracle On the day appointed great numbers 
were assembled to witness the contest ; and in the presence of the 
multitude, the priest of Budha addressed the tl&goha and sud. 
"Budha has attained nirwana; the agra-st^wakas (Sorijut and 
Mugalan) have attained the same slate ; I have therefore no trust 
but in thee!" In an instant the venerated seat came from the midst 
of the dugoha, and remained suspended in the air. The victory 
was lliercfure declared to be nn the side of Budhn, 

The d&gohas, bb creeled in honour of the ruhals, have some of 
them the power of working miracles, but not all. There arc »omc 

I OF woKsiiir. 


mhats who previouH to the reception of nirwana delermincd that 
such and such wanders shall take place at their chaityas. Some- 
times the dewas, out of compulsion to men, cause wonders to be 
performed at the cbailyas of certain rahats. At other times the 
faithful, whether women or men, present flowers, or perfumes, or 
robes, to a chaitya and defermiae within themselves that certain 
wonders shall be lliere performed ; and by the power of this 
do termination, the wonders lake place. But in other cases the 
chailya« are not endowed with these gifts. 

^Vben the Chakrawarlli dies his relics are collected together and 
placed in a lope, and those persons who respect them and make 
offerings to them, will be rewarded ; they will either become 
n chakrawartti in this world, or Sekra in the dewa-Ioka. 

Another form of relic-worship is seen in the respect paid to the 
impressions of Gotama's foot, called sri-pada. On the third visit 
of the sage to Ceylon, in the eighth year after he obtained the 
Budhasliip, he left an impression of his foot on the summit of the 
mountain usually known by the name of Adam's Peak, 7,420 feet 
above the level of the sea. intended as " a seal, to declare that 
Laiika would be llie inherltJince of Budha."* In the same journey 
he left other impressions of a similar kind in dilTerent parts of 
India. The summit of the peak is annually visited by great 
numbers of pilgrims. The footstep is said, by Dr. Davy, to be a 
superficial hoUaw five feet three inches and three- quarters long, and 
between two feet seven inches and two feet five inches wide. The 
footstep of Budha is not the only one that has received worship. 
There Is a lake called Kosah Nag. on the north side of Fuhti 
I'ai^al, one of the motmtains bounding the valley of Kashmir, on 
the south. It is held in great veneration by the Hindus, who call 
it Vishnu I'audh, the fool of Vishnu, in consequence of a legend 
tlmt the deity ]>roduced it by stamping the ground with his foot. 
It was said in the age of Sulpicius Severus that the footsteps sup- 
posed to have been made by our Lord at his ascension suUered no 
diminutioD in the sharpaess of their outline, though they were daily 
the object of vcncrntioo to great numbers of peojitc. When in 
Jerusalem, in 1B33, I saw a chapel upon the mount of Olives, of 
an octagonal fonn, with smalt marble pillars, in the floor of which 
is a cavity said to be the prim of one a( our Lord's feet, left at the 
time he ascended from ihta placu. The pilgrims l.ikc casts of ii in 
■ Sitdhu:nmnmtnakif^. 

S28 rASTEn."* «'iii,spnr«>i. 

wnx. Il lins at present no Tcscmblancc to a font, but may hnvo tout 
the virtue it formerly possesBeil, und been worn nwny by Ihe liisscii 
of iti deluded risitora. Tlie other foolstcp wm formerly »hcwn. 
It was an oneicnt belief ihnt these mnrks could never be hid by n 
pavement or cohered by a roof There i" a Icfrond that when 
Augustine landed nt 'Fhanel, he left as perfect a msrlt in the rock 
nH if it had been wax ; " and the Roniaiiiiit« will cry nhame on our 
hard heart*," saye Fuller, ■• if our obstinate unbelief, more stubborn 
thun stone, will not as pliably receive Ihe impression of thi» 

The soles of Budha's fool nre represenled as being divided into 
1 08 compartments, like a pictorial alphabet, each of which containi^d 
a figure. The Budliiata of different countries have pictures of the 
sacred footstep, and as each figure is minutely described in their 
bonki, the representations are generally uniform. One of Ihe titles 
of ihc monarch of Siam is, " the prc-cminentlj merciful and muni. 
ficeni, the soles of whose feet resemble those of Badha." 

I have said, in the first chapter, page 5, that " at their death the 
Biidhas cease to exist ; they do not continue to be Budhas, nor do 
they enter upon any other state of being." The inconsbtcncy of 
worshijiping an extinct being must be at once apparent; but there 
would be no incongmily in the act, if it could be proved that the 
grand principles of Budhism arc coirect. This subject hna been 
argued at length between Nagasena and Milinda. Not long nftei 
the monarch had embraced the faith of Budha, he said to the priest 
by whom his conversion had been effected, "The tirttaka unl>e- 
lievcrs argue in this manner : — If Budha now receives the offerings 
of men, he has not attained nlrwiina, as in that state all cloaving to 
cxi»ting objects is destroyed ; he is still cnnnceted with the world ; 
he is yet existent (bhnwaynln-ii'tulalwa) ; be is in the world, and 
has the same attributes n.t other beings; therefore Ihe assistance 
that he can render is imperfect, vain, and worthless. But if he has 
attained nirwfina, he is not connected with the world ; he is not 
existent; he cannot receive the offerings that are made to him; 
there is Ihcreforo no benefit from presenting them, as he has no life, 
no being, uprana. None but a ruhat can answer this argument of 
Ihe tirttakoi; thcrt-fure be pleased, venerable prieit, to sot aside 
this diflieully." N4gi>ena replied, " Budha has attained uinvi'mn, 
in which there la no cleaving to existence ; he dooa not receive tlio 
offerings that ore preMmtcd ; at the fool of the b6-lTee, when he lie- 


came a supreme Uudha, ull evil desire wan dustrujcJ; lie liiis imu' 
utuincd nirwana. Who is it that affirms that Budliii nuw rcccivea 
tht! oifeTings? Thus did Seriyut declare: — ' Budhu receives the 
offerings that are made hy dewas and men, but without any earthly 
cleaving, or desire towards them. Thb is the general practice, llie 
universal law, of ihe infinite Budhos who have appeared.' " On 
hearing thia the king said, " The fnlher magnifies the son, and ihe 
son the father ; therefore this ia not an argument that we can bring 
hcforo the unbelievers; each one praJHes his own; be pleased, 
therefore, to bring forward some other argument that will convince 
the sceptics." Niiguxenn : " Budha has attained nirwana ; he docs 
UOl receive ihe oflrtings that arc mode to him by the people of the 
world ; nevertheless, those who moke offerings to the relica of the 
Budlias, or listen to their bana, will receive the three great favours, 
viz : the happinesB of this world, of the dewa-Iokas, and of nirwano. 
Thus when grass or fuel has been thrown into a fire that has been 
kindled, is there any desire to receive tbeiit on the part of the fire?" 
Milinda : " The fire has no mind, and therefore cannot receive Uicm 
on account of desire." Nagasena : " When that fire, that nlthoitgli 
it has no mind, receives the grass and fuel, is extinguished, is the 
world without fire ? " HJlinda : " No ; any one who wishes to 
produce fire may do so by the friction of two pieces of wood.'' 
NdgaBeoa : " Therefore they who say that no benefit can be re- 
ceivcd from the making of offerings to Budha, utter that which has 
no foundation in truth. \VhiUt Budhu was in the world, tbo glory 
tliat he possessed may be compared to a brilliant flame ; now that 
he has attained nirwftna, his passing away is like the extinguishing 
ut that dome ; but an the flame rcceivcH the grnas ur fuel that in 
thrown into it, lliough without any desire on its part, so, although 
Budha does not receive the offerings of the faithful, the reward of 
those offerings is certain. For as any man may procure a flame by 
the rubbing together of two pieces of wood, by the light of which 
ho will be able to carry on whatever work be has in hand, so the 
(kithful, by making offerings to Dudha, and reflecting on the cxccl- 
lencicM of the dhannma, will reap the rcworil for which tliese exer- 
cises are practia«d. There is another camparUon to which yuu 
must listen. There is a high wind ; it shakes the trees, and causcn 
them ti> fall, and then dies away: after thus pHasing away, is it from 
duiirc that it again ruluniH i " Kfitinda : ** Thia cannot be. bccnuiie 
it has got no mind." Mugtisi-u» ; "Dues the wind that passes 


away make some eign to the wind that is to come ^ " Milinda : 
" No ; any one may cauae wind by means of a fan ; when he is 
warm, he can cool himaelf in this way." X&gascna : " Therefore 
the unbelievers that say there ie no benefit from the making of 
offerings to Budha speak falsely. As the wind spreads itself in 
every direction, so is the virtue of Budha everywhere diffused ; as 
the wind that has passed away is not again produced, so there is 
no reception of the offerings on the part of Budha. As men ate 
subject to be annoyed by ihe heat, so are dewas and men afflicted 
by the threefold fire of cvil-dcsire, enmity, and ignorance ; and as 
men when thus annoyed cause a wind to refresh their persons by 
means of a fan or some other instrument, so ore they assisted who 
seek the protection of Budha ; and the threefold fire is extinguished, 
although Budha has attained oirwana, and does not receive the 
offerings that are presented. Another comparison may be given, 
A man strikes the drum, and causes a sound to he produced ; the 
sound dies away ; is it afterwards again produced ? " Milinda : 
*' Xo ; the sound has passed away ; but the same man can cause a 
repetition of the sound by again striking the drum.'* Nagos^na : 
" In like manner, though Budha has attained nirwfkua, the benefit 
to be received from the mnking of offerings and meditating on the 
bana, is stiil certain. This benefit is gained, though Budha does 
not receive the offerings. Budha foresaw the things that would 
happen in future limes, and he said to Ananda, * Ananda, when I 
am gone, you must not think that there is no Budha; the discourses 
I have delivered, and the prccepis I have enjoined, must be my suc- 
cessors, or representatives, and be to you as Budha.' Therefore, 
the declaration of the tirttakas that there is now no benefit from the 
presenting of offerings to Budha is utterly false ; though he docs 
not receive them, the benefit to the giver is the same as if he did. 
Again, does the earth say, ' Let such and such trees grow upon my 
surface?'" Milinda; "No." Nagasena : "Then how is it thai 
flowcis, and buds, and shrubs, and trees, and creepers passing from 
one to the other, are produced ? " Milinda : " The earth, though 
ituclf unconscious, is the cause of their production." Nigasena : 
" Even go, though Budha is now unconscious, he is nevertheless the 
source of benefit to those who seek his protection. That which ie 
the opposite of evil desire, enmity, and Ignorance, is thus like the 
root of merit set in the ground ; the exercise of samudhi is like the 
trunk of the tree ; tha doctrines of the bana ate like the hard wood 

XIX. MdUKB OF wuH^urr, aai 

in ils lieurt ; the four sangwara precept* are like the boughs and 
main branches ; the five forms of knowledge called wimukti, that 
reveal the way in which emancipation is to be obtaiacd, arc like the 
colours and perfume of the flowers ; and the fruition of the paths 
lending to nirwana is like the immortul fruit; and all this is brought 
about by Budha, though he has attained nirwana, and is uncon- 
scious. Again, in the intestines of camels, horses, assea, goata, 
cattle, and men, worms are bred; * does this take place with theit 
consent and consciouenesB?" Milinda: "No," Nagascna: "Again, 
tht^re are ntnety-cight diseases to which men are subject. Do these 
diseases come with their consent ; or do they say. Let these diS' 
eases come ? " Milinda ; " No ; they are produced in consequence 
of evil deeds that have been performed in previous births." Nagu- 
sena : *' If that which has been done in a former birth can cause 
these disorders of the body, and is not without the power of pro- 
ducing consequences ; even so, though Budha has attained nirwina, 
and is unconscious, any service done for him may nevertheless re- 
ceive a reward. Again. Did you never hear of the yaka Nandaka, 
who struck the head of Seriyut with his bond, and the earth clove, 
and he went down to hell ? Was this cleaving of the earth brought 
about by the will and appointment of Seriyut : " Milinda : " No ; 
this could not be ; the world and all the beings that inhabit it 
mi);ht pass away ; the sun and moon might fall to the earth, and 
Maha Mem be destroyed ; but Seriyut could not will the endurance 
of sorrow by any being whatever ; the rising of angt r would at once 
be overcome by the virtue he possessed as a rahnt ; be cotdd not be 
incen>>cd even against his murderer. It was by the power of hia 
own demerit that Nandaka was sent to hell.'' Nagasena ; " It was 
even so ; but if this demerit, though unconscious, could cause the 
yak^ to be taken to hell, so may merit, though also unconst-ious, 
caufle those who possess it to be taken to a dewa-loka, and receive 
happiness. Thus, O king, when the tirtlakss say, * If Budha re- 
ceives the offerings of men. he is yet in the world of sentient being ; 
but if he lins attained nirwana, he is unconscious, he cannot assist 
those who seek his protection ; and there is therefore no benefit lo 
be derived from the oflerings that are made to him ; ' their orgu- 

* llic pr««M«i of womi* and other nonuitiw in the bodic* of animals wai 
well kjiown to Ilippocimta, Ualni, >uid the aneicnta gcniTally. The ikill of 
mixlvrii admce hai nut Jel diiroVEred a cauim for the cxifitL-ni^c of IhcM cn- 
t<'»>H that u couBidcRd m entirely sBditactory by profcniaiuU men. 


racnt u of no value, it is vain and deceitriil." In this way Uw 
venerable priest answered the questions of the great king ; like the 
njsn who shakes the branches of the jambu tree fifty yojiinaB in 
height, and succeeds in procuring its immortal fruit.* 

It appears wonderful that any being possessed of reason can re- 
ceive these comparisons aa conclusive argument ; but they who 
know not the truth are led to believe "a lie," and no order of cri- 
dence is so well calculuted "to hide pride from man," as the history 
of his religious practices and opinions. On passing forward to the 
hortatory usages of Bmlhisin, we might expect to meet with some- 
thing of more practical utility i but even here the beneficial effects that 
might otherwise be produced ore nullified by the almost exclusive 
use of a dead language. The protestants of chriatendom are now 
almost the only religionists in the world who uniformly make use 
of the vernacular tongues in their public ministrations. 

It was an ordinance of Budha, that the priests, who were then 
supposed to dwell most commonly in the wildemesi, should reside 
during the three months of the rainy season in a fixed hnbitation- 
This season is called wass ; and it is at this period that the priests 
read bana to the people. The place of reading, called the bana- 
niaduwa, is usually a temporary erection, the roof having several 
breaks or compartments, ^adually decreasing in size aa they 
approach the top, in the form of a pagoda, or of a pyramid com- 
posed of successive platforms. There ia one of these erections in 
the precinct of nearly all the wiharas ; but they ore frequently 
built in other places, as may be most agreeable to the wishes of the 
people by whom they are erected as an act of merit. In the centre 
of the interior area is an elevated platform, for the convenience of 
the priesls; and the people sit around it, upon mats spread on the 
ground. No part of the rough maieiial of the maduwa is seen, as 
the pillars and the roof arc covered with while cloth, upon which 
mosses, flowers, and the tender leaf of the cocoa nut are n-orkod up 
into various devices. Lamps and lanterns are suspended in great 
profusion and variety, the latter being formed of coloured paper, 
similar to those used by the Chinese at iheir festivals. It ia 
accounted an act of merit for the people to hold lampa in their 
hands, or u]ion their heads, whilst the priests arc reading. The 
impression produced by the scene presented in some localities ia 
most striking, arxl forms the most magnificent sight ever seen by 
■ MiUnrln fraina. 

many of the worBhi|)])CTB. The females are arrayed in their gaj'cet 
attire, Lbeir hair being combed bndi from the forehead and neatly 
(luno up in a knot, fastened with silver pins and small ornamental 
combs, in the arrangement of which they display considerable taste. 
The usual dress of the men is of white cotton, which the fullers 
have beaten upon stones tmd spread out in the air, until it presents 
a purity never aeen in climes where the aun has less power. Flags 
iind atreamers, figured handkcTchiefs and shawls, float from every 
(!onveiiient receptacle. At inlervals, tomtoms are beat; the rude 
trumpet sends forth it« screams; and the din of the music, the 
murmur of the people's voices, the firing of musketry and jinjaUa, 
and the glare of the lamps, produce an effect that is not much in 
consonance with the place of inslruetioa or ao act of worship. Not 
unfrequenlly there are skeleton trees, covered over with silver 
liiisue, various ornaments resembling gems being pendant from the 
branches. They arc Eaid lo represent the ma)^cal kulpa-trec, that 
gives whatever is required from it ; but there is this difference, thai 
they receive rather ihan give, as their real intention is to receive 
offerings from those who come to worship. They have occasionally 
been covered with the leaves of tracts given at the festivals ; Iiung 
there in derision, but presenting one of the best modes of publica- 
tion that their distributara could deaire. In some conspicuous 
place there is a large copper-pan. into which the alms of the people 
are thrown. The individual offerings are small, but when collected 
together they muat form a respectable sum. 

At a bana-reading held at Paoturs, in 1839, nearly 100 pnesln 
were present. The pulpit was placed upon a pivot, so that it turned 
round continually. At night fireworks were exhibited. An indi' 
viduol who personated a luesscnger from the dewa-loka was dressed 
like a chief of the highest rank. On his entrance he was guarded 
by two persons who were dressed like kings, with crowns upon 
their heads and swords in their hands. Another attendant, in mug- 
nific«nt array, rode upon on elephant, und a third upon horseback. 
Fifty men, in the uniform of British soldiers, continually fired 
volley* in the air. On the pulpit, around which stood the priests 
chaunting venes in Pali, were hung the oiliciDl swords of eight 
nalivc chiefs, and u gold medal presented to i, native by Sir Robert 
Hrownrigg. when go««mur of the inland. 

The platform in the centre of the hall In ounietimes occupied b) 
several priols at tho same lime, one uf whom reads a portion of the 


sacred bouka. The copies of the bana now used are bcauUI\illy 
written in lar^ characters, upon the beat tAlijrat leaves that can be 
procured, with maiks, to point out the conclusion of the sentences, 
made with some coloured composition. They are read in a kind of 
recitative, " in a manner hetn-een singing and reading," as it is said 
that the Scriptutea were rcciUd in the early church, which was also 
most probabl; the tone used by the rhapsodists and by the jong- 
leurs of the middle ages. This method is admirably adapted to 
asaist the reader or reciter, as, when the eye does not readily catc!) 
the word, or the memory reach it, (he voice can continue to dwell, 
by a ehake or quaver, upon the last syllable, without the unpleasant 
sensation that would be produced if the book was read in the usual 
tone of voice ; as in this cose there is no alternative, but either to 
repeat the former part of the sentence, or abruptly to stop. Upon 
some occasions one priest reads the original Pali, and another inter- 
prets what is read in the vernacular Singhalese ; but this method is 
not very frequently adopted. It is the more usual course to read 
the Pali alone, so that the people understand not a word that is 
said ; and were the advices of even the most excellent description 
In themselves, they would be delivered without profit to the people 
assembled. A great proportion of the attendants fall asleep, as 
they commonly remain during the whole night; whilst others are 
seen chewing their favourite betle. As might be supposed, there 
are evidences of unconcern in that which ought to be the principal 
object of the festival ; but there is none of that rudeness which 
would be exhibited in a promiscuous assemblage of people in somo 
countries that are much higher in the scale of civili7,ation. Near 
the teading-hall there are booths and stalls, in which rice-cakes, 
fVtiits, and other provisions, and occasionally cloth and carthei.wnre, 
are sold ; and the blind and the lame are there, with their stringed 
instruments, sitting by the wayside to receive alms ; so that the 
festival is regarded as an opportunity for amusement, as well aa for 
acquiring merit, and answers the general purpose of a wake or fair. 
Whenever the name of Uudha is repeated by the officiating priest, 
the people call out simultaneously, "sadhu!" the noise of which 
may be beard at a great distance ; and the effect is no doubt pleasing 
to those who have not been taught that it is in vain for the iin- 
learned to say Amen, when they know not the meaning of that 
which is spoken. 'l"ho readings are moit numerously attended 
ipon the night of ihc full moon, when a light is thrown I'lion the 


landscape ia Ceylon that seems to silver all tbinga visible, from the 
tiny leaflet to the towering mountain, and a stillness sleeps in the 
air that seems too deep to be earthly ; and were the voices of the 
multitude that now come forth at intervals other than from atheist 
li|)*. the spirit might drink in a rich profusion of the thoughts that 
come so pleasantly, we can scarcely tell whether the waking dieam 
be a realily, or a vision of some brighter land. 

Now and then an individual priest becomes popular, either from 
tlie sweetness of his voice, or the manner in which he explains the 
bana ; but the eastern style of oratory is rery different to that with 
which we arc most familiar, as the emphasis, the intonation, and 
the whole manner of the speaker, so still and passionless, is con- 
trary to the method wc should regard as alone calculated to arrest 
the attention or be impressive of the truth. A speaker of this de- 
scription has been well described by Dr. Judson- " 1 went," says 
this venerated missionary, " for the second time, to hear a popular 
Bunnan preacher. On our arrival we found a zayat. in the pre- 
cincts of one of the most celebrated pagodas, lighted up, and the 
floor spread with mats. In the centre was a frame raised about 
eighteen inches from the ground, where the preacher, on his arrivdl, 
seated himself. He appeared to be about forty-five years old. of 
very pleasant countenance, and harmonious speech. He was once 
a priest, but ia now a layman. The people, as they came in, seated 
thcmAelves on the mats, the men on one side of the house, and the 
women on the other. It was an undistinguished day, and the con- 
gregation was very small, not more than one hundred, . . . When 
ail things were properly adjusted, the preacher closed his eyes, and 
commenced the cscrcise, which consisted in repeating a portion 
from their sacred writings. His subject was the conversion of the 
two prime disciples of Gaudamn, and their subsequent promotion 
ami glory. His oratory I found to be different to all that we coll 
oratory. At first he seems dull and monotonous; but presently 
his soft, mellifluent tones, win their way into the heart, and lull the 
ioul into that stale of calmness and serenity, which, to a Burman 
mind, soniowhat resembles the boasted perfection of their saints of 
old. lib discourse continued about half an hour; and at the close, 
the whole assembly l^just out into a short prayer, after which all 
rose and retired. This man exhibited twice every evening, in dif- 
ferent places. ludoed ho is the only popular lay preacher in tlic 
place. As fur tlio prieaU, they preach on special occasions only, 


tvhen they arc ilrawn from iheir seclusion and inactivity, by ihe 
solicitations of their adhercnls." • 

There are other objects of attiaction at the bana-maduwa, besides 
the reading of the sacred books. A tabyriath is made of wilho, 
ornamented with the cocua-nut leaf ; and it ie a source of amuse- 
ment to thread its mazes, and find the way to the place of exit. 
Tlic Budtiists of Arakan have a similar custom. In some instances 
linett arc drawn u])on the ground, in an open space, and dancers 
are introduced. These lines are regarded as the limits of the terri- 
lory belonging to different yakas and d^waa ; and the lost is appra- 
priated to Budha. One of the danccrn advances towards the first 
limit, and when he is told to what yaka it belongs, be calls out ibi.' 
demon's name in defiance, uttering against him the most Insulliiig 
bngiiagc ; and declaring that in spite of all [he opposition that can 
be brought against him, he will cross the limit, and invade the ter- 
ritory of its infernal possessor. Then, passing the limit in triumph, 
be acts in the same manner towards all the other demons and divi- 
nitics who have had divisions assigned to them, until at last he 
approaches the limit of Budha. Still he professes to be equally 
fearless, and shouts defiance against the woolly headed priest who 
carries the alms-bowl from door to door like a common mendicant; 
but the moment he attempts to pttss the limit he fulls down as if 
dead ; anil as he is regarded as suflering the punishment of the 
blasphemy ho has dared to utter, all who are present applaud the 
greatneas of him whose prowess is thus proved to be superior to 
(hat of all other beings. 

The bans is uaually read upon the days called poho. This word 
signifies change, and the festivals arc held on the poho-dina, or 
poyo-dawas, the days on which there is a change of the moon. In 
«ach month there ore four poya days: — 1. Am^waka, the day of 
ihu new moon. 2. Atawaka, the eighth day from the time of tbo now 
moon. 3. I'ahaloswakn, the fifteenth day from the time of the new 
moon, or the day of the full moon. 4. Atanaku. thu eighth day 
from the time of the full moon. The word waka means the thirtieth 
port of n lunar month. It is said by Professor Wilson, that " the 
day* of thu full and new moon are sacred with ail sects of the 
Hindus ;" but accurding to Manu the sacred books an; not upaa 
these days to be read. ■' The dark luuor day dcHtroys the spiritual 
tmchor; the fourteenth ilay dcHtroys ihc learuer; Ihe eighth and 
■ Mcmnir of Hn. Judsun. 

xrx. MfiDFi OF wonsiiir. 237 

lliL- [lay of ihe full moon Jesfroy all remcrabrance of Hcripturc ; for 
nliicU reason the Brahmni) must avoid reading on ihose lunar 
ilfiys." — Mnnu. iv, IH. Tte ancient Unions called their week,* 
IIS do their descendants at Ihis day in the Puiicipalily, wyth-nos, 
" eight- nights," and their fortnight. |iythew-nos. '■ fifteen -nights." 

The people are informed that there will be great merit to the 
fiiithfiil laic who becomes an upasaka, from the keeping of the eight 
precepts upon poya days. These days mast he kept with clean 
garments and with clean minds, or Ihe merit will be inferior. The 
upanaka must remember on the preceding day that it is the poya 
day on the morrow, and must prepare the food that will be required. 
and resolve upon keeping the precepts. On the morning of the day 
on which the poya takes place he must eat his food, and then go to 
some prieat or priestess, or lo some upasaka acquainted with bana, 
iir lo some person who knows only the precepts ordained by Budha. 
When approaching such a person, he must do it with great reve- 
rence, and suy, " It is my intention to keep the precepts.'' He 
inuHt first repeat the threefold formulary of protection, then the five 
precepts, and afterwards the one relative to elevated pcats, making 
in all eight. When there is no proper person from whom to re- 
ceive tlicm. lie may repeat them by himself, without the assistance 
of another. When keeping poya it is not right lo do any work 
that will injure another, or lo incite any one to do the same thing. 
Upon these days it is not proper lo trade, nor to calcalate the profits 
of trade.) When in the house, the upasaka must eat his food in 

* timiih'i li^litciiin of Ancient Britain. 

t Thnv were ulvantAt;!!!! connected with the absen'snce of the Sabbath, at 
ibi primcral institution, that have not yet been fully brought out. Ilad 
thii ilajr been prnpcrly olnervcd from the beirinnine, idulatrj could ncvci 
hnre existiHl ; and not only would a seventh pan of all toil have been pre- 
vented, hut vcntioiFiits of kindnem would have been diffiued, that would 
alto have prevented the eiiatcncc of nil the severer fomu of MK-ial and poli- 
tir«J intKTy. Take away idolatrv and it* conacquencoa frota man's history. 
Bad nibalituie a knnwlnlgc of tile cxiitcncc of Uod ; reduce the overt acts 
of human Klflahncus in tiic proportion that muat neocMuuily have taken place 
if tho Sabbath had alway* btva rightly attended to. and what would now have 
been the podtion of the world t Hero is a ^oriotis theme for the exercise of 
the imnglnatlciii ; and I should rcjolee lo see it elaborated by some competent 

'Hie Kicred davit nf the heathen arc much more strictly kept than is gene- 
rally HUpposcd. ' " The manner in which all public feriac (by the Romans) 
wnr kept Iwraw peal analn|i;y m our Sunday. The people generally visited 
ilie lem^lea of tbe gott*. and olCsrcd un their fnycni and «UTrilkM. 'llit> 
must Mmom and salcnn secin to have twcn the ferine imjierativst: ; but all 
Ihe nthm wcro (trnrrnlly aiicnilcd by rcjinriiig* and frntunif. All hbnl» of 
liusineH. aqiccially lawvuil*, wptd nw^onded during the public fiitiae, oa 

r as tlic faithful prieal, and afterwards return to the 
jtansal lo receive instruction., or he must in private refleet on the 
impermanency. Borrow, and unreality connected with all things. 

thej wcro considered lo pollute the Rocred season. The rex sarrciruni and 
the flanunea were not even alloired to behold an^ work being done during 
the feriac ; bence, when They went out, thej were pieecdod by their heralds, 
who ei\ioined the people to abaUiin fiom working, that the sanctity of the day 
might not be pollntcd by the priest's seeing persons at work. Those who 
neglected this adnuinidon were not on!; liable to a fine, but, in case thrnr 
disobedience was inlencionol, their crime was considered to be beyond the 
power of any ntoneinent; whereas those who had unconsciously continued 
their work, might atone for their transgression by offering a pig. It seems 
that doubts as lo what kmds a( work might be done at public feriae were not 
unfrequent, and we possess some curious and interesting decisions, eiven by 
Roman pontifis on this subject. One Umbro declared it to be no violation at 
the rcrise, if a person did such work as had reference to the gods, or was 
connected with the oBering of sacrifices : oil work, he rooieovcr declared, 
wa« allowed, which was necessary to supply the urgent wants of human life. 
The pontiff Scaerola, when asked wh^it kind of work might be done on a dies 
leristua, answered that any work might be done, if any Buffering or injury 
should be the result of neglect or delay i c. g. if an ox should full into a pit, 
the owner might employ workmen to lift it out ; or if a house threatened to 
tidl down, the inhabitants might take such measures as would prevent tta 
&lling, nithout polluting the ^riac." — SmitA'i Dittionaty of Antiqmtiti, nrf. 
Feriat, bg Dr. LconhuTd ScJimiti. 

Out Saxon forefathers were equally mindful of the sanctity of the Chris- 
tian S^bath. "The church service was publicly performed (among the 
Aiulo-Baxons) on every day in the year; but it was only on Sundays and 
tnttvals that it was pmbnnedwith full solemnity. By the promulgation of 
Chiistiniuty, the Jewish religion with its rites hod ceased to exist ; the Bob- 
bath hod been succeeded by the Sunday, the day of real by a day of worship, 
the seventh by the Ant da^ of the week ; and we are told by the most an- 
cient writers, that the pTcfenmce wna given to the first day, Deeause it Wat 
OR that day that God began to fashion the earth toi the habitation of man, 
on the same day that the Sarioui by his reaurTectioit completed the great work 
of our redemption, and on the same that the new law was published lo the 
world by the descent of the Holy Ghost on the apostles. This institutian 
wras of course btroduced by the misaionartes among the converts, who were 
taught that the Sunday was a day sacred to the service of God, and that to 
devote it to secular employments, incompatible with such service, was a pro- 
fanation and sacrilege. Iniprcsicd with this opinion, the Anglo-Saxon legla- 
lature came to the ^d of the church, and prolubited on the Sunday, not only 
all predial labour and every sort of handicraft, by which men of low and ser- 
vile condition were accustomed to earn their livdihood ; but also the Sold 
sports of hunting and hawking, the disaipatioD of travelling, the sale oi 

the lOM of liberty, or a fine of sixty shillings; if a bondman acting in the 
some manner, to be whipped, or to pay the price of his hide, which was ten 
shiliinga. In like manner, the lord who eompdled others to labour paid a 
mulct of thirty shilling*, and fuHeiled the services of his bondmen, who be- 
came free, (nw eaecption, however, was allowed in brour of thotc who 
could plead a reasonable excuse Ait travelling on that day. ■ Sunday,' aaya 
the lawgiver, 'is very solemnly to be reverenced: therefore we command 

TUe being who even foe a single daj keeps ihe eight procepts 
will have greater gloi}- tlian a chakrawartli, a reward that cannot 
be lold. But though this is declared, it gives no adequate idea of 

thnt no man dure on that holy day to apjily to any worldly work, uhIcbb tot 
the preparing of his (bod i except it happen that he muslof nccewity juumcy. 
Then hi" may ride, or row, ot journey by such convenience ns tntty be guilablc 
to hia way ; on the condition that he hear his aiass, and neglect not hLt 

■■ From the exemption from laboiur thus granted to the workins-elassea, the 
Sunday itself was calleil a freoUday, or day of ftcedom, and the manner of 
ketping it, in conformity with the preceding regulations, the freoleung, or 
fre«lom of the Sunday. But the day was not then comprised nithin the 
tame houra as it is now with us. Our ancestors, like the Hcbre^«, made the 
evening precede the momine,^d reckoned the Sunday from sunset ou Satur- 
day to suneet on the followmg day. To these twenty-four hours the freol- 
■ung was Bt first eonflned ; but at a later period, some time before the reign 
of EdfOt, though prohsbly no change had token place in the ecclesiastical 
compntatiion, the (n'edom of the Sunday was enlarged in favour of the work- 
ing population, beginning a1 the hour of nine on Saturday, and lasting till 
tiio dawn of light on Monday morning. 

" With respect to the religiouf duUes of the Sunday, it w 
Council of Clornhoe, that the clergy should 'dev-'- ■• •-'"■ 

1 by the 
V, . of Ood 

cxoluiiTely ; that all abbots and pnests should remun the whole day al their 
minsters and churohes, and celebrate the solemnity of the mass ; that Ihey 
should shun all exliviuil engagements, ell company of seculars, and all traiGl- 

line not of alMolut« necessity, and should employ themselves in teaching 
thinr dependants the rules of u holy life, and of religious conversation from the 
Iloly Seripturcs, and that they should frequently exhort the people to repair 
ogam and again to the church to hear the word of God, to receive innrucuon, 
and to be present st the mysterious serviee of the maea.' 

■■■nio duties expected from the laity may be collected frtim the bUowing 
injunction : — ■ It U roost right and proper that every Christian roan, who hoa 
it m his power to do so, should come on Saturday to the church, and bring a 
light with him, and there hear the vesper song, and after midnight the 
uhtsong, and came with his oRi^ring in the morning to the solemn mass ; and, 
when be is there, let there be no dispute, or quarrel, or discord ; but let him, 
with pcoccAlJ mind, during the holy office, mtercede with his prayers and 
his alms (hii offering) both for himself, with his friends, and all the people of 
Ciod. And after the holy service, let him return home, and regale himapH' 
with hi* friends, and neighbours, and strangcis ; but at the same time, be 
careful that they commit no excess nther in eating or drinking.' It was in 
the' hulyond ghostly kirk,' (the parish church, not any private ch«iel) 'and 
at the high and solemn mats,' that they were summoned to attend, because 
there and al that time they would hear the ' commands of God's word' ei- 
plainad, and receivo tnslxnelion in their respective duties. ' ^Vherelbre.' 
It eancludoo, ' we command all men, wholevcr may be their rank, to attend 
at the high mass, with the exception only of the hallowed maidens, whose 
eustmn it is not (o go out of their minxtcn : these should continue within the 
ineloaures of their mhuters, and there hear mass.' " — Lingatifi Anglo-Saam 

'these extraets may he rcsardcd as somewhat irrelevant ; hut the tevercnce 
with which 1 regard the Sabbath, the anxious desire I feel to see its privileges 
every where extended, and Ihe fear I cutertain lest the eireumstances of the 
liincH ohouhi lead to a more general desecration of this holy day, mud be my 
■poloev fur their inacrtian. The longest note in the work wUJ not have been 
RptH'niled in vain, if tlie eaunple of the Roman or Sainn should lead any of 
my tcodcn to pay greater rcopoct to " the Sabbath of the Lord." 


the reward that will be received hy him who pays & proper regard 
to one single p6;'a-day. This reward may be divided into sixteen 
parti, and one of these sixteen parts may be subdivided into sixteen 
parts again, and the same method of division may be carried on six- 
teen times ; but the last sixteentli will be mote than that which has 
been declared. 

^Vben persons are sick they send for a priest to read the bana, 
who is brought with much ceremony, and treated with great respecl. 
The priest continues to recile the sacred word, until the invalid 
either recovers or dies. The tones in which it is chau&ted produce 
a mournful impression, and by this meant a spirit of ihoughlfuhacxs 
may be encouraged; but further than this there is no benefit, as the 
meaning of the words is not understood. 

There is a ceremony called I'irit, or in Pali Paritta. which con- 
sists in reading certain portions of the bana. As it is thought by 
the Singhalese, that nearly all the afflictions that men suffer pro- 
ceed from the malice of the demons called yahas. they have nume- 
rous ceremonies by which they uuppose that their anger eau be 
appeased, or their enmity rendered inoxious ; but the only one that 
professes to be sanctioned by G6lama is the reading of ihe Pirit. 
I was present on one of these occasions, in 1838, at a village near 
Matura. The discourses constituting the Pirit have been translated 
by the Rev. D. J. Gogerly ; * and from the description of the cere- 
mony given by that gentleman, to which some of my own personal 
recollections are added, the following account is compiled. 

About sunset numbers of persons arrived from different quarters, 
the greater proportion of whom were women, bringing with them 
cocoanut shells and oil, to be presented as offerings. As darkness 
came on, the shells were placed in niches in (he wall of the court 
by which the wihara is surrounded ; and by the aid of the oil and a 
little cotton they were soon converted inlo lamps. The wall around 
the bd-tree was similarly illuminated ; and as many of the people 
had brought torches, composed of cotton and resinous substances, 
the whole of (ho sacred enclosure was in a blaze of liglit. The ga^ 
attire and merry countenances of the various groups that were acen 
in every direction gave evidence, that however solemn the professed 
object for which they were nsscmbted together, it was regarded by 
all as a time of relaxation and festivity. Indeed the grand cause at 
the popularity of this oud similar gallierings is, that they arc Uia 
• Ct-ylon Frttnd, April, IS38. 



marriage fcHtivals excepted, upon which the young 
and be seen, or upon which they can throw otT the 
reserve and restraint it Is theii custom to observe in the ordinary 
routine of social intercourse. 

The service cotttiaues during seven days, a preparatory ceremony 
being held on the evening of the fiist day. The edifice in which it 
is conducted is the same as thai in which the baiia is rend upon 
other occasiona, A relic of Budha, enclosed in a casket, is placed 
upon a platform erected for the purpose ; and the presence of this 
relic b supposed to give the same efficacy to the proceedings as 
thouffh the great sage were peiaonally there. For the priests who 
are to officiate another platform is prepared ; and at ib'e conclusion 
of the preparatory service a sacred thread called the pirit nida is 
fastened round the interior of the building. Lbe end of which, after 
being fastened to the reading platform, is placed near the relic. At 
such limes as the whole of the priests who are present engage in 
chaunling in chorus, the cord is untwined, and each priest lakes 
hold of it. thus making Ihc communication complete between each 
of the officiating priests, the relic, and the interior walls of the 

From the commencement of the service on the morning of the 
second day, until its conclusion on the evening of the seventh day, 
the icuding pbiiform is never to be vacated day or night. For this 
reason, when the two officiating priests are to be relieved by others, 
one continues silting and reading whilst the other gives his seat to 
his successor, and the second priest does not effect his exchange 
until the new one has commenced reading. In the same way, from 
the morning of the second day till the morning of the seientli day, 
the reading is continued day and night, without intermission. Not 
fewer than twelve, and in general twenty-four, priests are in atten- 
dance, two of whom are constantly officiating. As they are re- 
lieved every two hours, each priest has to officiate two hours out of 
th« twenty-four. In addition to this, all the priests engaged in the 
ceremony are collected three times in each day ; vi*. at simriae. at 
midday, and al sunset, when they chaunt in chorus ihc three prin- 
cipal discuursca of the Plrit, called respectively Mangala, Ratona, 
and Karauiya. with a short selection of verses from other sources. 
After ibis the reading is continued till the series of discourses has 
been rend through, when they are begun again, no other than ihoHu 

343 EAHTKBX uasxi 

ID the first serieH being read until the aixtU day, when a new series 
is commenced. 

On the morning of the seventh day a grand procession is formed 
of armed and unarmed men. and a person is appoinled to officiate 
as the d^nadutaya, or messenger of ihc gods. This company, with 
a few of the priests, proceeds to some place where tlie gods are 
supposed to reside, inviting them to attend prior to the conclusion 
of llie service, that they may partake in its benefits. Until the 
messenger and his associates ictnm, the officiating priests remain 
seated, but the reading is auapended. 

At the festival I attended the messenger was introduced with 
great state, and sulphur wa^ burnt before him to make his appear- 
ance the more supernatural. One of the pricsis having proclaimed 
that the various orders of gods and demons were invited to be pre- 
sent, the messenger replied that he had been deputed by such and 
such deities, repeating their names, lo say thai they would attend. 
The threefold protective formulary, which forms port of the recita- 
tion, was spoken by all present, in grand chorus. In the midst of 
much that is supcrHtitious in practice or utterly erronious in doc- 
trine, there are some advices repeated of an excellent tendency ; but 
the whole ceremony being conducted in a language that the people 
do not understand, no beneficial result can be produced by its per- 

The folly of the priests in confining their public ministrations to 
the simple reading of the bona, or to the offering of expositions 
that are equally unintelligible, has caused the class of persons 
called upasakas, in some districts, and especially in the neighbour- 
hood of Matura, to go about from house to bouse, after the manner 
of the Scripture readers, reading works on religion that are written 
in the vernacular Singhalese, accompanied with familiar expositions. 
It is by this means that Budhism is in many places principally sup. 
ported. It would appear that in Ncpaul there has been a similar 
transfer of the duty of teaching from the priest to the laic, as the 
V^ra Achdtayas, who are there the most active ministers, are nur- 
ried; and the extract from Mrs. Judson's Memoir, inserted above, 
would seem to inlimalc that in Burma also there is the manifeata- 
tioQ of equal negligence on the part of the si 

XX. MEDItATtON. 243 


As the priests of Budha who lived according to ihe rules of (be 
original institute were mucli in solitude, it was necessary that regq- 
lations should be laid down for their guidance when in this position. 
Accordingly, the Pitakas. as well as their other works, abound with 
advices that are only a|ip1ictible to the circumstances of the recluse. 
The general character of these instructions may be learnt from the 
following translations, taken principally from the Wisudbi Margga 

There are five principal modes of bhawoni, or meditation : — 
1. Maitii. 2. Mudita. 3. Earuna, 4. Upeksh^. 5. Aaubha. 

No one can enter aright upon the exercise of meditation who has 
r»ot previously kept the precepts. Rut if there be any one who is 
thus prepared, let him, at the close of the day, or at the dawn, seek 
a place where be will be free from interrui'tton, and with the body 
in a luJtable posture, let him meditate on the glory of the Budhas, 
the excellence of the bans, and the virtues of the priesthood. 

1 . Maitri'hh6waii&. — When the priest has arrived at a convenient 
spot, and placed himself in a proper position, let him exercise tlua 
wish : " May all the superior orders of being be happy ; may they 
all be free from sorrow, disease, and evil desire ; may all men, whe- 
ther they be prie.^ts or laics, all the dcwas, all who arc suffering the 
pains of hell, be happy ; may they be free from sorrow, disease, and 
evil desire." Then the same wish must be exercised relative to all 
sentient beings in the four cardinal points, all in the four half- points, 
all above and all below, taking each of these ten directions sepa- 
rately and in order ; or if they cannot be taken separately, it will 
suffice if this wish be exercised : " May all beings be happy ; may 
they all be frEc from sorrow, disease, and pain." This is m&itn- 
bhawana, or the meditation of kindness. Maitri is the same a* 
sn^ha, affection, and, according lo the grammnrians, sn4ha is the 
opposite of krodhu, hatred, fifaitrl and kiodha cannot exist toge- 
ther. !t is not the affection of Irishna, or mere passion ; of this 
kind of sui^ha. moha or ignorance is the cause, which leads to evil 
desire. In tlio an4ha of mailrf there is no evil desire ; it is that 
which one friend fovls for another. 

In the exercise of this mode of bhawana, the ihouglu must not 
at fimt \k fixed upon one whom the priest dislikes ; nor on any 
particular friend ; nor on any one that is indifferent lo him, neither 


liked nor disliked ; nor od any enemy (as by thinking of any person 
who is known, the mind will bo more oi less disturbed.) The 
thoughts must not at this time be fixed upon any indiviclual in par- 
ticular, nor on any one that is dead. There was a young priest who 
exercised maitri-bhawiuia upon his preceptor, but be did not arrive 
at nimitta (the interior illuminatioa for the acquiring of which he 
entered upon the exercise.) He therefore went to another priest, 
and asked him how it was that he could not arrive at nimittu. The 
priest replied that he must first ascerluin whether the person upon 
whom he meditated was alive or dead, as no nlmitla could be re- 
ceived when maitri-bhawana was esercised for the dead. 

The first meditation of the priest must be on himself ; * " may I 
be free from sorrow, anger, and evil desire ; '' thus be must think. 
But by this exercise alone no one can arrive at samadhi, or perfect 
tranquillity of mind, even if practised a hundred years. He must 
a desire that what he has wished lo receive himself 
o all sentient beings ; and that wliat he has wished 
to be warded from himself may be warded from all sentient beings. 
After this he may endeavour to exercise maitrl-bh^nana upon his 

therefore go on U 
may be granted t< 

The man that is your enemy thinks of you in thia way. If you 
are of a disagreeable person, sick or sorrowful, poor, mean, and 
friendless, he rejoices. He is again delighted if tn the other world 
you are not in a place of happiness ; and he does all he can to in- 
jure you. Enmity is like a shed in a place of sepulture, on fire at 
both ends, and in the middle filled with the dung of dogs and 
jackalls ; such a place is utterly worthless ; people do not approach 
it lo take eilher fire or fuel. He who indulges in enmity cannot 
practise the precepts, and that wliich he wishes for others n ill recoil 
ujKin himiielf. 

When the priest finds it difficult to exercise the meditation of 
kindness upon his enemy, he must think that when the words are 
bad, the actions are sometimes good ; that when the words and 
actions are bad, the mind is sometimes good ; and that when the 
mind and actions are bad, the words are sometimes good. Again, 
if his enemy have only a few things obout him that ore good, and 
many that are bad, he must think of the good alone, and forget the 

■ II u uid in the Angetis-atuKtwa thai the Bnt exercise of i 



bad entirely. But if he be all bod, and have nothing good, the prii-st 
must think of the misery he nill have to endure in ihe other world, 
whilst suffering for many ages the pnins of hell. By ihia means 
sympathy' will be produced. \Mien tlie three, the mind, the words, 
and the actions are all good, there can be no difficulty in the exer-- 
ciae. And when the priest is still unable to accomplish the exer- 
cise, he must think further of the consequences of enmity. If the 
princijde be indulged in, it will prevent him from being bom in a 
brahma-Ioka, and from becoming Sekra or a ehakrawartti ; if he 
should be bom among men he vvUI have to live ozt offal thrown away 
from the houses of the rich ; or he will be bom in hell. He who 
indulges in enmity is like one who throws ashes to windward, which 
come back to the same place and cover him alt over.* 

Should this exercise prove ineffectual, the priest must reflect on 
what is said in the Anamalagra-autra. All persons have had in 
previous births parents, children, brothers, sisters, and other near 
relatives. The priest muHt ihink that the person with wham he is 
at enmity may have been one of them, and may have toiled for his 
benefit in various ways. By this means his enmity will be over- 

But if the enmity still continues, he must coll to remembrance 
what are the rewards of affection. He who possesses it will gain 
respect ; he will not have unpleasant dreams ; nor be in any danger 
^m fire, poison, or weapons ; he will have a pleasant countenance, 
and will not lose possession of his senses when about to die ; and if 
not a rahat, he will be born in a brahina-l6ka. 

And if all these reflections are insufflcient, the priest must ihink, 
" What am 1 at enmity with ? is it n-ith the hair, or with the bones, 
or with what ? " Thus his hatred will have nothing upon which lo 
fnsten ; even as nothing can be placed upon the mustard-seed, or 
painted upon the air. 

There ir yet one more expedient. The priest must give some- 
thing to the person with whom he is at enmity, or must receive 
something from him, if he is willing lo give it ; and in this manner, 
even should the enmity have existed from previous ages, it will be 
oi'crcome. There was a priest in ihc SittJpaw wihara who was three 
limes expelled, but he was unwilling lo leave. After all he said to 
the principal pricat, " My mother, an up&vikawa, gave me this alms- 


bowl ; the value of it ia ei^ht kahawanas ; I obtained it in a proper 
maimer ; and I now present it to your reverence." The superior 
priest received it, and by this means his enmity was appeased. The 
giving of alms is a blessing to him who receives as well as to bim 
who gives, but the receiver is inferior to the giver. 

The priest who exercises maitri-hhawana must have efjaol affec- 
tion for himself, his friend, the person who is iudiSerent to him, and 
his enemy. Were a man to come to the priest with whom the 
others associated, and say that he must have one of the four to offer 
in sacrifice, he must not ask for a moment who is to be given up ; 
ho must at once offer himself ns the victim. 

The exercise of moitti-hhawan^ is agreeable to the dewas, even 
aa the attention of the child who ministers to his parents, and in all 
things assists them. It will word off danger. Whilst a cow was 
giving suck to its calf, a hunter tried to pierce it with a javelin, but 
bis efforts were in vain ; he could not take its life. It was not by 
the power of samadhi, or any other attainment, that this took place; 
it was from the affection manifested towards its offsjiring at the 
moment; and in this way may be learnt the greatness of the medi- 
tation of kindness. 

In the exercise of maitri-bbdwana. if the priest sees any one that 
is in distress, he must wish that his misfortunes may be removed ; 
but if he sees no one of this description, he may reflect that any 
person whatever whom he meets must suffer in consequence of hb 
transgressions, and mtist then wish that bis sufferings may be re- 
moved. Aa the man led out to execution is pitied by the people, 
who bring him food, liquor, and betle, and he appears like a man 
eiyoying himself, though every step he takes brings him nearer to 
death ; such, the priest must think, is the situation of all men ; they 
now appear to he prosperous, but it ia only for a moment; the day 
of misfortune will most certainly come. 

2. Karuna-bhdicantl. — In the practice of this mode of medilatioD 
tie priest must exercise the wish, " May the poor be relieved from 
their indigence, and receive abundance." This is knrun^-bh&wani, 
or the meditation of pity. Karuna is thus produced. Wben we 
see any object in distress, we feel kampawima, agitation, in the 
mind; and from this arises karuna, pity or compassion. It is aud 
in the likjiwa that wben we see distress of any kind, wo feci the 
wiiOi to relieve it ; and this feeling ts karunA. 

3. MnJita-hhiwaHa. — In the exercise of (bis mode of meditation 

SI. MEUiTATiov. 247 

the priest must express the wisli, "May the good Tortunc of the 
proaperous never pacs nway ; may eacb one receive his own ap. 
pointed reward." This is mudita-bhawan^. or the meditalion of 
joy. Tlie principal meaning of miiHila is joy. but it is not the joy 
atising from earthly posBcisiona. It feels indifferent lo individualn. 
and refers lo all sentient beings. It is allied to both maitii and 

As the husbandman first portions out a certain plot of ground, 
and ihen ploughs it, so the priest who eiercisea any of the above 
three modes of meditation may first direct his attention to a certain 
number of persons, then to llic inhabitants of u street, and so on in 
order to the whole village, the kingdom, the sakwala. and the outer 

4. Atubha-bhiitodnti. — The principal meaning of the word aaubha 
is inauspicious, that which is the opjiosite of good fortune, or that 
which produces dissatisfaction, aversion, and disgust. In this ex- 
ereise the priest must reflect that the body is composed of thirty- 
two impurities ; that as the worm is bred in the dunghill, so it is 
conceived in the womb ; that it is the receptacle of filth, like the 
privy; that disgusting secretions arc continually proceeding from 
its nine apertures ; and that, like the drain into which all kinds of 
refuse are thrown, it sends forth an offensive smell. This is asubha- 

The body exists only for a moment ; it is no sooner hnm than it 
is destroyed ; it is like the flash of the lightning as it passes through 
the sky; like the foam ; like a grain of salt thrown into water, or 
fins among dry straw, or a wnvc of the sen, or fi flame trembling in 
the wind, or the dew upon tlie irrass. He who exercises bhawan& 
must reflect u|>on these compariKon&, and learn that thus imperma- 
nent IK the lindy. 

By a continued repetition of birth and death, the sentient being 
is nuhjuct to coustaiil suffering; he is thus like a worm in the 
midst of a nest of ants ; like a lizard m the hollow of a bamboo 
that is burning at both ends ; like a living carcase bereft of hands 
and feet and thrown upon the sand; and like an infant that because 
it cannot be brought forth, is cut from the womb piecemeal. He 
who cKnclsei thia mode of bhAwana must think of these compari- 
sons, and of others that arc similar, and remember that their appli- 
cation is universal. These are the signs connected with dukh», 
•orrow, 01 suffering. 



The body is unreal, tren as the mirage that appearit in Ihe sun- 
■hine, or a painted piclure, or a mere machine, or food seen in a 
dream, or lightning dnncing in ihe sky. or Ihc coitrBe of an ^rrow 
shot from a bow. He who exercises bh^wana must reflect on these 
comparisons, that in like manner the body is unreal. These are the 
signs colled anata. 

The three reflections on the impermanencj, suffering, and un- 
reality of tlie body are as the gates leading to the cily of ninrana. 

The ascetic who would practice awuhha-bhawana must apply to 
some one who ia able to instruct him. who must take him to the 
cemetery, and point out to him the offensive parts of a dead body ; 
but if he bears that there is a body in the forest, he must not go 
there, as he may be in danger from the wild beast* that are attracted 
to the same spot ; nor must he go to any place that is very public, 
ax in such a sput his mind would be distracted hy the various scenes 
thai he would witneas, and he would meet with women. A man 
muat not meditate on the body of s woman, nor a woman on the 
body of a man. When about to leave the wihara, he must inform 
(he superior priest of his intention, as in the place where the body 
is deposited there will be noises from yaka* and wild beasts, and he 
may become so much afraid as to be sick. The superior priest will 
see that his alms-bowl and other utenaila are taken care of during 
his absence. There ia another reason why he should give notice of 
this intention. The cemetery is a place reaorteci to by robbers, and 
when they are chased they might throw down their stolen articles 
near the place where the priest was meditating ; and when the 
people come in pursuit and see the articles near him. they might 
accuse him of the theft; thus he might be exposed to much trouble. 
But if the superior priest could alBrm that he went to meditate, he 
would be freed from su.spicion at once. He must go to the place of 
meditation with joy ; as a king goes to the hall where be is 1o be 
anointed, or a brahman to Ihe yaga sacrifice, or a poor man to the 
place where there is hidden treasure. He may take with him * 
■taff to drive away dogs and wild beasts. In the exercise, he must 
turn his eyes and ears inward, and must not allow them to wander 
after anything that is without, save that he must remember the 
direction in which he came. In approaching the body he muBt not 
come from the leeward, or he may be overpowered hy the smell, and 
his mind will become confused ; but if there be in the other direc- 
tion any roek. fence, water, or other hinderancc. he may approach 


the body from the leeward, I'voviUed 
corner of his rohc. In fixing hii 
athwart the course of iho wind ; he iii 
or the feet, but opposile the abdomen 
afraid, nor too far off, or the offensiv 



over his nostrils with the 
n the body he must look 
not stand near the head 
□t too near, or he may be 
roperties will not rightly 
appear. He must meditate on the colour of the body : its ses, age, 
and different members, joints, and properties ; that this is the head, 
thin the abdomen, and that these are the feet ; and he must pass in 
order to the different parts of the body, and number every joint, 
from the foot to the head. Thus, in relation to the hair of the 
head, the following reflections must be made : — " It is different to 
all other parts of the body, eren to the hair that grows in other 
places ; it is in every respect impure; when not regularly cleaned. 
it becomes offensive ; and when thrown into the fire it sends forth 
a disagreeable smell." Fixing hi>> eyes on the body, he must think a 
hundred and a thousand times on its offcnsivcncss ; that it is like a bag 
filled with wind, n mass of impurity ; and that none of its excretions 
can be taken in the hand. And at times he must shut his eyes and 
think inwardly and intensely on the fiame subjects. All dead bodies 
are alike : the body of the king cannot be distinguished from that 
of the outcBste, nor the body of the outcaste from that of the king, 
—In the exercise of this mode of bhawan^ all 
B regarded alike, one is not loved more than ano- 
re than another : towards all there is indifference. 
This exercise is superior to all the othem, and is practised by the 
rahats. This is upekBha-bh{iwan&, or the meditation of equa- 

The four modes of meditation, maitri, karuna. mudita. and upek- 
«h4, arc called Brahma- wihara-bhawani, on account of their supe- 
riority. They are practised by Maba Brahma. 

The difference in thece four modes is thus illustrated. There is 
a mother who ban four sons, all of whom she regards, but in s 
diffi-rent manner. The first is a child, the second sick, the third a 
youth, and the fourth a grown-up man. The mother lores the first 
because ho is the little one ; she pities the second, and administers 
to him medicine ; and she rejoices in the promise and circumstances 
of the thitd -, but about the fourth she cares comparatively little, as 
he is able to provide for his own wnnls. 

In these exerciiie" of meditation, taken from the S4Ieyya Suira 
Sunne and the Wisudhi Margga Sonne, there are many senlimenU 

5, Upihkd.bhat 
sentient beings a 
Ihcr nor hated m 


that we worthy of praise; but the wishes of ihereduse are of no 
real vulue, as they lead to no practical effort of humanily. They 
remind us of what has been said by St. Jumcs. " If a brother or 
sister be naked, and destitute of daily food ; and one of yoii say 
onto them, depart in peace, be ye warmed and filled ; notwith- 
standing ye give them not those things which are needful to the 
body, what doth it profit ? " Yet the priests of Ceylon pride therp- 
selveB upon the exercise of karuna-bhawana, and suppose that it 
pye* them a superiority of excellence to the messengers of the 
croHS ; but the Christian does what the BudhisI only wishes to be 

The loathsomenesa of the body is a common topic of illustration 
among the sages of India, They present it under the most disgust- 
ing associations, in an imagery as varied as it is extensive. " The 
body," says Gotama, " is covered with skin, humid and filthy ; from 
its nine apertures, the accretions ate coaiioimlly exuded ; because 
its oRensivcness cannot be taken away, it is like an incurable 
wound ; the wise regard it as a lump of excrement ; it sends forth 
continually a diaagreeable odour; and at last it turns into a mass of 
putridity and corruption. " • The sage had two sisters who were 
vain of their beauty ; but he caused the image of a most beautiful 
maiden to appear to them, which excited their envy. Then be 
caused her in an instant to become wrinkled, her (eeth to fall out 
and hair to become grey, on seeing which their vanity passed away. 
Upon another occasion, when a priest had formed a criminal pas- 
sion for a woman, who soon afterwards died, Gotama caused the 
body to be kept until it becamt putrid. He then said to his fol- 
lowers : — '■ Man, when he is alive, can move himself and pass from 
one place to another ; but when he is dead he is nothing but a mo- 
tionless trunk. Thb body, which is composed of 360 bones, of 9D0 
veins, and as many muscles, is full of intestines, plilcgm, and mucus; 
from nine different apertures disgusting matter is discharged ; a 
stinking perspiration exudes from all its pores, and yet there are 
people no fuolbb, as not merely to cherish their own bodies, but 
also to fall in love with those of other persons. This body, which 
even when alive is so disgusting, when it is dead becomes a carcasa, 
which its own relations cannot look upon without horror. AStvr 
two days it begins to smell, on the third il becomes green ami 
black ; wurinn come from it in every pari ; and, when in the grave, 
• HUinJ- l>nuni. 


it is gnawed by the moat despicabie msects. Whoever considers 
these thtn^ will be convinced that in the body there is nothing but 
decay and misery ; and therefore he will east off all affection for it, 
and turn all his desires to nirwana, where these things do not 

There are many advantages to be derived from meditating upon 
the attributes of the body. The merit of presenting an offering to 
a supreme Budha, it is said, is exceedingly great ; but the merit of 
him who trusts in the whole of the three gems with a right mind is 
greater ; and still greater is the merit of him who loves all sentient 
beings for so small a space as is occupied by the fulling of the milk 
from the udder of a cow to the vessel placed to receive it. Superior 
to this, however, is the merit of him who keeps the five precepla ; 
yet greater than all is the merit of him who for the space of a finger- 
snapping mcdilales on the three signs connected with existence, sor- 
row, impermancnco, and unreality. In a former age there were fifty 
friends, who, having found the dead body of a woman, collected 
wood and made a funeral pile, upon which they burnt it. When 
they saw the blisters rising upon the body from the action of the 
fire, they reflected upon the position in which all must be placed, and 
then meditated upon the three gems. They were, in consequence, 
ever afterwards born eiiher as dewas or men, never receiving any 
inferior existence ; and in the lime of Ootama they became rahata. 
The same Budha had a disciple called Chullapanta, who in a former 
age was a king. One day, when be had ascended his chariot, and 
the horse had nin nome distance, the whole body of the animal was 
corered with sweat, by the sprinkling of which his robe was soiled. 
The king, on seeing what had occurred, reflected that the impurity 
proceeding from the body stains even the most beautiful apparel ; 
and through the merit of this reflection he was ever afterwards born 
in a superior state of existence. f 

Tb« raorslisl. when he would persuade mankind to thoughlfuU 
ncss, has ever dwelt upon the ravages of disease, and the offensive 
accompaniments of death ; but the life of the ascetic is in many 
insljinces a [wrpetual comment u)K)n the declaration of God, "dying 
thou shnlt die.'' When Socrates was about to drink the hemlock, 
he declared that to think about death is the chief office of the philo- 
sopher. Tho vorlier recluses retired to the tombs, as did Anthony, 


who was left alone in the house of death, and when hia friends had 
cloeed the door was afterwards Keen only at intervals. At the eoDse- 
cration of a nun of St. Bridget four sisters brought her coffin, which, 
during maas, remained in the gate through which the nun was in- 
troduced, nilh earlh sprinkled upon it. In ihe manast^rics of this 
order there was a grave constantly open, at which the abhcss and 
convent daily attended and performed divine service, that they 
might be reminded of the short and uncerlain duration of human 
life. In the infirmary of some of the monastic establishments there 
was a stone upon which the dying monks were washed and received 
extreme unction ; and upon this stone the brethren were directed to 
sit and meditate, as a kind of penance. 

Vet these very associations have sometimes been made use of aa 
incentives to merriment and revelry. At the entertainments given 
by the ancient Egyptians, just as the company was about to rise 
from ihe repast, a small coffin was carried round, containing a per- 
fect representation of a dead body. This was shown to the guesta 
in rotation, the bearer exclaiming. " Look at this figure : after 
death you will resemble it; drink then, and he happy," — Herod. 
ii. 78. 


The Budhist* believe that it is possible, by the performance of 
certain ceremonies, and the observance of a prescribed course of 
moral action, lo arrive at the possession of supernatural powers. 
The subject is one of almost limitless extent; but our notice of it 
must be principally confined to the rite called Kasina, a description 
of which will bo given at length ; and we shall afWrwards allude to 
other methods, by which it is supposed that a miraculous energy 
may be received. A few remarks upon the generol question will 
be inserted at the end of the 22nd chapter. 

There are ten descriptions of kasina : — 1 . Pathawi, earth. 3. 
Apo, water. 3, Ttjo. fire. 4. Wayo, wind, 5. Nils, blue. 
6. Pit&, golden. 1. l.^hita, blood-red. 8. Odaia, while. 9. Aloka, 
light. 10. Ak&M, space. 

I. Patiawi Kasina. — The pricsl who exercises pathawi-kuioft 


inu»t take earth, in tlie way appoimed, and must exercUe tneditation, 
looking for the nimitla ilJununatinn, tike the man who sees himself 
in n mirror. Though the word pathawi ia used, which is a feminine 
noun, it must be regarded ns of the neuter gender. The sign may 
be either a place made by himself for the occasion, or he may take 
the circular threshing-floor in a field, or any other place that, in a 
similar manner, has a limit : but il is forbidden to take for the pur- 
pose a place that has no limit. The kasina-mandala, or circle, 
must he of the size of a winnowing fan, or the brazen porringer 
called a teti. which, being small, the priesl can easily fis his eye 
upon it, as it must be of such a kind that, whether the eye be nhut 
or open, the circle may be present lo the mind. The mind must 
be firm, pondering over the sign again and again. The priest roust 
reflect on the benefit lo be derived fjom the eiercise, regarding it 
with joy. as if it were a great treasure ; and be must not allow hia 
mind to wander off after any other object whatever. Not thinking 
about onyihing else, he must resoNe that, by this means, he will 
obtain relief from decay and death. Thus, being freed from evil 
desire, he will enter upon the first dbyana. 

\\'lien any one has enjoyed the benefits to be derived from the 
teachings of the Budhas in a former birtli, or attained to the state 
of a rishi, and thereby been enabled lo enter ujion the fourth and 
fifth dhyanas. it will not be necessary for him to make a circle of 
earth, as a ploughed field or a threshing -floor will serve the same 
purpose. Tims, when men pass through a dcserl with which they 
arc not acquainted, and meet with water, they put something as a 
mark, that they may know the place again, and they are guided by 
this mark the nest lime they pass along the same road ; but when 
ihey have become well acquainted with ihe spot, from frequently 
passing and repassing, they do not require any mark to guide them 
to Ihe water, as Ihcy can find it without this assistance. So the 
priest who has been acciutomed lo perform kasina in former births, 
docs not require the same sign aa others lo assist his meditations, 
ll was by thti means that the priest Mallaka, by Wking at a 
ploughed field, na-i enabled lo enter the fifth dhyana, then to attain 
widsriana,* and become u rahat. When the priest has nut prac- 
tised these things in a former birth, he must learn the course of 
discipline from a com)>eIent teacher, that he may know also the 
fdiults tliat are lo be avoided In the eiercise. 

• For *a ciplanatiaa of ilic tenn> u^d in thU chapter. consaU lh» Index. 


The kosina circle must not be blue, golden, blood-rei], or whife. 
The day of which it is formed must not be of any of these colours 
(as they are the colours of other kasiaas) ; it must be of a light ted. 
aruna, the tint that the sky assumes at dawn, or the colour of the 
sand deposited by the Ganges. The frame ujjon which the circle is 
placed must not be erected too near a wibara. where there may bo 
disturbance from the sjunanfera novices. A place must be chosen 
for the purpose at the limit of the grounds attached to tlie wihora, 
under the shade of a tree, or of a projecting rock ; or a Icmporary 
pansul may be made for the occasion. The frame, made of four 
sticks, may either be set up in Buch a way as to be removable to 
another place, or it may be fixed in the ground. Upon the top a 
piece of cloth, a skin, or a mat, must be extended, upon which the 
clay must be spread, free from grass, roots, pebbles, and sand ; and 
it must be well tempered, and made very smooth. Qraduully it 
must be kneaded and worked, until it is of the proper consistency ; 
and it must be formed into a circle one span and four inches in 
diameter. If the frame be fi-^ed in the ground, it must be small at 
the bottom, and broad at the top, like the flower of the lotus. If 
suflScient clay cannot be procureil of the proper colours, the bo<ly of 
the circle may be formed of any other clay, with a layer of aruna 
clay spread over the surface. Whether the circle be moveable or 
fixed, it must be of the prescribed size. ^Vhen it is said that it 
must be of the same size as a winnowing fan, or a brazen porringei, 
it is not a large one that is intended, but one of the common tixe. 
It is essential rhat there be a limit to the thing which is taken as a 
sign, and it is on this account that its dimensions arc pointed out. 
The space cilerior to the circle may be of a while colour. The 
juice of the sandal-wood tree will not give the colour that is re> 

The priest must take water that falls from a rock, and therewith 
render the clay perfectly smooth and even, like the head of a drum ; 
then, having bathed, he must sweep ihe place where the frame is 
erected, and place a scat, without any irre^'ularilies on its surface, 
one span and four inches high, at the distance of two cubits and one 
span from the frame. Remaining upon this scat, he must look at 
the circle, and exercise meditation. If the seal be furtlicr distant 
than the prescribed space, he will not be able to see the circle pro> 
perly : and if nearer, its imperfections will be loo apparent. If it 
be higher, he will have to bend his neck lo sec the circle ; if lower. 


his knees will he pained. Thus seated, he muat reflect on the evils 
resulting from the lepetition of existence, and on the manner in 
which it is lo be overcome ; on the benefits received by those who 
practise the dhyanas and other modes of oscclicism ; und on the ex- 
cellencies of the three items ; and lie must resolve ujion securing the 
same advantages. He must not keep his ej-es open too long, lest 
he become confused. The circle must be seen, but not too clearly, 
or his object cannot be gained ; slill. it is necessary that it be seen 
with a certain dcgtce of distinctness, or his aim will be equally 
fruBlralcd. He must be like a man who fCatchcs an elephant ; not 
too intent, nor loo careless : or, like n man looking at himself in a 
mirror, who iloes not notice the form of ihc instrument, but regards 
his own appearance alone. The colour of tlic circle must be no- 
ticed, but not with too much pleasure or satisfaction. It is not 
enough to think that it is composed of earth. The priest niust also 
remember that the earthly particles of his own body are composed of 
the same clement. For this purpose he must think of the different 
names that are given to earth, such as palhawi, mahi, medini, 
bhumt, WRHudli'd, and wa^-undara. Any of these names may be 
chosen, and, for a time, he may reflect on that exclusively ; but as 
the epithet moat comniouly use<I is pathawi, upon this he muat 
meditate with gTenter frequency and intensity. Until nimitta is re- 
ceived, sometimes with his eyes open, and at other times wtlh them 
shut, he must continually regard the circle, though tlie exercise haa 
to be repealed a hundred or a thousand times. When the circle 
appears to the mind as clearly with the eyes shut as with tliem 
open, tlie nimilla may be regarded as accomplished. 

The exercise in ikol to be continued after tlie nimitta has been re- 
ceived, or it will agaui be lost. It is better, therefore, for the priest 
iu>t to remain in the same place : because, if he does so, his eyes 
will wander towarda the circle. Going from thence to has usual 
place of residence, he must there exercise meditation. That lime 
may not be lost in the washing of his feet, he must put on nhocs, 
which muat he made of skin, that ih^re may be no noise when he 
wulks : and he will require a staff, that dangers may bo warded off. 
If by any means the nimitta shouM be drntroyed, he must again 
tHkc his shoes and staff, and carry on the meditation as before, until 
it be recovered. By the power of nimitta tlie thoughts that pre- 
vent the cieteiso of dhy&na wilt be restrained ; scepticism will pass 
Bwny. imd purity will be received, by which the angas, or consti- 

tuent parta of the dhy^nas, will be accompiiBhei). There are Iwo 
kinds of nimitta, ugrana and pratibhaga. In the former, the imper- 
fcctions of ihe circle are seen ; in ihe latter, they are not, as the 
circle aSBuTDes the appearance of a clear mirror, or of a conch shell 
of tlie purest while, or of the orb of the moon when entirely free 
from clouds, or of the bird kuka when the sky is dark and lower- 
ing ;• it is therefore a thousand times superior fo the ugrana mimilta, 
and is without colour, shape, or outward appearance. The prati- 
bhaga nimitta is only received by those who practise the meditation 
by which samadhi is produced. 

Of samadhi there are two kinds, upach4ri and arppana, which cause 
the destruction of those things that act as an enemy lo the dhyanas. 
In upach^ri samadhi the mind is not rightly firm, not entirely at 
rest or calm ; it is tike a child that is unable lo walk properly, and 
is continually falling ; as the nimitta is sometimes recelicd, and then 
lost again. But arppana samadhi is more powerful; it is Uke a 
man who rises from his seat, and walks steadily for the space 
of a whole day ; as, when it is received, the mind continues in 
one even ftame, undisturbed and unshaken. Though pratibhaga 
nimitta may be received with upachari samadhi, its acquirement 
in this way is difficult; the priest must therefore endeavour to 
obtain arppana samadhi, and he must guard the nimitta that 
he receives with all care, as the treasurer of a chakrawartti guards 
the wealth that is under his charge. When the nimilta is not pre- 
served, so many of the dhyfinas as have been received will be lost ; 
because nimitta is an assistance to the dhyanas. He who would 
receive arppana samadhi must bo careful in seven matters. 1- Hi* 
residence, which must be free fiora that which is disagiceahle to 
him. Such a place was the wihara Chulanatla, in Ceylon, in n'Mcti 
600 priests became rahats ; but how many in Situlpaw and other 
places entered the paths, cannot be told. '2. The road he traversea 
when he goes with the alms-bowl in search of food, which must be 
within the distance of 750 bows. 3. Conversation : he must not 
speak about the thirty-two tilings that ore forbidden to be noticed 
by the priest ; nor must he say too much even upon subjects that 

■ 1 resided several yean upon the ura-coiut of Ceylon, and un the approaoli 
of the monsoon, whm the whole heavens were black w Erebus, hnre often 

■dmiied Ihe sppeaisuee preaested by the plumage of die «ca-biidi, which at 
Ihst time assemble in nceat numben ; their wings nppcuins of > whiteness 
the most pure, when ennttutisl with ihe deep dnrkneo* of the aurrniinding 

XXI. ASCtllC RITEB. 257 

nre allowed. 4. Coinpany : he must not converse with improper 
peraonn. even though it should be about things that are nllotved as 
Bubjecis of conversation. It is only with those that arc seeking 
eara^ilhi, or have attained it. that he must converse, as communica- 
tion with others will be like the muddy water, that defiles the clean 
and pure. There were some inespcrienced priests in the Kclapaw 
wibnra, who lost the nimitta they had gained, by talking to im- 
proper persons. 5. Food: some priests like sweet fooi), and some 
sour. He who would receive samadhi must have that kind of food 
which is most agreeable lo him. 6. The sepson : some prefer heal, 
and others cold : and in this ease also, the time most agreeable to 
the individual must be chosen for the exercise. 7, The position of 
the body ; that posture must be chosen which is must pleasant, 
whether it he walking, standing, sitting, or lying doivn; and in 
order that the priest may discover this, he must practise each of the 
positions during three days. By attending to all the raatlcrs herein 
set forth, nrppana samndhi will he accomplished ; but if it is not 
yet received the ten orjipena kowsalya, or proprieties, must be 
more closely attended lo, such as that the person and robe miisl be 
kept clean ; for when the hair it long, and the body, robe, or alms- 
howl dirty, the mind cannot he kept pure. In the same way, if the 
wick and the oil are not clean, the lamp will not burn brightly. 

Samadhi is that which keeps the thoughts together, as the drop 
of water that causes the grains of sand to ndhere together and form 
a ball. It is like ihe tiame of a lamp that burns steadily. It pre- 
vents the perturbation of the different faculties of (he mind. 

Samndhi is the principal root of all (he other virtues; all others 
are inferior to it, come after it, and bend towards it. In the conical 
roof of a dwelling, alt the beams arc inferior lo the boss in the 
cralre; they are all inclined toivurds it. and joined to it. .\gain. 
In an army composed of many different sections, all are inferior lo 
the king by whom it i* commanded ; all are directed by bim and 
acknowledge bis superiority. In like manner, samadbi is the chief 
of the attainments po«Be«sed by bim who seeks nirwana. It wa< 
declared by Iludha, thai be who possesses samadbi may readily 
aeijuite all other aitainmoiits. 

2. Apn Kiiiiaa. — The practice of npo-kasina agrees in most res- 
pects witli tliat of patbawUkasinu, hut iherc are a few diBercnces. 
which will bore bo slated. When the priest has exetcised this 
kaainn in a fonner biith, ho may lake as the sign a tank, a pond, a 

258 EA^TEIty MONACrnsH. 

lake, 01 the sen. There was Chiilosiwa, who thinking; it right that 
he should hecomc an ascetic, took ship at the port of Mawalu, tn 
Ceylon, and set sail for some country in Jambudwipa, On his way, 
the circle of the horizon became to him as a kasina-mandala, and 
he performed the exercise of apo-kasina. The priest who has not 
practised this kasina in a former birth, must catch a portion of waier 
in a cloth as it fiilla from the sky in rain, before it has reached the 
ground ; it must be of one colour, the four colours blue, golden, 
blood-red, and white being avoided ; or if rain cannot be procured, 
any other water that is free from agitation may be used instead. 
This water must be poured into an alms-bowl or some other vessel 
of a similar kind, and placed in some convenient part of the court 
of the wihara, or in a retired spot in some other locality ; and iho 
priest, sitting down near it in the manner prescribed, mu^t begin to 
meditate. He must not think of the colour of the water, nor of its 
other properties ; but must reflect that the perspiration and other 
watery particles in his own body are of the same nature as thai upon 
which he looks. He must then think of and repeat, the various 
names that are given to water by the people of the world, such aa 
ambu, uitakd, nari, salila. and apo. By this means be will aitivc at 
ugraca nimitta, bul as this nimitla is not free from disquietude, it 
must pass away, like the bubble upon the water. The pratibhuga 
nimitta will then be attained, ns the imperfection of the water, such 
as that it is liable to he raised into waves, will become apporenl. 
After this the ascetic must proceed to the acquirement of the 
different dhyanas. 

3. TiJQ Kasina. — When any one wishes to perform tejo-kasink, 
fire must be used as the sign. If the exercise was performed in a 
former birth, he may take as the sign the Bame of a lamp, or fire 
from the oven, or the lire that is accidentally kindled in the forest 
by the friction of two dry branches. In this way, Cbittugutta made 
use of a kmp that was burning at a poya festival ; and by medita- 
ting upon it he arrived at nimitU. But if this kasina was not per- 
formed in a formoi' birth, the priest must take wood, dry and firm, 
that it may bum long, and cutting it into small pieces he miut 
place it at the root of a tree, or in the court of the wlh^ra, where h 
must be ignited. When nil has been thus prepared, he must lake 
a mat made of thteds of bnnvboo, or a skin, ot a cloth, and making 
in it an aperture one span and four inches in diameter, he must place 
it before him, and then M down, as in the practice of the other ka- 

HXI, A^rFTIC BITE^. 239 

finas. Looking through the aperture, he must tneditale on the 
fire ; bal he mnst not think of the gra^B or other embers below, nor 
of the smoke rising above, nor of the colour or other properties of 
fire, OS that it is warm ; he must lis his mind on the clear fire in the 
centre, and reflect that the fire in his own body is of a similar nature, 
flickering and inconstant. The different names of fire must he re- 
]ieated. such as pawaka, kanhawattoni, jatawcda, utasana, and l^jo. 

4. IF/iyo Katina, — In the practice of wajo-kaaina, he who has 
performed the exercise in a former birth may take as the sign a 
grore of bamboos or sugar-cane, when agitated by the breeze. But 
he who has not previously performed the exercise must scat himself 
at the root of a tree, or in some other convenient place, and think 
of the wind passing through a window,* or the hole of a wall ; and 
that the wayo in his own body is as inconstant as the wind that 
■Irikes apon the person when the breeze is fell to blow. After this 
lie must meditate on the different names by which wind ia knom-n, 
wjita. m^lnta. anila, and wayo. In other respects, tlie same form 
that is attended U> in pathawi-kasina is to be observed. 

5. AlAi Katina. — In nila-kasina dowers, a garment, an altar 
covered with flowers, or a gem, of a blue colour, may be taken as 
the sign. \Vhcn the observance has been attended to in a former 
birth, it will suffice to look upon a tree covered with blue dowers ; 
but if it has nut been thus attended to, a vessel must be filled with 
flowers of a blue colour, but the pollen or the stalks are not to be 
seen ; or a blue garment may be tied over the mouth of a vessel, 
tight, like the skin stretched upon a drum, which must bo covered 
with flowers. l*ho colour must be like that which is obtained from 
the rust of copper or Irom antimony ; or a circle of a blue colour 
may be made upon the wall. The priest must then fix his mind 

• la India this pportute is literally a window, without glau, or oven a lat- 
tico-Hork, a in Turkrjr. In ihi; north of Kngtand it is still catlvd windur, 
probahly tram wind-door, w wu coixjecturvil by Skinner, The hoiucs of llic 
Anglu-Satoni appear to have been open in anunnar that thou who oiv ncnu- 
tamed to the coavcmoncts of modem timn can Marccly uiuknund. The 
sddrcM of the igrd thane to Edwin, king of NorthonibnB, vihca the lubjcct 
of Cimatiuttty WM brought bcfmo the witan, is wpll known ; bnt it ia too 
bcautihil not to beat repetition. " WTii-n," said he, ■' O kinc. you "id joiit 
lainiitFn no Nstcd at tabic In the depth of winter, and the cheerful Ore 
liloHi aa tlic hearth hi the middle of tlu> hall, a aparrow pcihapii, chBM>d by 
the wind and anew, enten at one door of the aiurtnkcDt, and ucapca by IW 
other. During the moment of it* paamse, it eigoyi the wannth i when it is 
once deiMutcd, It U arm no motv. Such i* the nature uf man- Uurins a few 
vi-or* hU eilntciKc ii Tiuhle: bnt what haa preceded, or what will follow it, 
ipi conc«aIed Bom the view cf ouittaU."— Ltnjpud'* AiigIo>SKi(in Cbnrth. 

200 E19TKUS Mll?(vrHI*«. 

upon iLat wtucii be haa chosen as a sign, and reflect that the sky 
also is of the coluur of ihe sapphire ; in other things proceeding &s 
in the kasinos slready described. 

6. Pila Kaiina. — The eierciBe of pita-kaaina is the same as that 
of nila, the only difference being in the colour, A priest in the 
Situlpaw wihara took as the sign a throne otnamenied with pntongi 
(sappan, or log-wood) flowers, by which he was enahied to receive 
nimitta. — In the exercise of lohita-kasina, the circle may be made 
with vemiillioD ; and in odula-knsina, a vessel of lead or silver, or 
the orb of the moon, may be taken as the sign. 

7- ji/iitn Katina. — In aloka-kaaina (he sign maybe a hole in the 
wall, a key-hole, or a window. If the same kasina has been ob- 
served in a former birth, it will suffice to take the light passing 
through a hole in the wall, or the sunbeam as il falls upon the 
ground through an opening in the thick fuliage of a tree, or on 
aperture made among tlie leaves by which a hut is covered ; but if 
it has not been exercined previously, ibc names of light, such aa 
obh^a and aloka, must be thouj^ht of and repeated. Yet as a circle 
made by the sun or moon soon passes away, il will be belter to 
lake an earlheii vessel, with a hole made in its side, in which « 
lamp must be placed ; and then if it be put near a wall, the light 
from the bole will faU thereon, and the priest will be able to medi- 
tate upon the circle thus formed a greater length of time than if it 
were made in the manner first mentioned. 

In the cxcrciae of paricliinnak^sa-kasina the sky must lie looked 
at through a hole in the roof of a hut or through a hole of the pre- 
Hcribed dimensions made in a akin. 

By ibc practice of pathawi-kosina the priest will receive the power 
to multiply himself many times over ; to pass through the air or 
walk on the water ; and to cause an earth to be made, on which he 
can walk, stand, sit, and he. By 4po kasina he can cause the earth 
to float : create rain, rivers, and seas ; shake llie earth and rocks, 
and the dwellings thereon ; and cause water to proceed from all 
parts of the body. By lejo-kasina he can canse smoke to proceed 
from all parts of the body, and fire to come down from heaven like 
rain ; by the glory that proceeds from his person he can overpower 
that which comes from the person of anotlier ; be can disjiHol dark- 
Rcsa, collect cotton or fuel and other combustibles, and cause thera 
lo burn at will ; cause a light which will give the power to see In 
any place as with divine eyes ; and when at the point of death he 

can cuuse hU body to be fipontaneously burnt. By wayo-kasma he 
can move sb fleetly as the wind ; cause a wind to arise whenever he 
wisliea i anil can cause any substance to remove from one place to 
another without the intervention of a second person. By the other 
kasinas respectively, the priest who practiees them in a proper 
manner can cause figures to appear of different colours ; change 
any substance whatever into gold, or euuae it to be of a blooii-reil 
':;olour, or to shine as with a bright light ; change that which is 
evil into that which is good ; cause things to appear ihat are lost or 
hidden ; see into the midst of rocks and the c;>rth, and penetrate 
into Ihein ; pass through walls and solid subslancoa ; and drive 
away evil desire. 

Those who are of both sexes cannot accomphsh the exercise of 
kiuiina, nor the inhabitants of Uturukuru, nor Mara ; and there are 
many others, among whom ate the sceptics, that are similarly sit- 
iiated. Those only who have wisdom, determination, and tlie other 
powers, can practise this rite with success. 

There uie fourteen dilfcrent ways in which the kaunas are to be 
exercised : — 

1. Katindnuldma. — This is to be practised in the following man- 
ner. First, pathawi-kanina is to be accomidished ; then, in regular 
order, the apo, tt-ju. wayo, nSla, pita, lohitn, and 6d&ta kasinas. Thue, 
the commencement must be made at the root, and from thence in 
regular progression to the end. 

2. Kasinapatildma. — In the exercise of this kasina the order must 
be the reverse of the former ; it must be from the end to the root, 
from 6d^ta to pathawi. 

3. KatindnuMma-jtatiUTOit. — In this the order is from the root to 
the end, from pathawi to 6dat4i ; and then again from 6d&ta to 
pathawi, from the end to the root. 

•t. DhydndatiUtma. — In this the order is from the first, to the 
second, third, and fourth dhyiinas ; tlicn to 4k&84nanchayalano. 
akinchunyiiyatana, and n^wfisunyan&sanj'Ayaiana, 

6. J}/it/daopalil<iiiui. — In Uiis the order is the reverse of the mode 
just mentioned. Iieing from n^w4ianyfin4E4nyJiyatBnB, by retrogres- 
sion, to the first dhy4iia. 

fl. D/tj/iindnulimii-palil6ma.~-'ln this the otdei is from the first 
dhy&na to n^wJisnnyattkiany&yulAna, and then again from this to the 
Hritl dhyana. 

7. DAydndnukAanlaka. — In ibii the order is Ihc some a> in dhvA- 

262 KAflTKRN 

ni^uloma, only missing one each tunc. The begiiuung miut be 
moxic wilh pathani-kasina, and then the dhyiniu, &c.. must be 
token altematctf, as from the first dhj&na to the third, then to 
ftkaaananch4yat&na, and so on to the end. ^Mien this is concluitetl 
the be^nning must be made from ^po-kogina, and the order con- 
tinued OS before. 

8. Katininukhantaka, — In this the ordcF is from pathawi-kasina 
lu the first dhyana, then again from tejo-kasina to nila and lohita 
kasina, taking the alternate kasinas and dby^as, until the whole 
arc concluded. 

9. Dhtfinakatinanukhantaka. — In this the order is from pathawi- 
kasina, along wilh the first dhyana ; tcjo-kasina, along with the third 
dhyana; nila-kosina, with akaeananchayatana : and lohita-kanina, 
with okinchanyayatana. 

10. Angaiankantika. — In this the aider is from patbawi-kaaina 
to the second dbynna. 

11. Arammanatankanliht. — In this the order U From pathawi- 
kniiina, along willi the first dhy^nii, to npo, tejo, wayo, nila, pita, 
luhila, and odala kasina, and each dhyana b to be taken with all 
the kasinaa in regular order. 

12. Aiigarammanatankantika. — In this the Older 18 from pathwi- 
kusina, along with the first dhyana; ipo-kaslna, with the second 
dhyana. tejo-kaaina, with the third dhyana; wayo-kaaina, wilh the 
fourth dhyana : nila-kasina, with akasananchayatana ; pila-kasina, 
with winyanon chayatana : luhila-kaaina, with aklnchanyiiyntana ; 
and odata-kasina with ncwaaanyanasonyayatana. Thus an outward 
rito and an inward meditation must be exercised ullcmately. 

13. AngaicaviaUdpana. — To the first dhyana there arc five angaa ; 
to the second dhyftna, three ; to the third dhyana, two : to the fourth 
dhyiina, one ; there ia also Skasananch^yatana, kc. This is what b 
meant by nngawnwattapana. 

14. ArammanawawaUdpana. — The reflecting that this is palhawi' 
knaina ; this, apo-kasina ; this, tejo-kasini, itc. 

When the whole of these fourteen exercises are not accomplishcil. 
the power of irdhi cannot be acquired, unless they have been prac- 
tised in former ages. To him who haa not exercised kasina in former 
itgea its accomplishment b exceedingly difficult. Among those who 
have not thus exercised it. scarcely one aucceeds in ita acquiaition. 
mil iif a hundred or a thousand who may allcmpt il, Kven to thoM 
who accomplish Ihc exercise of kaaiuu, the uctjuiremcnt of nltnitta 


is tixcccilingly difficult; scarcely one in a hundred or n Utousond is 
siicccssful to this extent. Even to those who acquire nimitta, it is 
visually difliciilt to acquire arppanu. Even to those who acquire 
iirpponu, it is equally difficult to discipline the mind in the fourteen 
modes that are prescribed. Even to those who have thus disdplined 
the mind, it ie equally difficult to obtain the power of irdhi. Even 
lo those who have acquired the power of ixdhi, it is equaUy difficult 
lo obtain khippanisonni. Even to those who have acquired khip- 
(innisanni, it is equally difficult lo obtain parama-ptatislitabhawa, 
or rohatship. In this way, by a process so long and difficult, is the 
rahatship to be received. As the potter gradually prepares and 
tempers bis clay, that he may be able to make with it such Teasels 
as lie designs, so the mind of the priest muat be gradually Boflened, 
in the way that has been prescribed, that he may acquire the power 
at which he aims. 

As the bukcr, when making bread, adds the flour by degrees, and 
as the ploughman adds furrow to furrow, so the priest who exercises 
kaainn mentally enlarges tlie circle from an inch to a span, gradually 
increasing it until it encompasses the whole court of the wihara, 
the village, the kingdom, the earth, the sakwala, and even a greater 
space. Again, as the Jawaua-hangshii, from its first taking wing, 
gradually increases the distance of its flight, until it can travel to 
tlie Hun or the moon : so the priest who exercises kasina passes in 
inind from one to another of the rocks, hills, and rivers of the earth, 
until the whole seem to pass away and became flat, like the skin of 
a bull fastened down to ihe ground by a thousand pins. 

When a priest lias thirty-two houses in the walk or round in 
which he goes to receive alms, he sometimes receives as much at 
ihc Ht*l house as in sufficient for two houses; he therefore omits 
ihc second house, and goes lo the third. The next day he may re- 
ceive HufEcient at tlie first house for three ; he therefore omits the 
■ecoud and third bouses and goes to the fourth. The following day 
lie may receive as much at the first house as Is suflicient for the 
wbolo round ; he lliereforc goes to no other house. In like manner, 
in the exercise of hhAwanii, somiidhi, tec, when the benefit of two 
rites in the series is obtained by the observance of one, the second 
may he omitted, and when the benefit of three has been obtained in 
the same way, the second and third may be omitted. 

The priest must c»crci»i> 4kas£utanch4ya1ana-bhdwa]ia, the benefit 
of which is hereby declared. Assaulta, atripcs, and disputes arise 


from the puEHCBaioii of rupa, or ibe body ; b»l they do not exbt in 
tbe orupa world, and the deBtruction of riipa ia therefore to bo de- 
sued. In order thai this may be accomplislied, the priest reHecIs 
ii|Kin the evils proceeding from tilpa. The maa who has eseapcd 
from a serpent tbat he tnct with in the forest, when he afterwards 
sees a mark on the Hoor, a picture, a ercvice in the ground, a rope, 
or the branch of it palm-lree, i» afraid, and he therefore turns from 
the object ivilh nlihorrence. Or, if a man has an enemy in the vil- 
lage, from whom be or his property is in danger, he removes to 
another village : and if in that village he eees any one who ha« a 
voice or countenance like his enemy, he turns away from him in 
alarm. In like manner, he who receives prutibhfiga will regard the 
r^pB with averxion, nnd endeuvuur to escape from it. ^Vhen the 
dog that has been bit by a bour in the forest aficrwards sees in the 
twilight a vessel of rice upon Ihc fire, he runs away from it in fear. 
And when a man who has been frightened by seeing the sprite 
called a pisacha afterwards sees in any lonely place a prostrate tree, 
he falls down in a fit from terror. In like manner, nhen ihc priest 
who exercises this mode uf bhawana sees into the evils connected 
with riipa, he is ufrnid, and he therefore seeks to obtain release from 
it, or to destroy it. 

By the same exercise the priest arrives at ii£w4sanyiinasany&- 
tamaputli. Under these circumstances tlie rupa is not, and yet is ; 
it exists, but in a manner the most subtle and attenuated. What is 
meant by llicso expressions may be learnt from the following 
coinpariBOUH. A s&inan^ra novice rubs a little oil in the inside 
of an alms-bowl ; nft^r which a priest asks for something to eat 
from the same bowl. Tbe novice says, " I cannot do ho. as them is 
oil in it." The priest then tells him to pour the oil into a cruse ; 
but )ic says, " I am not able, as there is no oil in it." The truth ic, 
that there is a little oil rubbed on the inside, but not enough to 
pour out. Again, two priests were walking together, when on* 
said to th« other, that he must tukc ntf his Nnndals, as there wb* 
water. The other then said, " If so. go and fetch tny loose robe, 
that 1 may bathe;" but the first priest replied, "You cannot bathe, 
OS then: is no water." There was sulficicnt water to require the 
priest to lake otf bis snndnls, but not enough fur him to bathe. 
Aguiu, a broliman saw Bomc one with a vessel, and ho asked him 
to give him »oni«thiog to drink : but the man replied. " Then i* 
loddy in the vc«»«l, 1 cannot." Then the bmhmati told him to gtvo 

some [oddy to another person who wna neur ; biit he said. '" There 
is no toddy ; I nm not able." It was a iorldy-vessel, bo that he 
could not offer it to the brahman ; but there was no toddy in it at 
(he time, 80 that he was not able to give any to the man, as was 
re<nicsled. In like manner, that upon which this form of bh^wana 
is exercised, though it is, becomes as if it were not. 

These exercises must be carried on with a calm and cTcn mind, 
ot the end that ia aimed at cannot be attained. 

When the unwise bee is about lo prepare honey for its coll, it is 
too anxious to obtain the pollen, and so comes with such haste to 
the tree, that it is too exhausted to collect it : and when it comes a 
second time, the pollen has all fallen lo the ground, and is useless. 
Another bee, moderately wise, comes at the proper time, but col- 
lects both the good pollen and the bad. And a third is all loo \a,'e, 
so that the pollen i& entirely gone. But the wise bee knowa when 
the flowers bear the richest pollen ; he comes at the proper time, 
and in a proper manner; rollccts as much as he requires, makes it 
into honey, and thus lives on the most delicious food. The sur. 
gcun's assistant (who learns to open Teins by cutting the stalk of 
the lotus as it grows in the water) strikes so hard, that the instru- 
ment pajisei through the stulk to the other side, ur the flower is 
clrifen under the water : or. on the other hand, he fears even to 
touch it. IcBl he should fail. But the skilful surgeon has a sharp 
instrument, and he knows exactly where to strike, and how to strike, 
because he has l«arnt to excel in his profession. The king offers a 
reward of four thousand pieces of gold to any nnc who will bring 
him a spider's web four fathoms long. A skilful man Gnds a web 
of this description, and he goes quickly and lakes it. An unakilful 
man tinds one, but he is afraid lo take it lest it should break ; 
though the other man has succeeded in taking the web he found, 
and has wrapped it round a reel, perfect from end to end. The 
skilful mariner hoists his Kail when there is a strong breexe, and 
makes n short voyage. The unskilful mariner, takes down his sail, 
even when thrre in no more tlian a moderate breoxo, and remains in 
one spot ; the other mariner hoists his rail to the breeze, nnd when 
it is high reefs it. thus arriiing quickly at the destined port. The 
skilful novice, when directed by a superior priest, pours oil into a 
veasel without ipUling a drop. But <ho unskilful novice is aftoid, 
and is therefore unable to pour out the oil. th(in|{b the other pours It 
out with the ulmunt oo*e. In like manner, the priest who would 


exercise bliuwanu vo as to arrive at aq)paiia nimitta, must not. i>n 
the ODO band, be too proud and coRfidcnt ; nor, on llic other, curv- 
IcM and indifferent ; he muiit possess an even, tranquil mind, free 
Trum iigitation. 

The goldemilh, when about to fxcrcise bis craft, erecta a furnace, 
carefully tenipeiing the clay ; he then watches the metal to sec 
whether it be properly melted : at one time blows, and at another 
Rprinkles water; and when the metal \a ready, he makes whatever 
kind of ornament is wanted. In like manner must he act who exer- 
cises bhawona. In attending to the ordinances that arc prescribed. 

When these exercises are rightly performed equanimity is pro- 
duced, as a natural consequence; so that the mind becomes entirely 
free from all that would agitate it, and even from all that would in 
ony way attract its attention. 

^Vhcn a bullock unaccustomed to the yoke is fastened to a wag- 
gon, it runs hither and thither, in any direction, whether there be a 
road or not. The husbandman therefore takes a grown-up calf from 
its mother, and fastens it to a pillar; and though at first it attempts 
to get away, and is restless, it is not able, and it is made to cat and 
sleep near the pillar, until its wildness is overcome. So also the 
mind of the priest who docs not cicrcise the various ordinances of 
meditation wanders after that which he sees, nnd is never at rest ; 
but when he fastens his mind to aswasa and praswasa, or the 
iospirated and expitatcd breath, by the cord of wisdom, it is re- 
strained, and is no longer attracted by sensible objects. 

The aswiaa and prasw&Ba are caused by the hita, or mind, but 
cannot exist without the body. As the smith causes the bellows to 
open and shut, and the wind to proceed thcrelrom. and both the 
smith and the instrument arc necessary to produce tliis effect, bo 
for the existence of aswitaa and praswasa there must be the rupa, 
the hita, and the chctan4, or thoughts of the hita. 

When a man Jumps from an em'incnce, or carries a heavy burdco 
upon his bead, his breathing becomes violent ; but when he goes 
into the shade, or drinks water, or places sometliing cold upon hb 
breast, it becomes more gentle. In like manner, by the exercise of 
meditation the breathing is iranquilliscd, as well as by entering upon 
the d by anas. 

There is no jiswusa or praswasa to ibc child in the womb ; to 
him who is tlruwned ; to him who is bum in the Asangiguyatalo. 
loka ; to tlic dead ; lu him who lias accomplished the fourth 


ilhyuna ; to those born in Ihc arupa worlds ; or to tliOBC who 
liavc attained nirwana. Those in the womb or the water have not 
llio necessary space ; some have them not, because they have no 
chi'tana ; and to others it is the nalural state. Some think that 
Ihey may be overcome by a person's own exertions ; but they ivUl 
continue to all who are not included In one or other of the classes 
juat mcnUoQcd. Goiama said that he spoke not of these things 
except to Uie wise, as the practice of them Is exceedingly difficult. 
He who makes an embroidered zone must have a very small needle, 
with an eye still smaller ; ho he who performs this exercise moet 
have a mind like the needle, and wisdom like the eye. 

This eserciac is connected with aaubha bhawana. It is said in 
the Milinda Prasna, that bo who rightly perceives that all continued 
existence is sorrow, choosing the root of some tree in a sotltAry part 
of the forest, sits under it with his feet bent up and his body 
straight ; then collecting his thoughts, with a calm mind ho makes 
an inspiration and an espirntion of the breath. Drawing a long 
breath tlirough the nostrils, he notices, I have thus drawn a long 
breath. Urcuthing a long spiration from the nostrils, he notices, 
I have thus breathed a long apirulion from the nostrils. Drawing 
a short breath through the nostrils, he notices, I have drawn a. long 
spirntion through the nostrils. Reflecting that the beginning, the 
middle, and the end of every kind of breath is from the body, he 
resolves, with a wise mind 1 will draw an inspiration ; with a wise 
mind 1 will breath out an ex]>iralion. In a manner so as not to fill 
itic cavity of the nose, restraining the violence or magnitude of hia 
breath, he makes an ins])iration, and noticing, 1 thus make an in- 
■piration, he disciplines his mind ; then making an expiration, he 
notices, I thus make an expiration. Keflecting on the joy connected 
with the exercise of the first dhyana. and causing its production, he 
thus makes an inspiration and an expiration. In the same way 
reflecting on the advantages connected with the exercise of the 
third dhyana. and causing its jiroduction, he thus makes an inspira- 
tion and an expiration. Indulging comprehensive thoughts, be 
innkes an inspiration and an expiration. Restraining comprehensive 
thoughts, he mokes an inspiration and an expiration. Reflecting 
un the manner of the fourth dhyana, be makes an inspiration and 
au expiration. R«Dderit>g his mind joyful by reflecting on the 
uiauncr of samadhi, he makes an inspiration and an expiration. 
( 'ollccling Im mlud, after the manner of the fint dhy&na. he makes 

208 RAHTtltM tlOKACIIlHM. 

an inspiralioD and an expiration. As in the fourth dhyana, freeing 
his mind from nitarka, wichara, priti, sukha, and dukfaa. he makes 
an inspiration and expiration, Rcfleciing on the impermancncy of 
the five khandus, he makes an inspiration and an expiration. Re- 
flecting on the various forms of evil desire, he makes an inspiration 
and an expiration. Reflecting that by the destruction of all the 
elementa of existence nirwana will be seen, he makes an inspiration 
and an expiration. Reflecting that by the abstract meditation 
called wiposena, he may, as it were, leap to nirwana, he makes tin 
inspiration and an expiration. Thus in sixteen different ways he 
exercises anupana-sati-bhawana, and at each cxcrdse disciplines his 
mind, or brings it into subjection. When he sees a dead body, 
fearful lo look upon, thrown into the cemetry, or any other place, 
he reflects, my body is of the same nature as this. When he »cm 
a dead body surrounded by blue-bottle flies, presenting blue pu- 
tridity, like the body of a rat-snake, he makes the same reflection ; 
and be repeats it when he sees the offensive juices oozing in many 
different nays from the various apertures of the body ; when he 
sees a body torn to pieces amidst the combats of crows, kites, and 
Other birds of prey ; when he sees a body near the place of execution, 
decapitated, or with its hands and feet cut off, a frightfiti trunk ; 
when he sees a body mangled by the weapon resembling a crow's 
foot; when he sees a body at the place of torture ull covered with 
blood; when he sees a body in the cemetry. with worms creeping 
out of the nine apertures, and with worms all over, one that is too 
disgusting to look upon, one that by looking upon it would cut off 
ull desire for the repetition of existence : and when he sees a body 
with the putridity gone, the flesh, hloud, and veins all gone, so thai 
it is B mere skeleton ; — in all these instances be reflects, My body 
is of the same nature ; and thus exercises karmmastli^u-bh&wnn&. 
After this he exercises affection towards all creatures ; he reflccb 
that when the wise man sees any one in distress, ho synipatliiscs 
with him, and desires that hia sorrow may be removed and entitelj 
destroyed ; when he sees any one invested with great glory ot 
happiness, he approves of it, and rejoices in it ; be regards oil in- 
differently, without partiality or favour ; he rejects all relationship, 
friendsliip. wealth, and pleasure, knowing that life is hastening to 
the mouth of death ; and he reflects that tlie body is composed of 
the flith Iliat proceeds from lite tune apertures, and of the thirty .two 

xxr. ASCETtc R1TF.9. 2G9 

Wlien the husban'Imnn hns done ploiigliin;;, he lukcs llie oxen 
(o a place where there is plenly of grass, and there lels ihem loose. 
When he wishes ngiun to entth ihem, if he he at all akilful, he does 
not go to the foreHt to setk them ; but he takes the rcias and a 
goad, and sits down near the place where they are acctistomcd to 
drink. By and bje the oxen come to the water, and he catches 
them with the reins, after which he drives ihem along with the 
goad, and sets them again to the work of the plough. In like 
manner, the priest fixes his mind exclusively upon the nostrils by 
which are the issues and entrances of the breath, with a mind like 
the reim, and wisdom like the goad. The eserciae muat be con- 
tinued until he arrive at miniitta pratibhaga. This nimitta ia not 
to all persons of one and the same kind. To some it brings mucli 
Ratisfaction ; il is like cotton, or the wind. To others il is like the 
tight of a star, a gem, a pearl, a cottim-seed, or a needle made of 
firm wood. To others it is like a thread upon which to siring 
vnluiible beade, u garland, e mint, u cloud, a water lily, the wheel 
i>f a chariot, or the urhit of the sun and moon. In this manner, a 
number of priests assemble to hear bana. \Vhen the discourse is 
concluded, one asks another in what way the siitra appeared to him. 
Some will say that il appeared to them like a river falling from a 
high rock : others that it was like a forest with many flowers, or 
like a tree laden with fruit and presenting a cool shade. The same 
sfitra will appear in a difiercnt manner to different persons ; and it 
is the same wilh the reception of nimitta. This meditation on the 
inapiraled and expirated breath, is called anfipana-Hati.karmasthana. 

Relative to this subject the king of Sagal said to Nagasena, " Is 
it possible to destroy the aswasa and pr&swasa?" Nagas^na re- 
plied, " It is possible." Milinda: "In what way?" Nigas^ns : 
" Did you ever notice how a jicrson snores when going to sleep 
al^er a plentiful meal?" Milinda: "Yea." Nagasfna : "Though 
he thus snores, i'* he alive ? " Milinda : " Yes." Nagasena : *• The 
individual has not attained to the first dhynna or to wiw^kaj he 
doc* not jirnrlicc the pratim6kiiha anil other silos; he luu not 
i-nlered the paths ; be is still under the influence of evil desire ; he 
he is unwise; and whilst he yet hds life, lie snores. But tlic wise 
priest, who acta in a manner the reverse of all tliis. attains the 
dhyjinma, and so deatroya the JiswaMi and prisw&sa ;" as the tran- 
quillity of" the mind IncrPanca in proportion to the diminution of 
the groasness of the body. 

270 EASTHBX Mox.irmsM. 

The worJ Jliyanu is said to mean, '■ that which bums np evil 
desire, ot the cleaving to eiislcnce." It is aomelimes used in the 
sense of meditation, and at other times is allied to samadi ; in some 
places it is a cause, and in others an effect. 

There are five principles that are connected with the dbyana*. 
With these five they are perfect, as when we speak of the four 
divisions of an army, or five kinds of musical instruments, or eight 
directions. They are wilarka. wichara, priti, sepa, and ehitta-ekan- 

The dhySnas are divided into five sections, called pratamadhyana. 
dwitiyadhy&na, tritiyadhyana, chaturladl)y4na, and panchamadhy 
ana ; or first, second, third, fourth, and fifth dhyinas. 

To the first dhyana belong witarka, attention ; and wichara, 

To the second dhyana belong priti, joy; scpa, comfort; and 
chittB-ekangakama, mental restraint. 

When the third dhyana is accomplished there is (he jMissession 
uf upeksha. 

When the fourth dhyana is accomplished there U an cntin; 
destmction of the cleaving to existence. 

In the exercise of the first dhyana the mind is Uke the waves upon 
the water, when there arc some large and some small ; there is no 
cIcarncBS ; that which is the subject of contemplation is like a fish 
nccn in the water ; and the samadhi that is attained is of an inferior 
character. In [he second dhyana the samadi becomes more pure, 
OS the mind recedes further and f\irther (torn witarka and wichiira. 
There is a degree of upekshi possessed in the first and second 
dhyanoa, but it is not perfect ; they are like a man who walks in u 
place covered with sharp stones, whilst the third dhyana is like K 
man who walks in an even road. 

When the third dhyana has been entered, the mind, unless it be 
rightly subdacd, will still go out after the prila it has abandoned, 
as the calf that is tied at a distance from the cow continually seeks 
to break away from its confinement, that it may reaclt (he udder 
whence it has been accustomed to draw milk. 

With iho fourth dhyana there is connecloU the w&danS called 
U|vokHha-wMana. \Vhen the husbandman wants to catch a refrac- 
tory bull, he drives tbe wholi? herd inio the fold, and then, lellinn the 
animals out one by one, by tliis means he catches the bull ; in like 
manner, in order to discover this form of wedana, all the sensations 

■XXI. A»tCFTIC KITKt. 271 

must be colIpctcU logctlier, ond csamincil one by one, when it will 
lie perceived. It ia eiceedingly small, and scarcely to be discerned, 
as it is aot connected with either pleasure or pain. When the mind 
iii thus clennscd by up^kshi it becomes exceedingly pure. 

Tbere is also that which is called tatramadyostop^ksha ; it is like 
Iho moon ; wedanapekska is like the night ; witarka and wichara 
arc like the sun- ^Vlien the sun ahines, the beams of the moon do 
not appear, but they appear at nighl. In like manner, when 
nitarka and wicliara arc in existence there can be no tatramadyaa- 
ti''poksh4 ; but when they are done away with, it becomes apparent. 

According to the system of the brahmans the fifth dhyana is to 
be entered ; but according to Hudhism it is to be avoided (us it len.ds 
only lo altainmenl^ that are of inferior escellencc, and sets aside 
the present reception of nirwana.) There was a priest called Ka- 
kdf'waU who entered the lifth dhyana, and he was afterwards bom 
in one of the arujia-bmhma-lokas. After the accomplishment of 
the dhyanas, the Budhiels seek lo enter the paths. 

There are some bridges that are formed of a single tree ; and 
there are others so brood and strong, that a number of loaded 
waggons placed abreast can pass over at one time. In like 
manner, there is a difference in the attainments of the srawakas, 
and it is ruled by the manner in which they exercise the dhyanas. 

I'he state of mind that is produced by the exercise of the dhyanas 
is called parikarmma ; and according to its character will be the 
power of the divine eyes that will be received, aa they will be more 
or less clear, strong, extensive in the circle of their vision, and 
permanent in their existence. Unless there be the forming of the 
parikarmma, the power of the divine eyes will be lost; in which 
case there must again bo the exercise of the dhyanas. as at first. 

They who practice the dhyanas have the power to visit the brahma- 
lokas, and it is only by them tliat the power is received. 

When the prince Sidhartia was under the tree at the festival of 
the plough, free from wastu-kama and klesha-kama, as well as 
from T4ga, dw^sa, and molia, bat still under the influence of witarka 
and wich&ra, and having also the priti and sepa that arise from 
niwfkn, he exercised the first dhyana. Then, having overcome 
witarkn and wichj^ra, and arrived at tranquillity of inind, and having 
tbe priti and wpa ih&t arioc fnim samfidhi, he exercised the aocond 
dliy&na. Then overcoming all regard for priti, he received uprkuhii, 
Miiirti. and Hikmix^fina i and nilh these cndonmcnla of the ralialB 
be exercised tbe lliiid dhyana. La>t of ail, liuving become free 

2"S KASTF-KX Mo?[AcriiHii. 

ffmm scpit, (luklia, and aowrmanasyii, hut redlining up^ksha, smtrti, 
and purisiKUii, he exerdiied the fourth dhfana.* 

At the time that the dewa Sekrn paid has first visit to Budha, the 
s&ge was performing dhjana, so thai the d^wa was not pennittird 
to see him. On his second visit he reminded Budha of the circuffl> 
stance, who said that, though he was not seen, he heard the sound 
of the dewa'B chariot wheels. Now when a person is pcrfarming 
dhjana, be could not hear though a conch were to be blown close 
to him. How then, it may bo asked, could Badha hear the eotind 
of Sekra's chariot: The answer is this, that before commencing 
the exCTCise, he had appointed to return to consciousness at the 
moment ihe chariot wa.3 passing- 

'fhe supernatural effects that ate here represented as being pro- 
duced through the influence of ubsltoct meditation, arc said, in 
olhcr insliuiccs, t« arise from the possession of prili, or joy. There 
is one kind of priti that is called udw^ga. The priest Maba Tinta 
resided at ihe uihara of Panagal. It was his custom to worship at 
lliu dagoba belonging to this temple, and on a certain fesliTsl he 
looked towards the place where the principal relics were dcpoiitcd, 
thinking thus within himself: '• In former periods many priests and 
religious persons assembled here [hat they might worship ;" and aa 
he was in the act of making this rcfleclion, he received the power 
of udwega-priti, by which he was enabled to rise into the air, and 
pass at once to the sacred place. Near the Girikanda wihara there 
was a village called Wattakala, in which resided a respeclabk 
woman who was an upasikawii devotee. One evening, when her 
parents were about to go to the wih^ tu hear bono, they said to 
her. " On account of your jircscnt situation it will not be proper for 
you to accompany as to the wihara ; we will go alone, and heat 
hanBt and whatever benefit we receive we will impart to you.'' 
Though exceedingly desirous to hear bana, as she could not dis- 
obey her paienta she remained at home. As the wiliara could bo 
distinguished from the court-yard of the house, she looked toward* 
it, and seeing the lights uf [he festival, and tlie people in the act of 
worship, whilst at the same time she could hear the voices of the 
priests, she thought within herself, "They who can thus be p»- 
aent at tlie festival ore blessed.*' By this reflection udwega-priti 
was formed In her mind, and in an instant she began to ascend into 

* Tliia [>axagra|>h u> tuki^ bam Tuniour's Maliawaiuu. and th« uiie fiiUow- 

..-. • .!._ I..:, — 1...-_ t^ _. . -'-1-,. information cun tain rJ iii the pn- 

inn >t frnni ^'' I'ajiirUuja. 

XXI, AscK.Tic niTEs. 278 

the sky, 80 that she arrived ut the wiliara before her parents, who, 
when they entered anil saw her, asked how she had come, and she 
replied, that " she had come through the sky."' And when they 
further asked how she had thu£ exercised tlic power of a rahat, she 
said, " I only know that I did not remain any longer in the same 
place after I felt the joy ; I know nothing mote." * 

There is another miraculous energy, called Sacha Kiriya. which 
can be exercised either by the laie or the priest; but it is the most 
cfiicieat when accompanied hy bhawana. A recitation is made of 
acts of merit done either in this or some former birth, and by 
the power of this merit, when the recitation is truthfully made, the 
effect intended to be produced takes place, however wonderful its 
character may be. The word sacha signifies true ; and kiriyang, 
an action ; but in this particular instance eacha apjicare lo be re- 
garded Its equivalent to merit. The exercise is nearly allied to the 
mantra of the Hindus, in the power of which the Budhists believe ; 
hut although the word mantra is frequently met with in their 
writings, t do not remember an instance in which it is used in refer- 
ence to the sacha kiriya. Its potency may be learnt from the fol- 
lowing legends. 

There was an upasaka devotee in Ceylon, whose mother was pick. 
As the flesh of a hare boiled was prescribed for her, the son went 
to n iield and caught one in a trap : but when the animal cried out. 
he thought within himself. " Why should one life be saved by the 
destruction of another?" and set it free. When he went home, 
and told the family what he had done, his brother derided him ; 
but he went to his mother and said. " I have never knowingly taken 
the life of any creature whatever, from my childhood until now ; by 
the power of this sacha kiriya may you be healed." In an instant 
her sickness was removed. 

There was a priest, Maha Mitta, whoso mother was afflicted with 
a boil. Of this she sent her daughter to inform her son, that he 
might recommend some remedy. The priest replied, " 1 do not un- 
derstand the virtue of rootn. hut 1 possess a power that is greater : 
I have never, since 1 entered the priesthood, broken the precepts; 
by this aacha kiriya may my mother be healed." At that n 
the boil dried up and fell uff.t 

In the fouith year of the reign of As&ka. m this king « 
• WUuttlii Hsrggn Fiannj. t Ihicl. 

day convcrning with hia nobles, he said, " If I had lived in the Bnme 
Bge as Budha, I would have offered to him ihe whole of Janibud- 
wipn ; had 1 been king of the detvns, 1 would have offered to him 
the whole of the heavens ; bnt I was bom al an alter period, and 
mine eyes have not beheld him ; JH there any one now in existence 
who has seen th« divine sago ?" The nobles replied, " It b now 
221 years since the dissolution of Ootama ; it is not possible, there- 
fore, that there can be any human being now alive who has seen 
him : but in the Manjarika world there is the njiga Maha KaUt, who 
has been in existence from the beginning of the kalpa, and seen 
four supreme Budhos ; and he possesses the power of making a form 
appear, eiactly like that of the lord of the three worlds." The 
king, on hearing ihis, caused a golden fetter to be made ; and when 
he received It he said, '■ By virtue of Ihis sacha kiriya, my firm faith 
in the three gems, may this golden fetter proceed to the residence 
of Ihe naga Maha KMa, and bring lo my presence the nags king." 
So saying, he threw the fetter to the ground, lliat it might fulfil 
his command. In an insliint the fctler proceeded to the niga world, 
through H clefl that was formed in the earth, and fell at the feet r>f 
Maha Kala. The nago looked lo see what was the cause of its appear- 
ance ; and when he perceived the faith and power of the king, he 
hastened to the world of men, attended by 1 0,000 other nagas ; and 
the king maile nn offering to him of flowers and lights. When thta 
waa concluded, Asbka said, " I am wishful lo see tbe form of Budha ; 
now cause n ri'prcsenlation of the sage lo appear." But th* n5g» 
replied, " I am yet under the influence of evil desire ; Budha woa 
free from all impurity. I am under the power of error; he wis til. 
wise. I am inferior : he was supreme, 1 am finite ; he was in- 
finite. Tlierc are equals to me ; to him there is no eiiual. How, 
then, can I cause an adequate representation of him to appear?" 
But at tho persuasion of those present he caused an image of Kaku- 
sanda Budhn to appear, forty cubits high, surrounded by 40.000 
rahats, to whom the king offered worship and gifts, saying, that thv 
wiflh of liis heart woa now accomplished. There then appeared an 
image of K6n^gnma Budhu. thirty cubits high, surrounded by 30,000 
nluta ; and afl^rwards an image of Kasyapa Budha. twenty cubita 
high, accompanied by 20.00(1 lahals. ^Iicn the image of Ootuna 
Budha appeared, i-ightrcn cubits high, scaled near llie bo-tree, as 
when ho had conquered Mi'irn, tho king and his 16.000 qnecna 

looked on in wonder, and made an offering lu him of the whole of 
his dominions.* 

When Gotama Bodhisat was bora in a former age, as Sania, son of 
the hermit Dukhula, he rendered every assistance to his parents, 
who hnd become blind when he wub sixteen years of age. It hap- 
pened that, as he one day went for water to the rivet, the king of 
Itenares, Piliyaka, entered the forest to hunt, and as Sama after 
ascending from the river was, as usual, surrounded by deer, the 
king let fly an arrow, which struck Sama just as he was placing 
the vessel to hia shoulder. Feeling that he was wounded, he 
turned his face towards the spot where his parents dwelt, and said. 
" I have no enemy in this forest ; I bear no enmity to any one ;" 
though, at the same lirae, he vomiied blood from his mouth. Thus 
he reflcelcd, "1 hare omitted the exereise of maitrl-bhawana. and 
some one has sent against roe an arrow ; for what reason it can he 
I cannot tell, as my flesh is of no use, neither my skin ; I muMt 
therefore make enquiry." After saying this to himself, he called 
out, " Who is it thai has shot me ?" and when he learnt that it 
was the king, he related his history to the monarch, and said that 
his greatest grief arose from the thought that his blind parents 
would now have no one to support them, and would perish. But 
when the king perceived the intensity of his grief, he promised thai 
he would resign his kingdom, and himself become the slave of his 
parents, rendering unto them all needful assistance in the stead of 
their son. Soon afterwards Sama fell down senseless from the 
loss at blood ; hut a deni, who in the seventh birth previous to the 
present was his mother, having perceived that if she went to the 
spot important consequences would ensue from her interposition, 
left the di'wa-loka. and remaining in the air near the king, without 
being visible, entreated him lo go (u the pansal and minister to the 
want* of the blind parents of 84ina. The king was obedient, and 
and went to the plucc. where he informed the hermit and his wife 
ihal their son was aU:n. On hearing of his death they uttered loud 
lamcnlationi. and requested to be taken to the place where he had 
fallen. They were therefore brought to it, when the mother, on 
placing her hand upon hie breast, perceived that it was warm ; at 
which she rejoiced greatly, as she knew by this token that he was 
not dead. She tlicrefoire resolved upon repeating n sucha-kiriya for 
his rcslomtion, and laid, " If this Sfima has in any previous period 
* l^BilhannmlilBnkit^. 

276 lUSlXllS M..NAC1IISM. 

obtained kusala, by the power of this virlue (sacha') may the conse- 
qucncfs of this calamity' be removed : if firom the time of his birlh 
until now he haa been continent and true, supported bis parents, 
and excelled in the acquisition of merit; if I have loved him more 
than my own life ; if we, hia parents, possess any merit whatever : — 
by the power of these virtues (aocha) may the iwison pass away 
from the body of S4ma, as the darkness vanishes at the rising of 
the sun,'' On the utterance of these words. Sama revived, and ani 
up ; after which the d^wi also said, " If I have loved Sama more 
than any other being, by the power of Ibis sticha may the poison of 
the arrow be destroyed." Then by the united sacha-kiriyaa of tlie 
dewi and hi« parents Sama was restored lo perfect health. Th* 
parents also received their sight, and the dewi repeated the ten 
virtues of a king to Piliyaka, by attending to which he was enabled 
lo reign in righteousness, and was afterwards born in tbe dfirn- 
loka, as Sama and his parents were in Ihe brahma-16ka.* 

This accident may appear lo contradict the teachings of the bana. 
that the exercise of bhawana is a protection from all evil ; but the 
Budhists endeavour lo reconcile the two by the following arguments. 
BO called. It was through the forgetfulness of Sama, they say, that 
he was slain, as he neglected to exercise the power he posscsseil. 
Thus, a warrior, clothed in armour, enters into the battle, and 
remains unhurt amidst the pelting of the arrows ; it is not by the 
man, but by the armour, that the arrows are warded off, and pre- 
vented from hurting him. Or, a man who holds in his hand n 
certain medicinal root, thereby renders himself invisible ; but tbia 
virtue is attached to the root, and not lo the man. Again, the m«n 
who is under the roof of a cave fears not the rain : but it is tli« 
overhanging cave, and not the man. that prevents the rain from 
producing inconvenience. So also, the power of averting evil is 
attached to the exercise of bhawana, and not to the man ; and if he 
does not exercise it. the benefit is lost. 

The nature of the sachi hiriya will bo further iUustraled by ilie 
legend of Siwi. aiul that of the Fish-king, both of which have been 
tranalated by ihc Rev. D. J. Gogerly, and appear in the Ceylon 
Friend, vol. iv. ])age 138. They are taken from the Chariyii Pitoka, 
one of the fifteen books forming the Khudugot division of the Sulm 
PiUka. Tile work is attributed to Budha. and is composed in I'ali 

* MiUnila PnniB, 


" All my transmig^lioDS during four atsankyua and one hundred 
thuusand kalpas have been to complete m; preparation for becoming 
« Uuilha. I^avii)^ my joumeyings from birth to birth during the 
kalpas that are past, I will declare my trimsmigrationa during the 

" Legend op King Siwi. 

" I waa once Siwi. king of Arilhu, and sitting in my magniiiceiil 
palace I thus thought : 

■' There is no kind of treasure possessed by men which I have not 
Itivcn in alms. Should any one beg from me my eyes, unhesita- 
tingly would I give them to him. 

" Sakraya. the chief of the guds. Hitting amidst tuK heavenly at' 
tendanta, and knowing my thoughts, spake these words ; 

"The king Siwi, endued with great 6uper-human pmver, sitting 
in bis magnificent palace, and meditating on the various kinds of 
alma, docs not perceive one that he has not given. 

*' NVhat are his feelings? 1 will ascert^ immediately. Wait 
until I know his mind. 

'* He then assumed the form of a trembling, hoary-headed, 
wrinkled, decayed, and emaciated blind man, and approached the 

" Having taken this form, with his clasped hands ruaed to his 
forehead, he said ; 

" Ores I and just sovereign, the author of your country's pros- 
perity \ the fame of yoia almsgiving has ascended up, both to gods 
Bn<l men ; I have a boon to ask ; 

" 1 am become blind of both eyes ; give me one of yonrs, and 
retftin the other yourself. 

" When 1 heard these words I immediately with a joyful and 
compa*«ionnle mind thus addressed the trembling one : 

*' Ah ! acijuointcd with ray reflections while sitting in my palace, 
thou hut como to solicit the gift of an eye : 

" My desires are accomplished ! my wish is fulfilled ! I iihall this 
(lay give alms to a supplicant which I have not given before. 

" Como ! arise Siwika, be not unskilful ; hesitate not ! pluck out 
Itoth my eyes and give ihcm to the Hupplicnnt, 

" My slave Siwika being thun addressed, sciio|ied out my two 
rye and dcliveu-d ihein to tlic beggar. 


■' When I proposed to give, when I ga^i c, and after 1 had given 
this gift, I had no other design than that of becoming a Budha. 

" It wtiB Dot that I had no regard for my two eyea ; my body was 
not diapleasing to me ; but I delighted is becoming a Budha, and 
therefore gave my eyes. 

"Legend of the Fish-kino. 

" At another time I was a fish-king in a large lake : and during 
the summer the heat of the sun dried up the water of the lake 

" Then the eagles, the kites, the cranes, and the crowi), descend' 
ing by day and by night, devoured the fish. 

" 1 then thought, by what means can I deliver my relatives from 
this affiiction which has befallen them ? 

" Reflecting on virtuous acts 1 perceived truth,* and saw that 
established in truth I could rescue my relations from this destruc- 

" Having thus reflected, I thought of the most noble doctrines of 
virtue which continue constantly in the world, and performed the 
eatcha kiriya, (saying) 

" From the first period that 1 can remember, up to the present 
time, to my knowledge, I am not conscious of having wilfully in- 
jured any single being. 

" Through this true declaration, ye lightnings flash and thunders 
roar, and ye clouds pour down copious ruins : deprive the crows of 
their prey ; lei them mourn, hut let the fish be delivered from 

" ConsentjiDeously with my powerful satcha kiriya, the clouds 
uttered their thunders, and instantly the rains descended, filling the 
depths and overflowing the land. 

" Having performed this supreme truth-act, and by my most ex- 
cellent perseverance, (in virtue) being established in the glorious 
strength of truth, I caused the clouds to rain. 

" In the performance of the satcha I have no equal. This was 
my satcha paramita (the path of truth, one of the Icn paths Co be 
fully traversed before arriving at the dignity of a Budha.)" 

We learn from the Commentary that when Siwi had become blind 

hcabdicatcdhiskingdomandbecamearecluse, without regretting Uic 

performance of his benevolent act. In this situation he was again 

visited by the ruler of the d^wu, who addressed him in the follow- 

* By the wordHlchn. truth, I ■pprchond iho latcha kiriyn ■■ mcMiI. 


XXI, asuKTic uiits. 275' 

ing wurdH ; " (ileal king, almsgiving is nol merely productive or 
bcnefite in a future state, but in the present state also. Thereroro 
perform a satcha kiriya concerning (or on account of) the merit of 
your alraaglving, and by the power of thai you will obtain eyes." 
lu uccordoucc with ibis advice he pronounced ihe following : 
" Ilavc nny come to beg, 
SuppUcaau of various caalmr 
When any one begged trom me, Uien 
He was delightful to my niind. 
By that true decUxution. 
Uay an eye be produced ta am '" 
Upon Ibis one «yu was produced ; after which he said : 
" Did wiy ont uome to mo t« bog (ioying) 
Give an eye to the Ilruhoian ; 
To him 1 gave eyes, 
To the mendicant Brabman. 
Omt WB« the joy 1 experienced ; 
The delight wa> not smalL 
By thia true declaration 
May a second (eye) be producud to me ! " 
It is suid by tlie learned translator* of iheH 
not here lo understand natural eyes, but a divi 
by which the whole world of sentient being became apparent ; but 
how did Siwi see when he had only one divine eye ? 
Did he see one hemi-kosm only, and not the other ? Or, did he 
see all beings, but only by halves ? Or. did he see the whole of 
all beings, but in a sort of purblind manner ? These ore grave 
questions for the BudhiBt schoolman. 

Another legend, taken from the same source, will complete our 
notice of the sacha kiriya. There was once a courtezan. Bindu- 
mati, who turned the course of the mighty Ganges by the force of 
this spell, founded upon the manner in which she exercised her base 
vocalion. " The king" according lo the original authority, " hear- 
ing iho rushing sound of the refluent Hver, being greatly astonished, 
enquired of his chiefs ; Friends, why does the current of the great 
(iunges flow backwards ? They replied : Great king, the courtezan. 
Bindumnti, hui recited the satcha kiriya, in consequence of which 
tlie Ganges flows back to its head. The astonished king hastened 
lo the courUixan, and said : Is it true tlmt by the sutchn kiriya, you 
have tnrocd the course of the OungeH ? When she replied : Yes. 
* Thu lt«v. D. t. Uofttlr: Ceylon Fiioiul, vol. ii. p. I«6. 

c legends that we are 
ir spiritual vision, 


yoiir majesty ; ho asked : Whence have you that power ? Who 
will receive your declaration ? By what power can an insignifirant 
person lilte you cause the stream of the Ganges to flow bnckwiLnl i 
she replied : Great king. I caused Ihe stream to flow back by the 
power of truth (satcha). The kinjt said; What power of truth 
have yoii, a thief, vile, immodest, sinful, an overstepper of all rc- 
Blrictions, one who leads astray the blindly lascivious ? The cour- 
tezan confessed that she was all the king had named, but said that 
it was by the following truth-spell she had turned ibe stream of the 
Ganges, and titat by the same power she eonid overturn the heaTens ; 
' Does any one give me wealth, be he a prince, a brahman, a mer- 
chant, a labourer, or of any other tribe : whatever they may be, I 
receive them equally ; the prince is not preferred, the labourer ia 
not despised ; contented, and free from regarding pleasure or pain 
1 follow the owner of wealth.' " According to this principle, beings 
the most degratled may obtain the power to work the most stupeu- 
ttoiiB miracles ; and acts of Ihe grosscRl iniquity may be done with- 
out guilt, if the mind be unmoved during their commiasiou. 


As tlie subject upon which we now enter is one of the quffstiones 
vexutie of Budhism, and is in itself of deep interest, a larger space 
will be required for its elucidation ; and as no western opinion will 
be I'egardcd as of any authority, we shall confine ourselves almost 
entirely to ciLtracts from native writers. In the former pages of this 
work we have received nirwuna as meaning simply, the cessation 

1 . The Pulh*. — There arc four paths, murgga, nn ctttrance into any 
of which secures, cither immediately or more remotely, ihe attainment 
of nirwana. They arc: — 1. Sowan, 2. Sakradagdmi. 3. Ann- 
gami. 4. Arya. Each path is divided into two grades : — 1. The 
[K.'rception of the path. 2. Its fruition, or enjoyment, margga-ph'ala. 

(1.) The path sowan, or srolupatti, is so called because it is the 
first stream that is entered before arriving at nirwana. It ia diTided 
into twenty.four sections, and after it has been entered, there con 
he only seven more births between that period and the attainment 
of nifWHna, which may be in any world but the four hells. 

XXn. MRWAKA. 281 

(2.) The path flakr&dagami is so called because he who enters it 
will receive one more birth. He may enter this path in the world oF 
men, and afterwards be bom in a dewa-loka ; or he may enter it in 
a dewa-loka, and afterwards be bom in the world of men. It is 
divided into twelve sections. 

(3.) The path onagami is so called because he who enters it will 
not again be bom in a kama-lokn ; he may, by the apparitional 
bitlh, enter a brahma-Ioka, and from that world attain nirwfina. 
This path is di\-ided into forty-eight sections. 

(4.) The path arya, or aryahat, is so called because he who entera 
it has overcome or destroyed, as an enemy, all kl^sha. It is divided 
into twelve sections. 

\Vhen the fruit-tree ia cut down, the latent fruit that is in it, 
which has not yet appeared, but which would appear in due time if 
it were permitted to remain, is destroyed. In like manner, by 
margga-bhnwana the klesha is destroyed that would otherwise 
have continued to e.tist and would have brought forth fruit. 

Tliey wlio have entered into any of the paths can discern the 
thoughts of all in the same or the preceding paths. Thus, ho who 
lias entered the path sowan can know the thoughts of any being in 
tht' same path, but not those of any one in the three other paths. 
He who has entered the path sakradagami can know the thoughts 
of any being in the same path or in sowan, but not in the two other 
paths. He who has entered the path anagami can know the 
thoughts of any being in the same path, or in aowan and sakrada- 
gami, but not the thoughts of one in the fourth path, or the rahat- 
The rahat can know the thoughts of any one, in any situation 

Tbe wisdom necessary for tlio reception of the paths is called 
gotrabhu-gny4na. When the paths are entered the wisdom that is 
received by those who have made this attulnmenl i» called gnyana- 
dasoana'Sudhi. .\ man goes at night to watch the conjunction of 
the moon and certam stars ; he looks up, but the moon is hid by 
clouds ; then a wind arises and drives away the clouds, so that the 
moon becomes visible. The klesha that darkens the mind is like a 
cloud ; the anuloma-chitia is like the wind ; the looking up is like 
the sight ofnirwana; the moon is like nirwaaa itself; and tbe pas- 
sing away of the clouda is like the revealing of nirwana by tbe wis- 
dom called gntrabhu-giiyana. The wind has power to disperse the 
i:luud, but it cuuuol sec ihu moon; so the esercine of anuluiuu 



drives away darknesa from the mind, but it is insufficient for lliu 
seeing of nirwana. The man who looks at the moon can see it 
when the clouds have passed away, but he hac no power to disperse 
the clouds ; in like manner, it is gutruhhu-gnyana that reveals nil' 
wana, but it has no power to disperse the kleshu that darkens the 
mind. When nirwana has been revealed, g6trabhu-gnjiina is of no 
further use ; it is like the guide who is dismissed at the end of the 

The rabats can receive no further birih ; they cannot be bom 
again, either as dfewas, brahmas, men, yakas, pr^tas, or asurs ; ihc 
power by which conception is received is entirely brolien ; the path 
of successive existence is destroyed ; all cleaving to existence is cut 
off; all the saoskharas, the elements of existence, are destroyed; 
merit and demerit are destroyed ; the winy£inas are closed ; and as 
the principle of life in the seed is destroyed when exposed to the 
influence of fire, so, in the rahats, the principle of evil desire is era- 
dicated; all connection with the world is completed and done. 

To say that any one has " seen nirwana," is to say that he has 
become a rahat. 

The difference between him who has raga, or desire, and him 
who has not, if this — the first is ajjhosita, or cleaves lo existence ; 
the second is anajjhosita, he does not cleave to existence. As re- 
gards Baling and drinking they may both appear to enjoy that 
which is good and reject that which is evil ; but when the former 
cats food he distinguishes that which is bitter or pungent, avoids it, 
and prefers that which is sweet and agreeable ; the latter also dis- 
tinguishes one flavour from another, but be does not desire one de- 
scription of food more than another. 

There are some persons who obtain the rahatship Instantaneously, 
whilst others can only obtain it by a slow process ; they must give 
alms, make offerings, stud; the bana, and exercise the necessuy 
tUsciphne ; but this difference arises from the merit obtained by the 
former class in previous births. Thus, one man has a field already 
prepared ; he can sow his seed at once ; he need not make ditches 
or fences, or s|>cnd his time in any similar work ; but there is ano- 
ther man. who has no field prepared, and before he can sow his 
seed there is much labour to be undergone. Again, there are nua- 
gOM on a lofly tree ; a. riahi can take tbem at once, by coming 
through the air ; but n man who has not this power, muol wait until 
he has cut down sticks and creepers and made a ladder. Agaio, k 

Btrong man at onci: executes hU lord's commanils, but where there 
is not this strength there must be the united labour of man]' indivi- 
duuU. In like manner, some ascetics obtain the rahalabip at once, 
whilst others arc unable to obtain it without first attending to the 
various esercisea that are enjoined. 

In the time of Budha there was a 
apace of many months to learn a sin 
quence, his preceptor, who was his o 
the wihara. But the uncle, who w 
it of having thus t 
J enquired why he « 

Q the 

vice who was unable i: 
e stanza of bona ; in conse- 
1 uncle, sent him away from 
1 exceedingly sorrowful on 
dismiss his nephew, was met by Budha, 
s so sad. When informed of the cause, 
he told the uncle that in a former age, during the lime of Kasyapa 
Budha, his nephew had derided a priest who was saying bana, 
which now prevented him from learning it; but that in another 
birth when he was a king, he was one day riding through the city, 
with hia attendants, and as hb face perspired freely he wijied it 
with his robe, reflecting at the same time on the impermanencc of 
the body. For this act of merit he would now be enabled to he- 
come a rabat ; and Budha therefore directed that he should look 
towards the sun, and call out " Rajoharanang, rajoharanang ; may 
the dust (of evil desire) pass away ! '' At the moment in which the 
direction of Budha was carried into effect, the sage caused a piece 
of cloth to appear, that the nephew might be enabled to wipe his 
face therewith ; and by this means he became a rahat. 

The king of Sagal said to Nagasena, "You have declared that 
when a Ulc becomes a rahat, he must, on the same day. either enter 
the priesthood or attain nirwana ; now we will suppose that a laic 
becomes a rahat, but there is no one qualified to repeat the Kam- 
mawachan, the formulary used at the ordination of a priest ; and 
there is no alms-bowl or robe to be presented ; could such a one 
admit himself to the priesthood, or would he remain a laic, or would 
some rahat possessing the power of irdhi come through the air to 
urdain him. or would he attain nirwana ; how would it be ? '' N&- 
gasena replied, " He could not ordain himself, as this would be 
contrary to rule ; nor could he remain a laic ; bo that either some 
one mutt come to admit him to the priesthood, or he most attain 
nirwana," Milinda : •' Why is it so ? " Nagas^na : " There are 
many cviU conncirtcd with the slate of a laic ; it is therefore a stalu 
of weakneas ; and on this account thi- rahut must ut once cither be- 
camu a priest or attain nirwana. But no bhunc con on llua account 


be attached to the rahatship ; it ariijes from the weakneEH of the state 
of the laic. In like manner, a man cata to repletion of ^ood food, 
and because he cannot digent it, die^ ; in this case the fault ia not 
to be attributed to the food, hut to the want of ponrer in the faculty 
of dige&tion. Were a large Etonc to be suspended by a Btcoder 
cord, it would break ; but no one could sa; that it was the fault of 
tile stone. Again, were a man to be made king whose personal 
proweis was inferior, who had no powerful retainers, who waa 
neither of the royal caste nor a brahman, of mean birth, and desti- 
tute of merit, it wonid only lead to his destruction, aa he would not 
be able to uphold the dignity of his elevated position ; but the fault 
would be in the man, not in the roynl oHice. It is the same with 
the rabat ; he cannot remain a laic, because that stale is one of 
weakness and evil ; it is insufficient to hear the weight of the great- 
ness with which the rahat is invested." 

There are live great powerM, called abhignyawaa, attached to the 
rahatship; but not possessed by alt rjhals in an equal degree. I. 
Irdhiwidhagnyana, or asrawakshayagnyana ; the power of irdhi. 
2. Dlwyisrolagnyann ; the power to bear all sounds, whether dis- 
tant or near, whether made by dewas or men. 3. Chelopariya- 
iniyana, or parachittawijanagnyina; the power to know the thoughts 
of other beings. 4. Furweniwasanusmerlignyana ; the power of 
knowing what births have been received in former ages. 5, SsU 
wayange-chatuppatignyana ; the power of knowing what births will 
be received in future ages. 

The divine eye of the rahat can see that whicli cannot be per- 
ceived by the eye of flesh, aa it can see any being whatever, whe- 
ther in hell, upon earth, or in a dewa-loka. The manner in which 
it acts is entirely different to the vision of those who have not en- 
tered the paths. It is not possessed to the same extent by all 
b'^ings, but differs in degree, in proportion to the attainments of ila 
possessor. There are many things iliat arc too subtle or fleet to be 
perceived by one being with this gift, that may nevertheless be seen 
by another who is endowed with it in a superior degree. The 
lowest power is to be able to sec things that are in existence at the 
time when it is exercised ; but the being who possesses this power 
may not be able to see that which has only existed at some {ire\ious 
period, and has passed away or been desltoyed ; and he may not be 
ahle to diiiccm objects nt the very intitunl of their formation, from 
their being f^o exrcrdingly minute or momcniary. It uill [<erhap* 


be said that ihis degree of power is of no beneRt ; bul its value is 
fpreaX, as it enables the possessor to see the thoughts of others, and 
to know the consequences of any course of action, whether It be 
good or evil, so as to be able to tell what kind of birth will be nenl 

They who po'ssesn divine eyes are enabled rightly to learn the 
evil of demerit, from seeing the torments thai are endured by Ihe 
beings in hell, and by them alone can this evil be properly appre- 

They who have overcome successive existence know that they 
will not be reborn, because they know that the cause of birth, whicli 
is the cleaving to existence, has been destroyed; even as the hus- 
bandman knows when he liaN reaped bis grain, that his storehouse 

All beings who possess this wisdom, when they look at the past, 
do not sec ihc same number of previous birthii. The extent of Ihe 
number seen varies according to the merit of the individual. The 
Budhas can see any btrth, of any being whatever ; the tirtlaka un- 
believers can see only a few. The exercise of this faculty is not 
therefore like that of the sense of sight, which merely distinguishes 
colours, as to whether they be red. or blue, or yellow. It can only 
be acquired by him who practifles the dhyanas ; and the acutcness 
of the power will be in pioportion to the manner in which attention 
is paid to these and other ascctical exercises. 

'llic power of hearing in hira who is pure, is freed by determined 
resolution and meditation from Ihe evils produced by bile, phlegm, 
und wind. By this means it becomes perfect, as the grain flourishes 
when sown in ground free from grasses and weeds ; and the power 
to hear any sound may thus be obtained. From the roaring of the 
lion to the gentlest whisper, whether near or at a dbtance. 

The king of Sagal (in reference to the supernatural powers of 
the rohats), said to Nagas^na, " Can any one who has the fleshly 
body of a man go to Uturukuru. or to the other great continents, or 
to the dt^wa and brahma-lukas ?" Nagas^na replied, "It is pos. 
sibic for one who bus a body composed of the four elements to visit 
the places you have named." Milinda ; " In what way can this be 
done ?" N&gas^na : '* Can you, at youi will, leap firom the ground, 
say lo the height of a span or a cubit :" Milinda : " With ea»e I 
can leap eight cubits high," Nagaa^na : " How do you do this ?" 
Itlilinda: "I determine to leap; through this determination my 



body becomes as it were buoyant, and I rise froin the ground," 
Nagae^Da : " Juat so the priest who has the power of irdhi deter- 
mines to go to such a place ; by the determjnalion nf his mind his 
body becomes as it were impouderous, and he is enabled thereby to 
pass through (he air." 

Again ihe king of Sagal said to Nagaaena. " Can a rahat lose his 
memory, or become bewildered?" Nagas^na replied, "He mny 
become lost in abstraction, or from syncope ; but ho cannot in any 
other way lose bis senses." Milinda : "Can he do that wbicb is 
wrong, ap atti ?" Nagasf na : " Through want of attention he mif;ht 
eat after the turning of the sun, and thus transgress the precept 
wikala hhojana. kc, in which case he would have to go to some 
priest wbo was free from blame, and sitting on his heels and putting 
his hands to his forehead, be would have to declare that it was not 
his intention thus to transgress in future ; by which act he would 
become free from censure. Into such faults as these a rahat may 
fall." Milinda : " Is it from want of respect for the precept that he 
falls info this error ?" NSgaaena ; " No ; it is not from this cause." 
Milinda : " Then it must be that he loses his memory." Nagasena ; 
" The faults that are committed among sentient beings are divided 
into two classes, lokawadda and pragnyaptiwadda. The first cIms 
includes such transgressions as the taking of life, the saying of tliat 
which is not true, and scepticism ; there are ten in all. called the 
dasn-akuaal. The second class includes such transgressions as can 
be committed by the priests alone. Thus, it is not forbidden to ibe 
laity to eat after the turning of llic sun, nor to root up grass and 
trees, nor to make sport when bathing ; but these things are for- 
bidden to the priests. There arc some priests who are suska widar- 
saka, of dry discernment ; tlicy arc unable to acquire the power nf 
comprehending all things. Such a rahat, though free ^m all evil 
desire, may not know the name of a man or woman whom he has 
not seen before ; he may mistake a road with which he is not ac- 
quainted ; he does not possess the sadabhignya, or five modes of 
supernatural knowledge. A rahat of this description may commit 
a fault that is pragnyapti ; but he cannot commit any of the tAn 
crimes forming the class called lokaHndda. It is only the supreme 
Budhas and Fase-Budhas that arc entirely ^ce from every kind of 
Apnlti ; all other classes oF ralialx are liable to the commission of 
the fault* that are called pragiiyapii." 

The rtihols ore subject to (he onduianco of pain of body, snch u 

proceeds from hunger, disease, &c. ; but they are enlirely free from 
sorrow or pain of mind. For this reason : that which is the cause 
of the endurance of pain (food) by the body, still continues, or its 
use is not intermitted, and therefore bodily pain continues ; but that 
which causes the endurance of pain (evil desire) by tie mind, is 
destroyed, and therefore mental pain ia destroyed. The same truth 
was declared by Bud ha. 

On anotlier occasion Budha said, that all sentient beings are 
afraid of punishment, and that all hove a dread of death ; but when 
lie said this, those who have become rahats were excepted, as he 
declared at another time that the rahats have entirely overcome 
fear. In like manner, the chief of a village commands all his people 
tu be called together nenr his house, and when they are assembleil 
he is told that all are come ; nevertheless the sick, the lame, the 
women, and ihe elaves are not there : though it is said that all are 
come, it b understood that many are absent. 

It may still be asked, If there be the endurance of bodily pain, 
why is not nirw4na attained at once ? This is the reply : the rahats 
know neither desire nor aversion ; they do not desire to live, nor do 
they wish to die ; they wait patiently for the appointed time. This 
waa the declaration of Seriyut ; — " I am like a servant awaiting the 
command of his master, ready to obey it, whatever it may be ; 1 
await the appointed time for the cessation of existence ; I have no 
wish to live ; I have no wish to die : desire is extinct.'' 

The 500 rahata who accompanied Budha, when he was attacked 
by the elephant in the street of Rajagaha, all fled away on the ap- 
proach of the animal ; but it was not from fear ; neither did they 
wish to leave the great teacher to his fate. They intended thereby 
to give Ananda the opportunity of displaying his devotion, as he 
went to encounter the elephant alone, until commanded fay Budha 
to retire. The earth, when it is ploughed, or its surface is broken, 
or from the seas, rocks, and mountains it bears, is unmoved by fear, 
because it has nothing through which fear can be produced. It is 
thci same with tlic rahats. They hare nothing through which fear 
cnn be produced ; the instrumentality by which alone it can work is 
destroyed. Were a hundred thousand men, nrmcd wirh various 
weapons, to aiwault a nngle rahal, he would be unmoved, and cO' 
tirely free from fear. 

The king of S&gal said to Nag^ii-na, " You hare declared that 
the raliata feel no pain of mind, though they arc still sut^ectto \ma 

of body; but does not tbe mind subsist because of the body? lit 
the rahat without authority, mastery, or supremacy over the body r" 
Nagas^na replieil, " Orcat king, it is even so." Milinda: "But 
this does not appear to be right; even the bir<I exercises the lord- 
■hip over its own oest." Nagas^na ; " There are len things that 
in every birth accompany the body ; colour, heal, hunger, lliirsl, 
feces, urine, sleep, disease, decay, and death : over these things the 
rahat exercises no peculiar power." Milinda : " Will you csplain 
t4) me how it is that this occurs ?" Nagasena : " Because of the 
earth all beings exist; but the earth cannot be commanded or con- 
controlled by these beings. In like manner, because of the body the 
mind exists ; but the mind cannot command or control the body." 
Milinda : " How is it then that others have pain both of body and 
mind?" Nagas^na : " Because there has been no accomplishment 
of widarsana, and the other e?[erciBe8 by which the mind is brought 
into subjection. There is a hungry bull that is tied only by a small 
withe, which it breaks in its anger, and tlien runs awny. In the 
same way. when the mind is not under discipline, it becomes irri- 
tated, breaks away from restraint, and disturbs the body, and then 
there is crying, fear, and the voice of sorrow ; thus there is pain 
both of body and roind. But the mind of the rahat is under proper 
discipline : it does not disturb the body ; it is bound as to a pillar 
by samadhi and other exercises ; it is filled with the pleasure of 
ninvana ; and the rahat is therefore free from pain of mind, whilst he 
is still sabject to pain of body." Milinda ; '' But would it not be b 
thing to be esteemed as a wonder if, when the body is disquieted or 
agitated, the mind were to remain tranquil ? Elxplatn to me how 
this can be." Nagasena : " The branches of a tree are shaken by 
the storm ; but tbe trunk remains unmoved. In like manner. iu> 
the mind of thf rahat is bound to the firm pillar of saniadbi by the 
cord of the four paths, it remains unmoved, even when the body is 
auflering pain." 

Upon another occnsion Nagasena related to Milinda the charac- 
teristics of tbe live gradutiona of being; and from his details wc 
are enabled to learn more clearly the specific difference that ia 
supposed to eiist among the various orders of men. as regards ihw 
stale of preparedness for the reception of nirwana. 

(1.) There is the iinwiso being, who is under the influence of 
klcsha, or evil desire, and of enmity, ignorance, and impurity ; he 
has not attained to ihe fruition of the paths ; he has not attended to 

the precepts, by which he might overcome impurily; his mind is 
not dJBciplined to the e\ercUe of the tranquillity of samadhi ; be has 
not received the wisdom produced by abstract meditation. The 
mind of Huch a being is therefore ^oss, sloir, because he in not 
accustomed to the more profound exerebes of abstraction. Thus, 
there is a clump of bamboos that as they grow embrace each other 
and become entangled ; they have many knots, and ihe branches are 
twisted together into one mass. Now, if one of ihese trees be cut 
down at the root, the process of pidling it away will be slow. 
'Why ? Because the leaves, knots, and branches are all entangled 
together in such confusion that they cannot he estiicated. In the 
same way, when any one is under the influence of the errors that 
characterise the unn ise man, his mind is heavy, slow. Why ? Be- 
cause it is entangled in the meshes of evil desire. This is the first 

(2,) There is the being who has entered the path Sowan, unto 
whom Ihe doors of the four hells are shut ; he has maintained the 
true profession, and entirely approves of the doctrines of the great 
teacher ; he has thus arrived at the Iruition of the first of the paths ; 
he also rejects [he error called sakkiya-drishti, which teaches, I am, 
this is mine ; Ue has no doubts as lo the reality of the BuJhas ; and 
he sees that the practices enjoined by the Budhas must be attended 
to if nirwana is to be gained ; so that as regards these three doc- 
trines his mind is free, not bound, but light, quick ; yet, as to the 
other paths it is still slow, gross, entangled. Thus, in three de- 
grees it is pure ; but in all others it is yet under the influence of 
impurity. How ? When the bamboo that has been cut down is 
cleared for the space of three knots, it might be pulled away to this 
distance with ea^, were it not that it is entangled by the upper 
branches that yet remain. In the same way, the being that has 
entered Sow^n is free as to the three doctrines that have been men- 
tioned, but ho is slow, heavy, and entangled as to the rest, which 
he has not yet embraced. This is the second gradation. 

(3.) There t« the being that has entered the path Sakradag4mi 
(from sakrat, once, and agami, came), so colled because he will once 
again receive biilh in the world of men ; he has rejected the three 
errors overcome by the man who has entered Sowan, and he is also 
saved from the evils of kAma-n'iga, and the wishing evil to othcn. 
Tlius. in five degrees his mind is pure ; but as to the rest it is en- 
tangled, slow. How } When five knots of the bamboo have been 

cleared, it might «atitly be drawn thua far, were it not held by [lie 
nppei branches that are yet entangled. In the same way. the man 
who bait entered the path SakradagSmi is free aa to the five par- 
ticulars ; but aa to the rest, be is still bound, heavy, dull. This is 
the third gradation. 

(4.) There is the being that haa entered the path Anagami (from 
ui, negative, and agami, came); he does not again return to the 
world of men ; he is free from the five errors overcome by the man 
who has entered Sakradagami, and also from the five sanjojanas 
(so called because the being who is subject to further repetitions of 
existence is bound to them), evil desire, ignorance, doubt, the pre- 
cepts of the sceptics, and hatred. Thus in ten degrees his mind is 
pure ; but as to the path he has not yet entered, the rahatsbip, it u 
still slow, heavy, dull. enUngled. How ? It is like the tree that 
has ten knots cleared, but the rest allowed to remain. This is the 
fourth gradation. 

(6.) There is the being who has entered the fourth path, and be- 
come a rahat ; he has destroyed the four ^srayas (kama. bhatra. 
drishti, and awidya) ; he is free from the impurity of klfsha, and ha* 
arrived at the fruition of the four paths ; he has vomited up kl^sba, 
Bs if it were an indigested mass : he lias cast it away as if it were a 
burden : be has arrived at the happiness which is obtained from the 
sight of nirwana ; he is no longer subject to the repetition of exist- 
ence; he is endowed with the four supernatural powers of the 
rabata ; be has arrived at the moat exalted state of the srawakas ; 
and in coasequence of these attainments his mind is light, free, 
quick tot^rds the rahatship, and all that precedes it ; but heavy, 
bound, dull, as to that which b peculiar to the Pasj^-Budhaa. This 
IS the fifth gradation. 

(6.) There is the being called a Pase-Budha (in Pali, Praty^ka- 
Budha) ; he has attained the high state of privilege that he enjo}«, 
by his own unaided exertionH. as he has had no teacher, no one to in- 
struct him ; he is called pratyeka, severed, or separated, and is soli- 
tary, alone, like the unicorn ; thus his mind is light, pure, free 
towards the I'ase-Budhaship ; but dull, heavy, bound, towards the 
state of the supreme Budhas ; he has learnt that which belongs to 
his own order, but he understands not the five kinds of knowledge 
that are perceived by the supreme Budhas and by no other being; 
he knows not the thoughts of others ; he has not the power to see 
nil things, not to know all ihingE< ; in these rcs[>ccts his mind is 

heavy. Thus a innn whether by day or night, aniveB al the brink 
of a small stream, into which he descends without fear, in order that 
he may pass to the other side. But at another time he comes to a 
river that is deep and broad) there are no stepping -a tones by which 
he can cross ; he cannot see to the opposile bank ; it is hke the 
ocean ; in consequence of these obstacles he is afraid to venture 
into the water, he cannot cross the stream. In the same way the 
Paae-Budha is free as to that which is connected with his own 
order, but bound ns to all that is peculiar to the supreme Budhas. 
This is the sislh gradation. 

(7.) There is the being who knows all things; he is endowed 
with the ten powers ; he has the four waisaradyas. viz. he has at- 
tained the supreme Budhaship, he has entirely overcome evil desire ; 
he has ascertained all tbe hindrances to the reception of nirwann, 
and he knows fully all that is excellent and good ; he has the eigh- 
teen properties of the fiudhaa ; he has destroyed the infinite klesba ; 
he can perform the wonderful pratiharyas ; he is the supreme Budba, 
and towards all that belongs to the supreme Budhaship his mind is 
swift, fleet, quick. Thus, there is a garment made of the finest silk 
or cotton, or of hair : if against this garment a sharp, straight arrow 
is shot, from a bow that requires a thousand men to pull it, will it 
not most certainly be pierced, and this with the greatest ease? 
Wliy ? Because of the fineness of the cloth, the sharpness of the 
arrow, and the strength of the bowman. In the same way. the 
mind of the supreme Budha is swift, quick, piercing ; because he is 
infinitely pure. This is the seventh gradation of mind. 

3. — Nirwann is the destruction of all ihe elements of 
existence. In this way. The imwise being who has not yet 
arrived si a slute of purity, or who is subject to future birth, over- 
come hy llie excess of evil desire, rejoices in the organs of sense. 
&yatana, and their relative objects, and commends them. The 
ayatanos therefore become to him like a rapid stream to carry him 
onward toward the sea of repented existence : ibcy are not released 
from old age, decay, death, sorrow, &c. But the being who is 
purified, perceiving the evils arising from the sensual organs and 
their relative objects, does nol rejoice therein, nor does he commend 
them, or allow himself to be swallowed up by ihem. By the de- 
struction of the 108 modes of evil desire he has releo&ed himself 
from birth, as from the jaws of an alligator ; he has overcome all 
atlAchmenl to outward objects : be doe* not regard the unaiitho- 




rised precepts, r 

ir U he It sceptic: and he knoivs thai theic is nn 
J ovcrconiing these four erroro, he hafl released 
himaclf from the cleaving to existing objecta. B]* the deBtraction 
of the cleaving lu existing objectn he is released from birth, whether 
a-t a brahma, man, or any other being. By Ihe destruction of binh 
he is released from old age, decay, death, aorrow, &c. All the 
afflictions connccied witli llie repetition of csiotence are overcome. 
Thus all the principles of existence are annihilaled. and that anui- 
hilulion is nirw^na. 

In the Asangkrata-siilra, Golama has set forth the properties of 
nirnaDa. It is the end of sangvara, or successive existence ; Ihe 
arriving at its opposite shore ; its completion. Those who attain 
nirwana are few. It is very subtle, and is therefore called sfik- 
shama ; it is free from decay, and therefore called sjaraya ; it is 
free from delay, the gradual developement of events, and therefore 
culled nisprapancha ; il is pure, and therefore called wisudhi ; it is 
tranquil, and therefore called kshanta ; it is firm, stable, and there- 
fore called schirawa ; it is free from death, and therefftre called 
amuria ; its blessedness is great, and it is theiefore called siwn ; it 
is not made or created, but supernatural, and therefore colled 
abbhuta ; it is free from government or restraint, and therefore 
called anlti ; it is free from sorrow, and therefore called owyapaga ; 
and it is free from the evils of esistence, and therefore called tina. 

It cannot be predicated of nirwana that it has ceased (o be, or 
that its existence t» past ; it is not a thing accomplished, or a rela- 
tion to past lime ; nor ts it a substance. 

The man who has not attained nirwana may nevertheless became 
acquainted with its character. In this way. It may be known 
that those who have their ears, noses, hands, and feet cut olf. suffer 
great pain, by those who have not undergone the same amputation 
of the limbs, from their tears and the cries that they utter. In tike 
manner, from the Joyful exclamations of those who have seen nir- 
wana, its character may be known by those who have not made 
the same attjkinmcnt. 

All sentient beings will not receive nirwana. But if any ODC 
■tlain the knowledge ibal is proper to be acquired ; if he learn Ibe 
universality of sorrow ; if he overcome that which in the cdom) of 
sorrow ; and if he practise that which is proper to be observed ; by 
him the possession of nirwana, nirwana-earapatti, will bo secured. 

NirwawB is dharmma bhisamaya, tlie end or completion of reli- 
gion ; iU entire accompUshmenl. 

One day, in orJer to know what would be the tewurd of the king 
or K6a»la. on account of the alms he gave at the request of the 
queen Malllka. the prioce Sumana went to the J^tatrana wihara, 
UQ() said to OoUma, " Sire. ihiTC arc two of ]:oui diaciplcs, equal in 
jiurity, wisdom, and the observance of llie precepts ; but llic one 
gives to others of the food lie eata, and the other does not ; should 
both be born in a d&wa-loka, what will be the difference in their 
position?" Budha replied, "There will be a difference in five 
ways ; the charitable disciple will have a Ioniser life, and greater 
splendour, beauty, enjoyment, and honour." The prince enquired, 
" How will it bo if they are bom iu the world of men ? " Budha 
said that il would be the same. He then enquired, " How will it 
be if ihey both become priests ?" And the sage replied, "The 
one will receive all that he requires without toil or effort in the 
same way as Bokkula, Siwali, and other priests." The prince then 
said, " How will it be if they become raliats and see nirwfuia? " and 
Ootuma replied, " There will be no difference whatever." 

There wore two priests who were brothers. One of them, on a 
certiun occasion, having said bana, went to his own residence, with 
the other priests. Whilst in the hall of ambulation he saw ihe 
full moon shining from a cloudless sky ; and as he thought witliin 
himself that thus pure was his own mind ; he asked, " How long 
«hnll 1 continue thus? '' He then enquired if the priests had seen 
any one Btt«ln nirwiina. Some replied that they had seen iho rahats 
attain nirwiina whilst seated upon a chntr or couch ; and others that 
they had seen it attained whilst the rnhats were sitling in the air. 
The priest said that they should now see it attained in a different 
manner ; and having made a mark in the path along which he 
walked, he said, that when he reached that place it would be 
attained. And it so ba|ipened, that when he arrived at that s|H>t, 
iu walking from one end of the hall to the other, he attained nir- 
w^na the moment that bis foot touched the mark he hod made 
upon iho ground. 

The king of Sigal said to N^gas^na. " There are some things in 
llio world that are callod karmmaja, oa Ihcy come into cxislenco 
hecaunc of kurmma; others that ore colled irtuja, as ihey COinu iiito 
eiialenoe because of the season or time : and others that arc called 
h^l^ja, aa they come into existence because of hetu ; now is there 
anytliing that is neither knrmmajo, irtuja, nor htliija ? " N^gas^na 
replied, " Kpace and nirwfitin are oeilher karmmaja, irlig'a, nor be- 


tuja." Milinda : " Do not say that which ia contrary to the teach- 
ing of Budha, nor reply without thought." Nagaaena : " Why do 
you speak lo me thus ? " Milinda : " You say that nirw^a u 
akormmaJB, abiituja, and ahetuja. But has not Budha, in a hun- 
dred thousand different ways, declared to the srawakas that an en- 
trance into the arya-margga (the fourth path, that of the rahats), 
secures the accomplishment of nirwana (or is to be attained for that 
purpose) ? Then how is it you say that nitwana is neither karm- 
maja, irtujn, nor hetuja } '' Nkgas^na : " Budhn has said this : but 
he has not said tliat for (he production of nirw&na there is any 
hetu." Milinda : " Venerable air, you say that Budha has declared 
that llie arya-margga is the cause, hetu, of the accomplishment of 
nirwana, and yet you say also that nirwana is without a cause, ah^- 
tuja ; I am confounded ; I go from darkness into deeper darkness ; 
I am in a forest; I go from an entangled thicket into a thicket more 
entangled ; if there is a cause for the attributes or accompaniments 
□f nirwana, there must also be a cause for the production of nir- 
wana. The son must have a father; that father must have had 
another father. The scholar must have a teacher; that teacher 
miist have had another teacher. The bud must have a producing 
seed ; that seed must have had another producing seed. In like 
manner, if there is a cause for the accomplbhment of nirwana, there 
must also be a cause for its production." Nagas^na : " Nirwana ia 
not a thing that can be produced ; and therefore it has not been 
said by Budha that it has a cause." Milinda : " Thia may be true ; 
but explain to me how it is." Nagas^na : " Then bend your ear 
in a proper manner, and pay attention. Can a man, by his natural 
strength, go from this city of SSgal to the forest of Himila?" 
Milinda ; " Yes.'" Nagasfua : " But could any man, by his nalu- 
lal strength, bring the forest of Himala to this city of Sagal ? " 
Milinda : " No.'' Nagasena : " In tike manner, though the fruition 
of the paths may cause the accomplishment of nirwana, no cause by 
which nirwfina is produced can be declared. A man may, by his 
natural strength, go in a ship to the other oide of the sea ; but he 
cannot, in the some manner, bring the sea to Skgal. In like manner 
the palh that leads to nirwana may be pointed out, but not any 
cause for its production. Why? Because that which conslitulea 
nirwina, nirwano-dhamunn, is beyond all computation, asonky^ta. 
a mystery not lo bo understood." Milinda: "Is it because nir- 
wana is produced by neither merit nor demerit that it is beyond 

comprehension ? " Nagaeena , " Yes ; as oirwana is not produced 
by either merit or demerit ; as it is not produced irom any h4tu, 
like trees and other similar things ; as it is not caused by irtu, sea- 
son or time, like the rocks. Maha Meru, &c. it U called asankyita. 
As it is entirely free from evil desire, wana, it is called nirwana. It 
is not caused by Sekra, Mnha Brahma, or any other being. It can- 
not be said that it ia produced, nor that it is not produced ; that it 
is jiast, or future, or present ; nor can it be said that it is the seeing 
of the eye, or the hearing of tlie ear, or the sraelling of the nose, or 
ihe lasting of the tongue, or the feeling of the body." Milinda ; 
'* Then you speak of a thing that is not ; you merely say [list nir- 
wana is nirvana; therefore there is no niiwana. ' Nagosena : 
•■ Great king, nirwana is ; it is a perception of the mind ; the pure, 
delightful nirwana, free from ignorance, awidya, and evil desire, 
trishnawa, is perceived by the rahala who enjoy the fruition of the 
paths." Milinda : *' If there be any comparison by which the 
nature or properties of nirwana cnn be rendered apparent, be 
pleased thus to eiplain them." Nagasena : "There is the wind; 
but can its colour be told? Can it he said that it is blue, or any 
other colour ? Can it be said that it is in such a place ; or that it 
is smalt, or great, or long, or short ? " Milindn : " We cannot say 
that the wind is thus ; it cannot be taken into the hand, and 
■queezed. Vet the wind it. Vi'e know it ; because it pervades 
tliu heart, strikes the body, and bends the trees of the forest ; but 
we cannot explain its nature, or tell what it is." Nagasena : " Even 
ao, nirwana it ; destroying the infinite sorrow of the world, and 
presenting itself as the chief happiness of the world ; but its attri- 
butes or properties cannot be declared," 

Again, the king of Sagal said to Nagasena, " Will all who obey 
the precepts attain nirwana, or arc there some who are not able : " 
Nugasena replied, " Those who ore bom as quadrupeds, pretas, or 
sceptics, are unable (in that birth) to attain nirwana ; as well as 
those who commit the five great sins; those who leave the doctrines 
of the Budhai and embrace those of the tirtlakas ; those who force 
a prieatess ; those who have the opportunity of hearing bana but 
negl«ct it ; those who are carried away by the objects of sense ; 
and children who are under seven years of age." MiUiida : " The 
Test may be nil right, but why cannot children attain nirwana ? Are 
thi!y not free from tho three evils, ragu, dwesa, and m6ha ; as well 
aa frtiiu pride. M-'cpticiam, ]ia»iun, and evil reasoning } Then why 


ue they excluded ? " Nagasena : " If ihe child were able to 
understand that which ia right, and reject that which la wrong, he 
might attain oirwana ; but his racultica of thought axe weak ; he 
cannot with a mind so limited comprehend that which is vast and 
endless. In like manner, no man, by hia natural alrengt}i, con root 
up Maha Meru ; nor can the whole of the extended earlh be ittt- 
gated by a few drops of water, nor tlie whole world be illuminated 
by o firefly." 

Again, the iting of Sagal said to Nagasena, " Is the joy of nir- 
wfina unmised, or is it associated with sorrow ? " The priest re- 
plied that it is unmixed satisfaction, entirely hoe from sorrow. 
Milinda ; " This declaration I cannot believe r and for this reason. 
He who seeks nirwana is subject to pain, both of body and mind ; 
in all situations he is pursued by sorrow ; pain is communicated bf 
every organ of sense ; and he sees that he has to leave much wealth, 
and many relatives and friends. Those who possess the advantages 
of this world are thereby rendered joyful ; there are things pleasant 
to the sight and other senses ; and in this way regret is caused. 
when they hove to lie left ; on which account I think that the joy 
of nirwana cannot be unmixed." N4gaa^na: "It is neverthelcM 
true that the Joy of nirwana is unmixed. Is there not such a thing 
as the enjoyment of royally, and i.s it not unmixed with sorrow ? " 
Milinda : " There is." Nagasfaia ; " But a king is displeased with 
ihe people who live on the limit of his duminions ; he pursues them 
that he may punish them ; whilst thus engaged he suflers much from 
flies, musquitoes, cold, wind, sun, and rain ; he must fight, and his 
life will be exposed to danger. How then is it you say that the en- 
joyment of royalty is unmixed ? " Milinda : " The dangers of the 
warfare are not an enjoyment; but its trials are endured in seeking 
the kingdom, or in defending it. Princes seek the kingdom in sor- 
row, and when it is attained receive the enjoyment of royoliy j on 
this account it is that the enjoyment of royalty is an unmixed sntta- 
factioD. The toil of the warfare is one, the enjoyment of its result 
another." Nagaaena : " In the same way, the happiness of nirwjina 
is unmixed, though those who seek it are subject to sorrow; the 
sorrow is one, Ihe happiness another ; the two states are entiroly 
distinct. Or, you may receive another comparison to the same 
effect. A dixciple sets himself to the attainment of knowledge, and 
for this purjwse places himself under the care of a preceptor ; the 
knowledge he acquires is an unmixed good, but he has great pain 

with those who seek 

" You speak of nir- 

it to mc by colour, 

colour ; or by sign, 

iler; in any of these 

by any of these means, can you 

N4gasena : " I cannot declare it by any of 

ittributes or qualities (repeating them in the same order.") 

re ia the 

I Nagoa^na 
r any other 

n a, what would 
t it was not a proper 
aswer." Nagasena : 
r shape, or colour, or 

and sorrow in acquiring it; and it is the same 
the happiness of uirwdna." 

A^in, the king of Sagol said 
wana ; but can you show it to r 
whether it be blue, yellow, red, 
locality, length, manner, mctaphc 
ways, or by any of these ways, ( 

Milinda: "This I cannot believe." Nagas^n; 
great ocean ; were any one to ask you how many n 
there are in it, or how many living c\ 
you say ? " Milinda ; " I should tell hin 
quesdon to ask, as it is one that no one i 
" In the same way, no one can tell the si 
other attributes of nirwana, though it has its own proper and e 
tiat character. A rishi might answer the question to which I have 
referred, but he could not declare the attribules of nirw^a ; neither 
could any dewa of the arupa worlds.'' Milinda : " It may be true 
that nirw{ma is happiness, and that its outward attributes cannot be 
described; but cannot its excellence or advantages be set forth by 
some mode of comparison ? " N&gasena : " It is like the lotus, as it 
is free from klesha, a.s the lolus ia separated from the mud out of 
which it springs. It is like water, as it quenches the fire of klesha, 
as water cools the body ; it also overcomes the thirst for that which 
is evil, as water overcomes the natural thirst. It is like a medicine, 
B8 it assists those who arc suffering from the poison of klesha, as 
medicine assists those who are suffering from sickness ; it also de- 
stroys the sorrow of renewed existence, as medicine destroys disease ; 
and it iM immorlol, as medicine wards off death. It is like the sea, 
as it is free from the impurity of klesha, as the sea is firee from 
every kind of defilement ; it is vast, infinite, ho that countless beings 
do not fill it, as the sea is unfathomable, and is not filled by all 
the waters of all the rivers ; it receives Seriyut, Anauda, Maha Kas- 
yupu, and other most exalted beings, as the sea contains the Tinu, 
Timingala, Timira, PJngala, and other large fishes ;* and it is filled 
with the perfume of emancipation from existence, na the surface of 
the sea ia covered with flower- resembling waves. It is like food, an 
it promotes age, as food increases the length of life ; it increases the 
* Some of tbe*c Sdics <re Mid tu bv man; tliousandii of niilc* in lenglb. 

the Htrcngtb or men ; it in- 
c it. 33 the reception of food 
the weariness produced by 
of the body ; and it drives 

power of the rialtia, as food 
creaaea the virtues of those i 
adds beauty to the body; it 
kl^sha, as food destroys the 
away sorrow and pain, as food destroys hunger. It is like space, as 
it is not produced (by any esterior cause) ; it has no living exist- 
ence ; it does not die ; it does not pass away ; it is not reproduced ; 
it cannot be collapsed or furtively taken away ; it has no locality ; 
it is the abode of the rahats and Budlias, as space is the habitation of 
birds ; it cannot be hid ; and its extent is boundless. It is like the 
magical jewel, aa it gives whatever is desired ; it also imparts joy, 
and by the light it gives is a benefit or assistance. It is like red 
eandal-wood, as it is difficult to be procured; its perfume is also 
peerless, and it is admired by the wise. It is like ghee, as it in- 
creases the beauty of the colour, its perfume is universally diffused, 
and its taste is delightful. It is like Maha Meru, as it is higher 
than the three worlds ; it is also firm ; its summit is difficult to be 
attained ; and as seeds will not vegetate on Uie surface of the tock, 
neither can klesha flourish in nirwana ; and it is free from enmity 

Again, the king of Sagal said to Nagas^na, " Yon declare that 
nirwana is neither past, future, nor present ; and that it cannot 
be said that it is produced, nor that it is not produced ; then does 
the being who acquires it attain Eomclhing that has 'previously 
existed, or is it his own product, a formation peculiar to him- 
self?" Nagdsena: "Nirwana does not exist previously to its re- 
ception ; nor is it that which was not, brought into existence ; 
still, to the being who attains it there is nirwana," Mitinda: 
" There is much doubt in the world relative to nirwana, so I trust 
you will answer my questions in a clear and decisive manner, that 
my mind may be no longer agitated respecting it." Naga^ena : 
" As the disciple receives wisdom from the preceptor, so ihe being 
who is pure receives nirwina.'' Mitinda : " What is nirwana ? 
How is it ? " Nagasena : " It is free from danger, safe, without 
fear, happy, peaceful, the source of eiyoymcnt, refreshing, pure, de- 
lightful. When a man who has been broiled before a huge fire )• 
released therefrom, and goes quickly into some open space, he feels 
the most agreeable sensation ; and it is the same with the man who. 
released from ignorance, hatred, and other evils, attains nirw^na- 
The tire is ignorance, hatred, &c. ; the man exposed lo the lire u 

he wliu seeks to attain nirwana ; and the open Bpacc U nirwins. 
Apain, when a man who hus been confined in a iilthy place where 
there ore the dead bodies of snakes and dogs, U released therefrom 
and goes without delay to some open space, he alau feels the moHt 
agreeable sensation. The lillh is pancha-kama ; the man confined 
in the filthy place is he who is seeking nirwfma ; and the open space 
is nirw&na. Again, when a man is exposed to danger from a band 
of enemies armed with swords, be is in great fear, and struggles vio- 
lently to release himself, and then goes to some place where he can 
be free from fear and at rest. The place that is free from fear is 
nirwilna." MiUnda : " How does the priest who seeks nirwana re- 
ceive it? How is it effected, or brought about?'' Nagaeena: 
" The man who seeks nirwana careful!]: investigates the properties 
of tlie sanekliBras ; by this he sees that they are connected with 
decay, sorrow, and death; thus he discovers ihat there is no satis- 
fnctiou attached to successive existence ; that there is no such thing 
OS permanent happiness. The man who sees a bar of iron that has 
been healed lo the highest possible degree can discover no way 
whatever in which it will be desirable to hold it ; and it ia the same 
with him who contemplates ^ic evils of successive existence; he 
can see no form whatever in which it is to be desired. Like a 
lish caught in a net : like a frog when attracted to the mouth of a 
serpent ; like a bird in the claws of a cat ; like a nayfi in the beak 
of a garunda ; like the moon in the mouth of Rahu ; he struggles 
lo obtain release from existence. As the man who has gone to a 
distant country, when he sees the road that leads to his native laud, 
thinks it will be well if he returns by that road ; so ihe wise priest 
strives lo gain an entrance into the fourth path, that he may attain 

Again, the king of Sagal said to Nagas6n3, " Is r 
cast, south, west, or north ; above, or below ? Is there such a place 
as nirwana ? If so, where is it ? " Nagastna : " Neither in the 
east, south, west, or nnrlh ; neither in the sky above, nor in the 
cnrth below ; nor in any of the infinite sakwalas, is there such a 
place OS nirwana." Milinda: "Then if nirwana have no locality, 
(here can be no such thing ; and when it in said that any one attains 
nim-iino the declaration is false. For the production of grain, there 
is the field ; for the production of perfume, there is the flower ; for 
the production of the flower, tlicre is the forest ; for the production 
of fniil. there u tlii; tree : for the production of gold, there is the 


mine. If any one wishes for flowcra or fruits, he goes to ihe place 
where they may be procured, and Ihere meets nith them ; therefore, 
if there were such a thing as oirwana, it would have a locality ; and 
if there be no Buch place, there can be no nirwana ; the dewaa and 
men who are expecting it will be deceived." Nfigasena: "There 
is no such place as nirwana, and yet it exists; the priest who seeka 
it in a right manner will attain it. Fire may be produced by rub- 
bing together two elicks, though previously it had no locality ; and 
it is the same with nirwana. The seven tresHures of the chakra- 
wartti have no locality, but when he wishes for them they come ; 
and it is the same with nirwana.'' Milinda: '' Be it so ; but when 
nirwana is attained, is there such a place? " Nagas&na ; " When a 
priest attains nirwana there is such a place.'' Milinda: "Where is 
that place?'' Nagasena: "Wherever the precepts can be observed ; 
and there may be the observance in Yawana, China, Milata, Alo- 
sanda, Nikamba, Kasi. Kosala, Kfismira, Oandh^ra, the summit of 
Maha Meru, or the brahma-lokas ; it may be anywhere ; just as he 
who has two eyes can see the sky from any or all of these places ; 
or, as any of these places may have an eastern side." 

Again, the king of Sagal eaid to Nagasena ; " Does the all- wise 
(Budha) exist?" Nagasena: " He who is the most mcritorioas 
(Bhagawat) docs exist.'' Milinda: " 'I'heu can you point out to 
me the place in which he exists?'' Nigas^na: *' Our Bbagawal 
has attained nirwina, where there is no repetition of birth ; we can- 
not say that he is here, or that he is there. When a lire is extin- 
guished, can it be said that it is here, or that it is there ? Even so. 
our Bhagawat has attained nirw&na ; he is like the sun that has set 
behind the Hastaglri mountain ; it cannot be said that he is herr, 
or that he is there ; but we can point him out by the discourses he 
delivered ; in these he still lives.'' 

The two preceding chapters may appear to possess little interest, 
if they be glanced at only in a cursory manner ; but they are not 
without importance when we regard themt elcologicallj, as present- 
ing a view of the btightcst aspirations to which many millions uf 
men are professing to adhere as their final hope. 

It can scarcely be disputed, if the statements herein made ore 
allowed to be a correct exposition of Budhism, that according to 
Ibis system nil scnlient beings are called upon to regard the entire 

XXII. NIttWAK.t. 301 

n of esistence as tbe onty means by which they can obtain 
a rclcoac from the evils of existence. This can only be occom- 
pliahed by catting off the moral cause of its continuance, vix. the 
cleaving to exia'ing objects. This sensuous adherence may be got 
rid of by getting tree from the efficient cause of ils continuance. 
which is karma, or the united power of kusoJa, merit, akusals. 
demerit, and awyakralya, that which is neither one nor the other. 
In order tiiat this may be attained there must lie an entrance into 
one of the paths leading to nirwana. 

But when wc thus make a distinction between the rooiol cause 
and the efficient, it mnsl be borne in mind that it is merely to make 
the subject more readily understood by those who have been accus- 
tomed only to western modes of thought, as in the sequence of ex- 
istence propounded by Gotama they are not coeval but consecutive 
CBUsea. in a chain composed of many links. The entire chain, one 
link naturally and necessarily producing the sequent link, is as fol- 
lows: ignorance; merit and demerit; the conscious factilly; the 
sensitive powers, the perceptive powers, the reasoning powers, and 
body ; the sis oi^ans of sense ; contact, or the action of the organs ; 
sensation : the desire of enjoyment ; attachment ; existence ; birth ; 
decay, death, and sorrow in all its forms.* Thus, the process is 
rather like tlie undulations of a wave, one producing the other and 
flowing into it, than the independent links of a chain. 

The method by which the paths are gained Is extremely intricate, 
and contrasts most etrungly with the simplicity of the terms upon 
wliich salvation is offered in the gospel of Jesus Christ. Unless 
there has been a concurrence of favourable circumstances in pre- 
viuuB births, the oscctie of the present age may give up the pursuit 
in des]>air ; which is acknowledged to be the existing position of aU 
Budhists, as no one now dares lo hope for an immediate reception 
of nirwana. 

Of the full perplexities of the system, however, little idea can be 
formed from the preceding translations, as I have arranged the para- 
graphs in a manner (.'ntirely different from that in which they appear 
In the MSB. whence they are taken, in order that the reader may be 
enabled lo arrive, by successive stages, at the principal gradations 
that arc regarded as being connected with the privileges of the Bud- 
bist. But in considting the works by which 1 have been tinahled to 

■ (logsrlj's K«sy on Budhinu ; Journal Cirylun Utunch Rojnl As. B«« . 


imtmi Mi>$^{^putta-tIiM»a, " Ijnd^ I am decrcms of fceang & 
p^/iiio^/ ^ KaLaiija, ^liat description of mir^uc: art ih^fu 
rem* of witAiErMnng r ' ' An eaithquike.' * Is it the vb&ue 
thaii thou de«ireft to see shmke, or onlj a portion Thereof r ' * Of 
tb/e^, which ij» the most miraculous ? * * Why, in a metal <£sii £iicc 
with wat4^f which w^iuld be the most miraculous, to make ti« wikole 
water quake, or half r * *• The half/ ^ In the same miimpr, is is 
most difBcult to make only a portion of the earth quake.* * Sack 
being the ca^e, I will witness the quaking of a portion only of tke 
earth/ * For that purpose, within a line of demarkaticm, in or- 
cunifcrence one yojana, on the eastern side, let a chariot be p^M- ^, 
with one of its wheels resting within the line. On the soothem sade, 
let a horse stand, with two of his legs resting within the line. On 
the western side, let a man stand with one foot resting within the line. 
And on the northern side, let a vessel filled with water be placed, 
the half of it projecting beyond the line of demarkation/ The raja 
caused arrangements to be made accordingly. The thero priest 
having been absorbed in the fourth dhyana, rising therefrom, vouch- 
safed thus to resolve : *' Let a quaking of the earth, extending over 
a yojana in space, be visible to the raja/ On the eastern side, the 
wheel of the chariot that rested within the line only shook. In the 
same manner, in the southern and wcHtem sides, the feet of the 
horse, and the foot of the man, together with that moiety of their 
body resting within the line, shook. On the northern side, the half 
of the vcHsel also, together with the portion of water appertaining 
to that moiety which rested within the circle, shook ; the rest re- 
mained undisturbed.'' ♦ 

Among the Brahmans also there arc dificrcnt classes in the same 
order of ascetics, and some of the rites that they perform are similar 
to those of the Budhists. '* The sages, or yogi/' it is said in the 
Vishnu Purana, as translated by Professor Wilson, p. 652, ** when 
first applying himself to contemplative devotion, is called the novice 
or practitioner ; when he has attained spiritual union, he is called 
th« adept, or he whose meditations arc accomplished. Should the 
acta of the former be unvitiated by any obstructing imperfection, he 
will obtain freedom, after practising devotion through several lives. 
The latter speedily obtains liberation in that existence (in which he 
TOCaivet perfection), all his acts being consumed by tlie fire of con- 
templative devotion Endowed with the prescribed merits, 

nur^s Ptli Budhistical Annals ; Joum. Bengal Aa. Soc. Sept, 1837. 

ihe aaf^e, sdf- rest rained, should sit in one of tlic modes tetmcd blia- 
(trdSftnn, Stc, and engage in contemplation. Bringing his vital airs, 
called prana, under subjection, bjr frequent repetilion, is thcnre 
called prdnayamn, which is as it were a seed with a seed. In ihiis 
(he breath of expiration und that of inspiration are alternately ob- 
structed, constituting (he act ttTofold ; and the suppression of both 
modes of breathing produces a third. The escrciae of the yo^, 
whilst endeavouring to bring before his thoughts the gross form of 
the eternal, is denominated Jilumbana. He is then to perform 
the praly4hara, which conaisls in restraining his organs of een^e 
from susceptibility to outward impressions, and directing tkeni en- 
tirely to mental perceptions. By Ibcse means the entire subjugation 
of the unsteady senses is effected ; and if ihey are not controlled, 
the sage will not accompliah his devotions. When by the priinu- 
yumn the rilal airs are restrained, and Ihe senses are subjugated by 
the pralyiharo, then tlie sage will be able to able to keep his mind 
steady in its perfect asylum." Il is said, in a note to ihe Purana, 
"that pranayama is performed by three modifieations of breathing : 
the first act is expiration, which is performed through the tight nos- 
tril, whilst the left is closed with the right hand ; this is called re- 
ehakn : the thumb is then placed upon the right nostril, and tlie 
fingers raised from the left, through which breath is inhaled; this 
Is called puralta : in tlie third act both nostrils are closed, and 
breathing suspended ; this is khumbaka ; and a succession of these 
operations is the practice of pr^naj'ama." The same ceremony is 
thus described bj Ward, in his Account of the Hindoos ; — '" The 
yogi must in the first instance by medicines reduce the appetites of 
the body and increase its strength ; he must then leom the proper 
posture for the ceremony : this posture may be various, but a parti- 
cular one is here enjoined — the yogi is to put his legs across in a 
sitting posture, and to hold his feet with his hands crossed behind 
him. The next act of austerity is that of learning (o inhale and dis- 
charge his breath ; in doing which he is to lake a piece of cloth 
fifteen cubita long, and four fingers in breadth, and swallow it re- 
peatedly, drawing it up and taking it down hrs throat, drinking 
water at intcrviils. He must next choose a scat on some sacred 
spot, at (he bottom of a vutu tree, at some place frequented by pil- 
grims, near on image of an uncreated linga, or in any place jiecu- 
liatly pleasant to a yogi, but it must be n secret one. That on 
wkicl) he must sit may be either kuaha gnus, or ike »kin of a tiger 


01 a deer, or a blanket ; but he must not eit on wood, nor on the 
earth, nor on cloth ; his back, neck, and head, must be exactly 
erect : and he must remain motionless, his eyes fixed on his nose. 
The devotee must first with his thumb and fingers prevent the air 
from issuing from his eyes, ears, nostrils, and mouth, and with fa.ia 
feet bind up the two other avenues of respiration. This he is to 
practise by degrees till he is able to exist without inspiration and 
respiration. He who is thus far perfected will be able to subdue 
hia passions, and to disrelish all the pleasures of the senses." 

But althouifh the same terms and riles are used by both Budhbts 
and Brahmans, there is a dilfcrence in the meaning of the terms, and 
in the intention for which the rit«s are performed. " The medito* 
ting sage," according to the Vtshnu Purana, " must think he be- 
holds internally the figure of Vishnu. . . . When this image never 
departs from his mind, whether he be going or standing, or be en- 
gaged in any other voluntary act, then he may believe his intention 

to be perfect This process of forming a lively image in ihe 

mind, exclusive of all other objects, constitutes dhyana, or medita- 
tion, which is perfected by six stages ; and when an accurate know- 
ledge of self free from all distinction, is attained, by this mental 
meditation, that is termed sam^dhi." The six stages that belong 
to dhyana are : 1. Yama, acts of restraint and obligation. 2. Asona, 
sitting in particular postures. 3. Pranayfima, modes of breathing. 
4. Pratyahira exclusion of all external ideas. 5. Bhawanii, appre- 
hension of internal ideas. 6. Dharanfi, fixation or retention of those 
ideas. The result of the dhyana or sam&dhi is the absence of all 
idea of individuality, when the meditator, the meditation, and th* 
thing or object meditated upon, are all considered to be but one. 
According to the lest of Patanjali : Restraint of the body, retention 
of the mind, and meditation, which thence is exclusively devoted 
to one object, is dhyana : the idea of identification with the object 
of such meditation, so as if devoid of individual nature, is sa- 

The Brahmans believe that Brabm b the only entity in the uni- 
verse ; and that there cannot, by any possibility, be any other being 
existentiofany kind or degree whatever, created or uncreated, visible 
or invisible, known or unknown. The world, with all that it con- 
tains, is only a manifestation of the supreme spirit ; it is part and 
parcel of his own individuality. The soul of man partakes of the 
• Note* to the Viihnu Purtna, bj Profenor WiUcxi. 


■aine essence ; it is not a separate monad, but a portion of the deity. 
Nevertheless, aa it is under the influence of awidya, ignorance, from 
being connected with prakriti, matter, it knows not its real nature, 
and supposes that it is a distinct and separate existence. The erro- 
neous notion that self consisls in what is not self, and the opinion 
that property consists in what is not one's own, are said to consti- 
tute the double seed of the tree of ignorance. " Travelling the palbs 
of the world for many thousands of births," Kesidwaja is made to 
■ay, " man attains only the weariness of bewilderment, and is smo- 
j Ibered by the dust of imagination. 'V\'hen that dust is washed away 
r by the bland water of real knowledge, then the weariness of bewil- 
I derment sustained by the wayfarer through repeated births is re- 
I moved. When that weariness is relieved the internal man is at 
I peace, and he obtains that supreme felicity which is unequaUcd and 
I undisturbed. This soul is (of its own nature) pure, and composed 
I of happiness and wisdom. The properties of pain, ignorance, and 
I impurity, are those of nature (prakriti), not of soul. There is no 
I affinity between fire and water, but when the latter is placed over 
I the former in a caldron it bubbles and boils, and exhibits the pra- 
V Jiertics of fire. In like maimer when soul is associated with prakriti 
1 it is vitiated by egotism and the rest, and assumes the qualities of 
^]{rosser nature, although essentially distinct from them, and incor- 

E piptible. Such is the seed of Ignorance Where could man, 

E scorched by the fires of the sun of this world, look for felicity, were 
r it not for tlie shade afforded by the tree of emancipation } Attain- 
I ment of the divine being is considered by the wise us the remedy of 
I the threefold class of Ills that beset the different stages of life, con- 
I'Mption. birth, and decay, as characterised by that only happiness 
\ which etfaces ail other kinds of felicity, however abundant, and ai 
I bebg absolute and final. It should therefore be the assiduous en- 
r of wise men to attain unlo god. The means of such atlaio- 
I tnent are said to be knowledge and works." • 

The Budhisis deny the existence of any such entity as Brahm. 
■ They are not pantheists but otlieists. With the Brahmana they 
Y.^eny also the existence of a separate ego, a self; but " the Brahman 
ridea is this, that . . 1 . . is Brahm ; the Budhist, that . . I . . >• 
I ft nonentity." In the circle of sequence, inserted above, it will be 
1 that no individuality is introduced ; nothing that eon be re< 
I guded as the man : there ts the body, and there are various powers, 
* WtUnn'* \1aluiu Putinn. 

909 kjlStt.hs >ii>n-\( hism. 

Huch as the consciouH, the lensitive, the perceptive, the reasoning, 
and the sensuous ; but there is no mcniion made of any crmscious. 
sensitive, perceptive, reasoning, or sensuous enlily. There are altri- 
butes, and there arc facultives, active and passive ; but there is no 
concrete source from which these powers are derived, or to which 
they belong. The Budhist, therefore, does not seek for absorption, 
but for annihilation. This subject belongs rather to the psychology 
of Budhism, or it would not be difficult to prove that in all these 
errors the aystem U consistent with itself; materialism, atlicism, und 
the entire cessation of existence, stand or fall together ; if the two 
former could be proved, the third would follow as a matter of 

An explanation of what is intended by bhawo, which in the circle 
of sequence is translated existence, or stale of existence, will render 
it the more probable that nirwana is literally annihilation. Absorp- 
tion it cannot be, as there is no locality in which it can take place, 
no existence into which the sentient being can be merged. "Bhawo.' 
it is said, " is two-fold ; consisting of moral causative acts, and tlic 
state of being. Of these, what ia kamma-bhawo, or what are moral 
causative acts ? They are merit, demerit, and the thoughts of tltose 
in the corporeal (arupa) worlds; and all those actions which lead 
to existence, Of these, what are the stales in which beinga are pro- 
duced (or come into existence, whether by birth or otherwise) - 1. 
The state of sensual pleasures or pains, kama.bhawo (including the 
places of torment, Ihe earth, Ike. and six heavens. ) 2. The brahma- 
worlds, r^pn-bhaWD (where there are no sensible pleasures, and no 
pains, the enjoyments being intellectual, altliougli there is bodily 
form) They are sixteen in number, and Ihe duraltun of ex- 
istence in them increases from one third of a kalpa to 16,000 kalpaa. 
S. The incorporeal worlds, arupa-bhaivo, where there is no bodiljr 
form. They ure four in number, and the period of existence is from 
20.000 lo 40,000 kalpas. 4. A conscious state of being, including 
tU except the asanyasatta. 5. An unconscious state of being, uan- 
yasatt^. 6. A state neither fully conscious nor yet altogether un- 
conscious, n^waaanyanisany^ -bhawo (the last of the incorporeAl 
worlds, and the nearest approximation to nirwana.) (These stale* 
of existence may be) with one, with four, or with five of lite com- 
ponent parts of a sentient being. The greatest number wliicb any 
being con possess is 6ve. rix. body, sensation, perception, the tr». 
■oning powciE, and thr rnnscious faculty. These five ore possessed 

by the inliabitanta of the earth, (he di^tva-lohaB, and fifteen of the 

brnhma-lokiu ; four of them (omitting botly), by tlic inhabitants of 

the four incorporeal worlds ; and only one by the aaanyasatta. tiz. 

body,"* From this extract wc letirn that nirwana cannot bo a state 

of sensuous enjoyment ; nor of intelleclual enjoyment ; nor of incoT- 

. poreality ; nor of consciousness ; nor of unconaeiousaess ; nor a 

I vtBte that is neither conscious nor unconscious. It must, therefore, 

* be a non-entity ; and the being who enters this state must become 

I twn -existent. 


In nearly all tbe villages and towna of Ceylon that are inhabited 

ftythe Singhalese or Kandians, the priests of Budha are frequently 

I Men. as they have to receive their food by taking the alms-bowl 

pfram house to house. They usually walk along the road at a mea- 

ace, without taking mueh notice of that which passes around. 

Tiey have no covering for the head, and are generally bare-footed. 

a the right hand they carry a fan, in shape not much unlike the 

reens that ore seen on the mantel of an English fire-place, 

hich they hold up before the face when in the presence of women, 

t the entrance of evil thoughts into the mind may be prevented. 

p bowl is stung from the neck, and is c^ivered by the robe, ex- 

Fovpt nt the time when alms are received. When not carrying the 

Bbowl, they arc usually followed by an attendant, with a book or 

■mail bundle. 

The eiacl number of priests that there are now in Ceyion cannot 
lie aHcertulued ; but I should think that it will not average more than 
one in four hundred of tbo whole population. This would give, for 
the island, about 2500 pricsta. This proportion is much less than 
in Dunna, where again the priests arc fewer than in Siam, though 
the temples are more numerous. According to Howard Malcom 
lliere ia one prieit to thirty inhabitants among (he Burmans ; and 
ihe same author informa us that, in the province of Tavoy, the 
number of priciit« is csTimaled at 400, with about fiO nuna. Be- 

■ UnKvrly'a VMHy im lluilliunij luurn. t^vloa Uranch lUi^al .\i>. Soc. 1. 
1 0. I'hi* wmitiimitluii will mialil* tliH ivaArr ki iiiulcnnand wnno of the lomii 
nnt hfllii-rlu initiUinril, thai aiipfwun the36l>i ]iag*. 


sides the great temple in Rangoon, there are more than 500 smaller 
ones, occupying aa much space as the city itself, if not more. There 
aie more than a hundred temples in Canton, of which the raoat 
coDsiderable portion belongs to the Budhists. The whole number 
of the priests in the same cilT is estimated at 2000. The largest 
monasteriea belonging to the Singhalese are in Kandy ; bat even in 
tliem there ore not more than from twelve to twenty prieBta. In 
ntany of the village pansuU only one priest is resident. But it is 
stated by Fa Hian thai, at the time of his visit to Ceylon, there 
were 5000 cccleaiaslies in one of the monasteries at Anurfidhapuro, 
and that upon a mountain not far distant (probably Mihinlala) 2000 
priests were resident. From the reports of the people he gathered 
that there were 50,000 or 60,000 priesls in the whole of Ceylon. In 
some of tbc monasteries upon the continent of India he met with 
3000 priesls. In the inscription at Mihintala more than one hun- 
dred persons are separately mentioned as connected with the temple, 
including a secretar)', u treasurer, a physician, a surgeon, a painter, 
twelve cooks, twelve thatchers, ten carpenters, six carter!, two 
florifta (who had to supply 200 lotus flowers monthly), and twenty- 
four inferior menials. 

With this account it may be interesting to compare the number 
of persons attached to the monasteries of the west. According to 
William of Malmesbury the monastery of Bangor contained 2100 
monks, who maintained themselves by the produce of their own 
labour. In the times of the Anglo-Saxons the monks in one mo. 
niutery were also more numerous than In more recent periods ; at 
Winchelcomb there were 300, and 600 in the united monastery o( 
Weremouth and Yarrow.* The usual number was from five to 
twenty resident brethren ; but to this there were many esccptiona. 
At Tewkesbury there were 38 brethren and 1-14 scnanls. The 
abbey of St. Albans was limited to 100 brethren. In I3S1 the 
establishment at Sallay Abbey consisted of the lord abbot and prior, 
nearly thirty monks, including novices, and forty-lire or forty-six 
servBUts.f In the abbey at \Vhalley were a lord abbot, a prior, 
about twenty monks, besides an uncertain number of novices, twenty 
sdrvants belonging to the abbot, and seventy in the general aernce 
of the house.} In the abbey of St. Edmund's Bury there were thirty- 
two oflicers under the abbot and 1 42 servants, in various departmenia, 

• Taylor't Itiilei Monuticui. f Whitaker'* Uutory ol Cnvim. 
I WhitakiT'i HiMorv of MTwdlry. 



beaideit the ofEciating chaplains, llie moiika, and tliei 
Before the dUaolution of the cathedral priory of Norwich, the 
blishmcnt consisted of the following persona: — The lord prior, 
sub-prior,* sixty monks, sacrist, sub-saciist, cellarer nr bursar, 
sub-cellarer or butler, camerarius or chamberlain, almoner, 
torer, pittancier, chaplains, precentor, sub-chantor, infirmarer, cho- 
risters, and keeper of the shrines ; with the following lay officers 
prior's butler, clerk of the infirmary, miller, cooper, maltster, car 
penter, porter of the cellar, porter of the Ssh-hou^e, caterer, wood- 
herds, gardener's men, more than sisty aer\'ants for the monks, 
janitor, keeper of the sanctuarium, keepers of the gamers, tokener, 
grooms, stallariua, proven da rius, swanherd, gaoler, grangers, sei 
vants of the larder and of the kitchen, carters, scullions, &c., ke. 
In Sumner's Antiquities of Canterbury there is a list of forty per- 
sons who were attached to the cellarer of the monastery of St. 
Augustine. In 1174 there were sixty-seven monks in the abbey of 
Kvesham, with three nuns, three paupers at command, and three 
clerks, who had equal privileges with the monks. They had fifty- 
nine servants: five attended in the church, two in ihe infimary, 
two in the chancery, five in the kitchen, seven in tlie bakehouse, 
four in the brewer}-, four in the bath, two as shoemakers, two in the 
paoiry, three as gardeners, one at the gate of the clobier, two tX 
the great gate, five in the vineyard, four waited on the monks who 
went abroad, four as fishermen, four in the abbot's chamber, throe 
in the hall, and two as watchmen.} 

The countenances of the priests in Ceylon arc frequently less in- 

■ In ume instances there was a fourth and fifth phnr, and the general 
arrani^emeiit of the household diflered from that of the priory of Norwich. 
Tli< Dugutcr opcrin wa« Ihe nuster mason ; the eleemuiinarius had the over- 
■ighl oC the alme ; (he pitantjarius had the care of the pietancies or pittance*, 
which were extra allowance* upon tho usual provisional the sacrista, or 
Milon, had the care of the veHsels, books, and vestments beloaging to the 
I'hurch, accounted for the obUUons at the altars and images, and provided 
bcvad and wine for the sacrament ; the eamenuius, or chambcrUin, had the 
can of the dormitorr ; the ccUerarius, or cellarer, procured the provisions, 
and had Ihe care of the kitchen i the ihecaurariiu, or bursar, received all 
rtints and revenues, and paid all common eipenccs I the precentor had the 
<*n' of the choir, provided (he muaic-boolu, puctuneiil, ink, and colours, had 
Iha cuxtody nf the seal, uidkcpt the chapter-booh ; (he >ciip(orea, or wrilera, 
uanMM-ilHiI (he miiwals and books Cat (he use of Ihe libmry, for which they 
had frfqueaUy gruata from pious individual*; (he hoslilariun, or honritilariiu, 
a((rnd('d to the stjaiigen; (he rcrectiomrius provided vcaneti and servants 
fur the refectory i and the innrmariiis had (ho core of Ihe inflrtoary. provided 
medicines, and pnipared the dead for burial. — Burlon't Uomulieon. 

t Taylor'* Iiiilei. 

] Titi'lal'i UiatDry nf Rvetliam. fniu K(aven>'t .tpprndiji 

lelligeni tban those of the common people ; indeed there ia often 
un appearance about them of great vacancy, amouDting almost to 
imbecility, and they seldom appear cheerful or happy. But there 
are e.iccptions to this rule, and a few whom I have seen exhibit an 
exact petaonificDtion of the quiet and gentlenens by which their 
■yatcm is characterised. The same appearance of menial inertness 
has been noticed by neorly all those who have travelled in countries 
where Budhism is professed. Howard Malcom says, that a more 
stupid set could not be picked out in all Canton, than the priests 
who officiate at the Budhist temple in the suburb of Honan. He 
hdd previously remarked this characteristic of the Budhist priest- 
houd in other countries, and was coniirmed in the belief of its being 
attributable to the character of their religion and the nature of their 
duties. Sir J. F. Davis soya, that to judge of its effects on the 
priests, the practice of Budhism appeart< to have a most debasing 
inliuence, as they have nearly all of them an expression approaching 
to idiotcy. With lliis agrees the testimony of Bishop Smith, who 
says that the greater part of these wretched men saunter about with 
en idiotic smile and vacant look, and appear little remoi*ed in in- 
tellect above the animal creation, only a few seeming to be raised 
by mental culture above tiie generality, and exhibiting a refinement 
of mind and manners. 

When not treated with disrespect, the priests of Ceylon rather 
court intercourse with Europeans than otherwise. I was frequently 
visited by them ; especially by one old man, who had travelled through 
Bengal, Burma, Siam, and many ot^er countries, and who prided 
himself upon being able to make calomel much better than the 
Kuropean doctors, as his preparation did not cause the falling out 
of the teeth, soreness of the mouth, or salivation. He leaml the 
secret from an ancient sage that he met with in a foreitt on the con- 
tinent of India, and be was the only person alive who possessed this 
knowledge. Often when listening to him was I reminded of the mys- 
teries and crudities of the alchemists, who durmg so many ages vainly 
sought fur the elixir vitne and the philoscphcr's stone. In travelling 
through unfrequented part.i of the interior, as was once my wont 
and my delight. I usually took up my abode at the pansal, and sel- 
dom was 1 refused a night's lodging or a temporary shelter during 
the heat of the day. The jiriests would bring out the almx-how], 
when they saw that I wn* hungry, and stirring about the cuntvnis 
with the bare luinH. exhibit them before me, to tempt me to partake 


of tlicm ; or they would bring tobacco or some other luxury, to ex- 
press their satisfaction at my visit. All (hat 1 had with me was a 
wonder to them, from the mechanism of my watch to the material 
of my hat. The paper of the tracts or Scriptures I gave them was 
»up)K)Scd to be the leaf of some English tree. When I have takea 
olf my ordinary clothes and put on my dressing-gown, they have 
lold me that 1 now looked respectable ; but that they could not at 
all admire me in my other dres$. It was to ray knowledge of their 
language I was in a great measure indebted for the welcome 1 re- 
ceived, as I was in most cases the only European wilb whom Ihey 
had had the opportunity of entering into familiar conversation ; and 
some were too indolent and indifferent, and others too confident in 
the truth of their own system, to feel enmity to me as the teacher of 
imothcr faith. At the commencement of the Wesleyan mission, 
Ihc priesta of one village requested the use of the school-house in 
which to read bana, and could scarcely be brought to understand 
the motives upon which it was refused. 

There is generally a school attached to the pansal, and the priests 
are much assisted by the boys whom Ihey teach, in such offices as 
the bringing of water and the sweeping of the court nllached to the 
wihara. But in forming an image of the eiistcrn school, we are not 
to picture to ourselves the order and regularity of our own places of 
instruction. The children do not all attend at the same period of 
the day ; as they have leisure, they go to the pansal, repeat their 
leKion, and then return home, or go to their employment in some 
other place. The school is a mere shed, open at the sides, with 
■ raised platform in one comer, covered with sand, on which the 
letters are traced by the finger of the child when learning to write. 
The lessons are usually repeated aloud, and are recited in a singing 
tone, several hoys frequently joining in chorus. On common occa- 
•iona there is heard a low monotonous murmuring, interrupted at 
intervals by a general shout ; as I have noticed the waves of the 
«ea on a calm day, Uzily rolling to the shore, with an occasional 
liillow tlut by its deep booming breaks almost starttingly upon the 
previous silence. When strangers approach, the children scream 
out their tasks at the full pilch of their votc«8, and the din is for a 
time most unpleasant. 

The letters of the Singholoso alphabet are classed and enunciated 
after the model presented by the D^wn-migars, the vowels appear- 
ing first, and then, in order, the gultumi, pal.ilul, lingual, dental. 

a number, though iiol all in 
a the modern atpha- 


and labial consonants. They are fifty h 
Gominon use, and present a perfection no 
beta of Europe, as each letter has one uniform and de&iil< 
The long and short vowels are also distinguished ; and at ihe firKt 
sight of a word, if the alphabet haa been properly Qci|uired, ita 
exact pronunciation may be known. From the number of the 
letters, the learning of the Singhalese alphabet is rather a for- 
[uidable undertaking, and the child ia many weeks and sometimcH, 
years, before he accomplishes this task ; bis improvement of course 
depending in part upon his own diligence, or the attention of the 
priest. An additional difficulty is created by the citcumslance, that 
when the vowels arc not initial, they are represented by a symbol 
attached to the consonant, which sometimes varies its form to adapt 
itself the more readily to the shape of (he consonant with which it 
is connected. The £rst vowel has no symbol, but is to be considered 
as inherent in every consonant that has no symbol attached to it, 
similar to the short e supplied in Hebrew. It may have beeri 
during their residence in Babylon, when they would have the op- 
portunity of communicating with the sages of the further east, that 
the Israelites adopted the use of the points, as it would be at this 
period the want of them was first more jtowerfully felt. 

The hodiya, or alphabet, is usually copied upon tal leaves, ten in 
number, with the letters upon both sides, and two lines upon one 
page. The pupil is thus equally independent of the bookbinder, 
stationer, and publisher, aa he has only to ascend a tree in order to 
procure his book, upon which he might write with a thorn from tho 
bramble. There are a few compound letters, that are not included 
in the alphabet given to children. When the hodiya is properly 
mastered, the pupil proceeds to what is called pillan, the union of 
the vowels and consonants. Retaining the same tal leaves in his 
hand, he reads Ihe word Swastisidham, May there be prosperity 
or success, which is always written at the commencement of the 
alphabet ; repeating the characters letter by letter, and showing in 
what way tbcy are united together, with their phonic powier. He 
then proceeds to the first letter, a, saying, this is a ; written with an 
elapilla (the synibol for i) it is k (long) ; and thus he proceeds 
through the whole, naming the symbol and telling the power of the 
letter when the symbol is prefixed, incorporated, or postfixed, as 
the case may b«. 

In the pansat schoulH, no work is used that is of a similni cha- 


lacler to our Reading- made -Easy. After mastering the alphabet, 
the child wntes (he leltera in Hand, repeating the pillan as his finger 
[racea the letters. In the left hand he holds a piece of wood, with 
which he erases the letter when its name and power have been pro- 
nounced, and an even surface is presented for the fonnatioa of the 
nest letter. The entire course of reading includes the following 
works ; and as the list whs received from tlie most learned priest in 
Kandy at the time, it may be considered as correct : — I. Nampota. 
2. Mogul- lakuna. 3. Wadon-kawi-pota. 4. Oana-dewa-seella. 5. 
Budha-gaja. 6. Nawarutna. 7. Wstsakara-sataka. 8. XantiiBtaya. 
9. Anurudha-sataka. 10. Budha-aataka. 11. Surya-satoka. 12. 
Werttamata-sataka. 13. Werttamala-ky&wa. 14. Amarasingha. 

1. Nampota, or name-book. This is the first book read at the 
pansala. and contains a collection of the names of villages, countries, 
temples, d^gobas, dewalas, islands, caves, &c. some of which are in 
Ceylon and others fabulous, the names being strung together with- 
out any order of arrangement. 

3. Magul-lakuna. An enumeration of the various eigos and 
beauties upon the person of Budha. 

3. Wadan-kawi-pola. A book in Singhalese or Elu verse, con- 
taining stanzas in honour of Budha, the Truth, and the Priesthood ; 
of the three conjoined ; of dewas, the host of heaven, emperora, 
kings, &c. There are also a few instructions on the powers of 
letters, grammatical rules, &c. 

4. Oana-dewa-siella. Stanzas containing an account of the birth 
of Ganeia. the Hindu dewa of wisdom, with prayers addressed to 
the same. It is written in Elu, and ia merely read to accustom the 
tongue to the utterance of letters and combinations that arc difficult 

5. Budha-gaja. Stanzas in praiseof Budha, written inamixed style 
of Elu, Pali, and Sanskrit. It is understood only by the most learned 
of the priests, but is one of the raost popular books that the Sin- 
ghateie possess, as he who can read or repeat it is considered as a 
learned man. 

6. Nawaralna. A description and eulogy of the nine most pre- 
cious things in the world, the principal of which is Budha. 

7. Wetakara-sataka. One hundred (as the word sataka denotes) 
stantas, written by a rishi called VViisana. in Sanskrit, with a aanii^ 
or explanation. It contains a collection of maxims, or proverbs, of 
ithich tlie following may be taken a* a specimen; but there arc 


some tliol are of on evil tendency, nm! one ut k-asl that is too inde- 
licate to be repealed. 

" 'I~hough a man be of low caste, if he have wealth, he is honoured 
by the people of the world, but if be have no weallh, though of the 
race of the moon, he is despised. 

" The ])earls and gems whieh a man has collected, even from his 
youth, will not accompany him a single step towards the future 
world ; fjicnds and relativee cannot proceed a step farther ihiin the 
phice of sepulture ; but a man's actions, whether they be good or 
bad, will not leave him, they will follow him to futurity. 

" The affliction that Cometh in its appointed season none can 
prevent, even as no one can hinder the withering of the lotua flower 
nl eventide. 

" As drops of water falling into a vessel gradually fill it, so arc 
all science, and instruction, and riches to be acquired. 

" A benefit given to the good is like characters engraven on a 
stone ; a benefit given to the evil is like a lino drawn on water. 

"■ Neither live with a bad man, nor be at enmity with him ; even 
as, if jou take hold of glowing charcoal it wQl bum you ; if of cold 
charcoal it will soil you. 

" A good action done in this world will receive its reward in the 
nest ; even as the water poured at the root of a tree will be Men 
aloft in the fruit or the branches. 

" The evil man is to be avoided, though he be arrayed in the robe 
of all the sciences, as we Qee from the serpent though it be adorned 
with the kanlba jewel." This jewel is thought by the natives to be 
formed in the throat of the nayi. It emits a light more brilliant 
ihan the purest diamond; and when the serpent wiHhcs to dittcorer 
anything in the dark, it disgorges the substance, swallowing it B)fMti 
when its work is done. It is thought to be postible to oblatn the 
jewel by throwing dust upon it when out of the serpent's mouth; 
but if the reptile were to be killed to obtain it, misfortune would 
certainly fellow. 

" We must bo doaf in hearing the evil of others, blind in seeing 
the imperfection of others, as those without members in commilting 
sin, and as thouc without a mind in thinking lo do w-rong. 

" Destruction cometh upon thoao who are at vnriiuice with the 
meat, as the tusks of the elephajit arc broken when he trice to *pUt 
the rock. 

■■ To h 

s after eating tliere will be corpulence ; 10 him 


who walks, lenglli of years ; 
IS no hair on his breast, nor 
t will be long-Uver! ; 

who stands, stren^ of body ; to liini 
to him u'horuns, death will run. 

" Be not Triends with n man who h 
with one who has no whiskers. 

" He who eats with las face towards the 
he who eats with his face tonards the Gout 
eats with his face towards the west will be fEunous ; do not eat with 
the face towards the north. 

" Though the good hiive only a little wealth, like the water of a 
well, it is useful to all ; though the bad have much wealth, like the 
salt water of the sea, it is useful to none." 

Some of these maxims are sufficiently foolish ; hut they are nut 
without interest, as showing the kind of lore taught in the pansnl 
schools end the modes of Imparting instruction that are muiil 
popular in the east. 

8. Namastaya. Stanzas in honour of Budha, written in Sanskrit, 
with an explanatory sannc. 

9. Anurudha-salaka. Stanzas in Sanskrit, containing the nunies 
of the last twenty-four Biidhas who have appeared, with the parti- 
cular tree sacred to each, and concludin); with prniaes addressed to 
the same. 

10. Budha-sataka. Stanxas in praise of Budha written in Pali 
by Chandrabhawatl. a brahman, who studied Budhism at Cotta, near 
Colombo, under Rahula, a very learned priest, and afterwards com- 
posed the^G verses. 

11. Surya-sataka. Slanxas in Sanskrit, in honour of the regent 
of the sun. 

12. Werttamala<sat&ka. StaiutaK written by Chandrabhawali, lu 
Sanskrit, on the management of the voice in recitation, the peculiur 
lone in which the natives rend, 

13. Werttamala-kyawa. Stonuts in Pali, in honour of Budha. 

14. Amarasingha. The well-known Sanskrit dictionary, written 
a few yrars before the Christian era. " As it was the custom witli 
all ancient oriental writer* to write on every suhjeci in melre, ibo 
.\marKsingha is in poetry, and contains about 1500sl6kns, orstannis. 
When in Sanskrit only, it forms a volume of about 120 puskolu 
pages. But there I* a SinghalcHc commentarj, and when this ia 
added it incrcancx tht size of the work lo two volumes, with 330 
pages In each, of the larKt^il kind of puskula. The language of thtf 


commentary is so very high us to be mtelligible to a very few of tlic 
readers of the work." * 

The reading of these works completes the curriculum of a. Sin- 
ghalese student, unloKS he be intended for the priesthood or the 
medical profession ; and it must be evident that there are few boys 
who can command the lime requisite for passing through the entire 
course. It is to be lamented that so many precious moments are 
lost in the pursuit of that which is uselesa or pernicious, at an age 
when the native mind exhibits its greatest intelligence. The chil- 
dren of Indian parents, up to a certain period, are quicker than 
children of the same years living in more temperate climes ; but 
when this age ia past, thej either become contented with their 
attainments, or sink into comparative inanition ; whilst the mind of 
the fairer child still pants after new accumulatons, and seeks the 
zest of existence in the thick coming of thoughts — 

" Whose very (weetncM leavctb proof 
That ttiGf were bora for imtnoitulity." 
The individual is the type of the race ; and they live from genera- 
tion to generation with as little change as is heard in the song of 
the bird or seen in the cell of the bee. Their precocity of mini) and 
subsequent inferiority have indeed been thought to be allied to in- 
stinct, which, at once perfect in its degree, admits of no after-im- 
provement; but the difference is in a great measure to be accounted 
for by the position in which the child of the Asiatic is placed ; nor 
can we doubt that if he were insulated from the depressing influ- 
ences to which he is subject, and an object worthy of his ambition 
were placed before him, the battle between the two races for the 
prize of intellectual superiority would be much more evenly con- 

The explanation of these works to their pupils, with iLe imlruc- 
tiona imparted to the novices, occupies a considerable portion of the 
time of the superior priests. In some parts of the island medicine 
is practised by the priests to a considerable extent, and tliey arc 
much in repute for their skill. The Walgam priest, who succeeded 
the learned Karalot as maha-n^yaka, or principal priest of the dis- 
trict of Matura, in 1 827, owed hi» elevation entirely to his celebrity 
as a medical man. Some of their compounds arc very complicated, 
having even a greater number of ingrcdieols than were used in the 
Salemian school in the eleventh century, when in one prescription 

* Clougli'iiAcooiuitof the! 
WcBlejan Minion from Ihe ei 


there were somelimes more than fifty items. Like the Egyptian phy- 
sicians they depend much upon asteriiima and exorcisms. A few of 
the priests employ thotr leisure momeDta in copying books, but in this 
department the energy that they eidiibit is small ; as very few of the 
ponsals contain a good assortment of books, and where more nume- 
rous coUectioos are found, they have usually been handed down 
from the priests of former limes. They are less excusable in this 
respect than the ancient monks, as the material of which their books 
are fabricated costs only a trifle when compared with the price of 
parchment in the middle ages, or of papyrus in more remote periods. 
The pansal is the usual place of gossip for the men of the village. 
more especially in places where the demon that accomiianics the 
spread of British inSucnce, the sale of intoxicating liquors, ban not 
found its way. In some instances priests, whilst yet wearing the 
yellow robe, give instruction in Singhalese and Pali to Engbsb gen- 

In no part of the island that I have visited do the priests, ws a 
body, appear to be respected by the people, though there are indi- 
vidual exceptions in which a priest is popular, either from his Icarii' 
ing, his skill in medicine, the sweetness of his voice, or his atten- 
tion to the duties of his profession- I feci unwilling to make any 
positive statement as to their moral conduct, as it was generally 
described to me by interested persons. It may be inferred, in some 
measure, from their position as constrained celibates, in a country 
vrtiere the people pay little regard to the most sacred bonds. But 
when I have beard them spoken against, it has been rather on ac- 
count of their rapacity than their licentiousness ; though I hare 
somelimes, and especially in certain districts, heard them accused 
of a great crime. Id many places the people stand in awe of thera, 
as tliey suppose tliat tbey have the power to inflict various calami- 
ties upon Ihe subjecta of their wrath. This fear is, however, by no 
means of universal prevalence. In 1H39, some females went witli 
brooms in their hands to the pansal at Roddalowa, near Negombo, 
and requested the priest to leave tlie place immediately, threatening 
in case of his refusal to use the brooms upon his back. The quarrel 
arose from an attempt of the priest to overcome the virtue of a young 
woman who had brought some cakes as an offering to Budha. The 
virtuous indignation of the broom-bearers triumphed ; and the priest 
was obliged to leave the village. In the same year Ave men went 
one evening to a temple, and requested the priest to allow them to 


E;lSTr:B:t MONArillS)!. 

remain there for the night. This request was granted ; but aFier il 
was dark ihey tteized him, bound logether his hands nnd feet, 
making bands of his own robe, and having thus secured him, 
bound aUo ihe servants that were residing nith bira, and then took 
away whatever they found that was of value. Instances arc known 
in which priests have been found murdered in their panaals. 

Under the native monorchB the priests possessed many privileges, 
uid received the mo*t distinguished honours. The yellow robe 
was sometimes assumed in order to escape from the punishment of 
crime; but not always with impunity. About x.n. 974 there was 
a revolt against Uddaya III. the leaders of which sought sccurily 
by becoming priests. They were, however, seized and decapitated, 
after which their heads were thrown into the street; but the popu- 
lace rose against the king, and subjected a number of his courlicni 
to the same fate. It is stjited by the Abbe Ic Grand, in his continua- 
tion of Ribeyro's Hietoiy of f'eylon {as translated by Lee), that the 
priests, up (o the time of Raja Singha, received almo.^t the same 
honours aa the king himself; the impunity granted them being th« 
more dangerous, ae they were frequently engaged in conspincics 
against the prince ; end as they influenced the minds of the people 
according to their own will, they became very formidnble opponerntK 
to the sovereign- In consequence of (heir disaffection Raja Singha 
abolished the exemption from punishment they previously enjoyed. 
Since the British took possession of the island, instances have not 
been wanting in which the priests have manifested a dispa«ttion to 
emulate the acts of their predecessors in their intrigues against the 
established government. 

There arc many of the wiharas that have no landa attached to 
ihcro that would come under the denomination of glebe, unless we 
include the garden near the priest's residence, in which there are 
generally cocoa-nut and other fruit-trees. But in some instanees, 
as we have i>reviougly noticed, the temples are rich in lands, and 
some of the most productive vnllics in the interior Itelong to the 
wihira in Kandy cuUed ihe Milagawa, from its having been ron- 
nccted with the palace. Tlie temple service is popular, on account 
of the perquisites that can be gained. The various hands through 
which the produce has to pass affords a favourable opportunity for 
pccuktion, as each person retains a large share, and the actu^ re- 
ceipts of the priesthood are comparatively .small ; hut lhi« U prin- 
cijNilly when the temple is at a distance from the er.lesiniitical 



domain, and the collecting of the produce has to be entruated en- 
tirely lo laics. After the conquest of the interior of Ceylon, in 
1815, by the British, the king of Englund succeeded to the rights 
nnd privileges of the Kandian monarch, as hcnd of the Budhi^t and 
Brnhmanical churches; by which means acts were continually pre- 
sented on the part of our professedly Christian govcmmcDt that 
must have been greatly offensive in the sight of Him before whom 
idolatry is " the abominable thing," utterly hated. This unholy 
alliance is now happily dissolved. The possession of lands by the 
priesthood, and the disputes thai continually arise between the in- 
cumbents and their retainers, cause the priests to be frequently seen 
in the courts of law, which has had a tendency lo bring them into 
disrepute with the more thoughtful of their adherents. They can- 
not jiossess lands an their own personal property, nor can they make 
over to others the property of the temples : but in many cases, the 
evils of nepotism are presented ; and it would appear that in this 
way the revenues of many of the temples arc scattered, as they are 
known to be rich in lands ; and yet the i^acrcd buildings are allowed 
to fall into ruin, scarcely an effort being made lo prevent their de- 
struction by the elements that in Ceylon lay wa^te ihe goodliest 
edifices with a might and rapidity never witnessed in more tem- 
perate climes. 

The privileges granted to, or assumed by, the western monks, 
were of varied character and great importance. Like the sramanaa 
of Budha they sometimes released criminals on their way to execu- 
tion, by throwing over them ihe cowl. As the will of ihe monarch 
or noble was law, their interposition, when placed between the 
irritated chief and his innocent victim, would, in some instances, 
be beneficial ; and the more so, as the rescued prisoner was com- 
monly required from that time to submit to the restraints of mo- 
nastic discipline. In the letters patent granted by Richard 11. to 
the monks of Fountain's Abbey. *. d. 1387, we have a summary of 
their prineijml riglita and immunities, which include " sac, soc, toll, 
team, and infangeneihcofT, with the courts of all their tenants, and 
the cognixancc of ail transgressions in their lands, with the assixe of 
bread and ale ; the nomination or removal of their own bailifis and 
servantn, with all the tinea and forfeitures within their premises ; 
exemption from the assieo of the county, riding, and waponiakc, 
from danegcld, aida, tculage, pontage, pndagc, and carriage ; from 
lolU fur rejiairiiig coatlea, clearing fosses, alallage. and taillage'. 



ftud no in»a cuuld anesl any peraon within their pK 
the abbot and com'cnt's leare," * Under the native nionarchs, the 
tenants and retaJuers of the Budhislicul estabUshmenU, when cod- 
Ticted of an offence before a chapter of the sangha, were eilbet 
mulcted or required to execute some laborious work for the benefit 
of the fraternitj. To haTe inflicted corporal chastisement, however 
■light, would have been regarded as a breach of the sacred code. 
The superior priests, though they could punish their predial aer- 
vanta, never sat as judges in other courta of law. 

The prie&ta who arc attached to the smaller wiharas, when over- 
taken by the infirmities of age, and unable to cany the alnu-bonl, 
are sometimes neglected by their followers, and hate dilGculty in 
obtaining a supply of food. I have noticed this particularly in the 
border districts, between the villages that have embraced Chri»- 
tianity, and those that are yet in heathendom. After their death, the 
bodies of the priests are burnt. In the year 1827, I witnessed the 
ceremony of the burning of the body of a young man, about twenty- 
two years of age. who had expired the preceding evening. It took 
place at Walgam, about two miles from the fort of Matura. Tlic 
body was placed in a palanquin, and then carried to the spot where 
it was to be burnt, preceded by banners and tomtoms. About 
twenty priests followed in procession, among whom was the vene- 
rable uncle of the deceased, who had educali'd him, under the sup. 
position that he would have succeeded to the temple over which he 
presided. On account of his great age and lofirmiCy he had to be 
supported by the younger priests, and appeared to he much aScct«d. 
The proceMion marched once round the pile, which w-os composed 
of a great heap of wood, laid in regular layero, and surmounted bjr 
a canopy made of the lender leaves of th« cocoa-nut tree. The 
body, diverted of its robes, was placed with its face downwards, in 
the centre of the pile, to which the uncle applied the torch, and the 
wliale wna soon in a blaze that spread its glare far and wide. Pieces 
of cloth were distributed to the poor; but no form was read, nor 
was any address delivered to the people. A rude monument ia 
generally erected over the ashes of the priests, on the aummil of 
which a bo. tree is planted. 

The ceremonies practised in Burma, upon the same occiuion, are 

much more expeiulve and imposing. As soon as the priest has ex* 

pir«d, hia corpae is opened in order to extract the i-iscero, which 

• Burton'* U mini (icon E 

IE9TH0OD. 323 

are buried in some decent place, and it is then embalmed after tbe 
fashion of the country. The body ia swathed with bands of white 
linen, wrapped many times round it in every pnrt, and upon these i« 
laid a thick coal of varnisb. To liiis succeeds a covering of gold, 
that adheres to the Tarnish ; and in this manner the body ia ^ded 
from head (o foot; after which it is put into a large chest, and ex- 
posed to the veneration of the people. Upon this coffin great care 
and expence are bestowed, the superior priests being accustomed to 
have it made several years before their death, so that its beauty is 
frecjuently such as to cause it to be admired by foreigners as well aa 
natives. It is usually gilded all over, and adorned besides with 
flowers made of polished substances, sometimes even of precious 
stones. Placed in this superb receptacle, the body is exposed in 
public for many dajs. or even entire months, during which lime 
there is a continual festival ; bands of music are always playing. 
and tbe people flock in crowds to offer presents of money, rice, 
fruits, or other things necessary for the ceremony, by which the 
expcQccs of the funeral aie delraycd. Wlien the day for the burning 
of the body has arrived, it is placed upon a large car with four 
wheels, to which is affixed a number of ropes, that the people may 
drag it to the cemetery. As the people divide themselves into two 
bodies, and strive with the greatest eameatness who shall have the 
honour of conveying the corpse to its destination, the vehicle is 
pulled first to the one aide and then the other, until one party 
gains the advantage, and bears it off in triumph. Fireworks are 
let off near the pile, and beams of teak-wood are bored to receive a 
mixture of saltpetre and pounded cliarcoal. Oreat quantities of 
wood, gunpowder, and other combustibles, are heaped about the 
coffin, and the ceremony is concluded by setting fire to this pile, 
which is done by an immense rocket, guided to it by a cord.* 
When the deceased priest has maintained a character for peculiar 
sanctity, a part of his remains is not unfrequently preserved from 
Iho flames and retained as valuable relics. 

Bishop Smith, in his account of the monaatery at [lonan, says, 
'■ We were conducted to the place where, in a kind of oven, the 
bodies of the deceased priests are consumed by fire. Near to this 
was the mausoleum, in which the ashes of the burnt bodies are de- 
posited on n certain day in each year. Ai^joining to it was a little 

• SsnBi'Tmaiui'* BumicM Kmpirc. 


tell, in which the urns containing the ashea are temporarily jilnccd 
(ill the ]>rrio{lical scaBon for opening the mausoleum. " 

During the visit of Fa Hian to Ceylon, be waa predent at the 
burning; of a priest's body al Anuradbapuia. The ceremonies that 
took place were similar to those already described, except thai, in 
the place of gunpowder, odoriferous woods and costly perfume*, 
provided at the eipence of the king, were burnt upon the occasion. 

The priests of Ceylon trace their origin (rom a remote period, as, 
according to the native legends, Budhism has there been professed 
more than 2000 years. In the 236th year after the demise of 
06tama Budba, or b.c. 307. the reigning monarch, D^wananpiya' 
tisaa (or Tissa, the delight of the D6was), sent ambassadors with 
nagiiiilcent presents to Asoka, the great promoter of Budhtnn, 
who reigned at Pataliputra, the Palibothra of Mcga^ilhenes, The 
voyage occupied seven days, and seven more were occupied, after 
landing upon the continent, before the great city was reached. 
They were received graciously by tl)e king, and on their return they 
were accompanied by other ambassadors from the Indian court^ 
beating valuable g^ts, who were instructed to say to Dewananpiya- 
tissa, in the name of the king. " I have taken refuge in Budtta, 
his Truth, and his Priesthood ; I have become an upasaka in the 
religion of S^ya. Ruler of men, embuing thy mind with the con- 
viction of the truth of these supreme blessings, with unfeigned 
faith do thou also lake refuge in this salvation." 

In the same year, after the conclusion of the third great council of 
the Budhiate, several priests were deputed as missionaries to different 
countries, among whom was Mahindo, the son of Asoka, who had 
renounced the world twelve years previously to this event. Accon. 
panied by four priests and a novice, and a layman named Bhandu, 
ho cnmc through the air to Lanka, and alighted on a hill not hr 
from the city of Anuriidhapura, which was at that time the capital 
of the island. Upon the some day the king went to hunt, and wns 
attracted by a dewa, who had assumed the appearance of an elk. to 
the spot where the priests had alighted ; upon which Mahindo ap- 
proached the king, and calling him simply Tisso, informed him of 
the object of their visit. The king enquired how they bad come, 
and he rejdied, " I have not come either by land or by water ;" 
after which the priest, to try the capacity of the king, ihiu ad- 
dressed him, "Have you any relations'" The monarch replied, 
■• I have many." Mahindo : *■ .\re there any persons not thy rein. 



lions ?'' The king : " There are many who are not my relations. " 
Mahindo : " Besides thy relations, and those who are not thy rela. 
tions. is there, or is there not, any other being ?" The king : " There 
is myself," Mahindo : " Sadhu, ruler of men, thou art wise." By 
this means the priest dbcovercd that (he king was sufficiently gifled 
to understand the doctrines he had come to leach, upon which he 
recited to him one of the discourses of Budha ; and tlie monarch, 
with the 40,000 followers by whom he was accompanied in the 
chase, embraced the religion of Budha. Soon afterwards the novice 
was commissioned to go lo the court of Asoka, by Mahindo, 
wlicnce to procure relics of Ootama, and the dish he used at his 
mettlx ; and after procuring these be was to go to the d^wa.loka of 
Si'kra, to procure the right collar-hone of the sage. All this was 
accomplished in ihe course of one single day. For the reception of 
the collar-bone the dagoba called Tbuparama was erected ; and on 
the day of its erection 30,000 persons entered the priesthood. 

The princess Anula. daughter of the monarch of Ceylon, declared 
her intention to renounce the world, but there was no one who 
could admit her to profession, as it was not lawful for any but a 
chapter composed of females to perform the ceremony. Accordingly, 
Ariltho, the nephew of the king, was deputed to go to Patoliputra, 
and invite Sanghamitta, sister of Mahindo, who had also embraced 
the life of a recluse, to come over to Lank^, to aid in the propaga- 
tion of the faith ; and at the same time the mesHcnger was directed 
to request a branch of the bo-tree under which Sidhartia became a 
supreme Budha. Upon the same day as his departure he arrived at 
the court of Asoka, who, on hearing his message, was unwilling to 
part with his daughter ; but she said, " Great king, the Injunction 
of my brother is imperative ; and those who are to be ordained are 
many ; on that account it is meet thai I should repair thither." By 
this means she overcame the reluctance of her royal parent. The 
kiDg also coTisentcd to send the right branch of the bu-lree ; but as 
he knew tlint it would be irreverent to cut it with an instrument, he 
went himself to the tree, attended by a thousand priests, and a great 
retinue of people, and making a xtreak with vermillion from a golden 
pencil, he said, " If this supreme right bo-branch, detached from 
this tree, is desliuud lo depart hence lo Lanki, let it, self-severed, 
instantly transplant itself to the golden vase I have prepared for its 
reception.'* Tho branch detached itself at once from the tree, and 
entered the rase, where it put forth a hundred shoots. Sanghamitta 

was accomp&nied by eleven priestesses anil tlic anibussadoT, Arittlio. 
The vesHcI in which they embarked was assailed by (be saga snake- 
gods, that they might oblaia possession of the bo- tree, [bough the 
ocean did it homage by remaining calm lo the distance of a yojana 
around it, and the winds were equally respectful, causioi; music to 
he heard in the breeze, but by the supernatural power of ifae f^at 
priestess it was rescued ftom this danger, and brought in safety to 
Ceylon, The king rushed into the sea to receive it on its approach, 
nnd it was taken (□ the capital with all due ceremony. Arrived at 
the place where it was destined to flourisb so long as Budhism sbatl 
be professed, it sprang into the nir, self-poised, and ascended to the 
brnhma-toks, remaining there until tlie setting of the sun, when it 
returned to the earth and set itself in the ground, instantly putting 
forth roots, bnmchcs. and fruit. 

However absurd these legeniU may nppear, they are received as 
true both by priests and people. They ihrow a halo of en much 
brightness about the origin of the priestly order, thut they are un- 
willing to examine whether ihey be a mere deception, caused by the 
length of the vista through which they are seen, or a grand reality 
under which their ancestors were permitted to rejoice. But although 
in this they may be led astray, they have cause of lawful exutlation 
in the aland that their forefathers have made against the encroach- 
ments of the continental invaders. They did not say, as the pusil- 
lanimous Britons, under similar circumstances, aie reported to have 
done, " the barbarinna ilrive us into the sea, and the sea drives ua 
back on ibe barbarians." The failh of Gotama was preserved ; but 
it has not retained its hold upon Ceylon because it bos had no 
powerful enemy with which lo contend. The struggle was con- 
tinued century after century ; and if the warriors of I^anki had hod 
an adequate historian to record their deeds, there are many places 
amidst its rice-clad hills that would have been magic names, *ying 
in interest with Marathon or Thermopylae. The Singhalese can 
jioint to a succession of 1B5 kings, from b. c. 543, ami can rightly 
maintain that they are not a catalogue sprung from Ibe brain of 
of some old chronicler, who had only to >vrite down syllables, and 
thus create a line of monarchs. Whilst the nations of Europe have 
been again and ugnin broken into fragments, and re- constructed 
under many different fomis, alt more or less heterogeneous, Ceylon 
ha* retained its almost primeval identity ; and con exhibit its lui. 
guage, its religion, and its sacred monuments, as triumphant evi- 

dences of the fitct. It is a problem worthy of investigation, bow it 
has come to pass Lliat the Budhisl nations have preserved their in- 
dividuality a longer period than any other people, if we except the 
nomadic tribes, ujion the face of the earth. There is no country in 
either Europe or Asia, beside those that ore Biidhist. in which the 
same religion is now professed that was there existent ut the time 
of the Kedeemer's death. 

Ttie uposampada succession was several times lost during these 
wars. It was last renewed in the reign of Kirtti Sri. who, however, 
consented to an arrangement that produced a great innovution upon 
orthodox Budhism. A decree was issued that ordination should be 
conferred only upon members of the gowi or agricultural caste, (his 
being the principal caste in the island ; and it was also established 
OS a rule that the privilege should not be conferred anywhere but 
in Kandy, the reeidcnce of the king. At the same time the priests 
WL'fe divided into two communities, generally known by the name 
of the Ualwatia and Asgiri eslAhlishments. The maha-nayakas, or 
principal priests of both esiablishmenls, reside in Kandy. They 
have equal authority ; and the one is not in any way subordinate to 
ihe other. The priests under them believe precisely the same doc- 
trines, and are bound by the same canons, so that they are two 
independent and co-equal communities of one and the same faith. 
It is ditScult to discover in what way the distinction at flrst arose, 
unless the king may have wished to ajipoint a favourite to office 
without displacing the legitimate bicrarch. Nearly all the priests 
in Ceylon belong to oue or other of these establiahments ; but not 
in equal proportions, the Malwatta having a greater number of 
wthuras under it4 authority. There appears likewise to be a terri- 
torial division of the island, the Malwatta having authority over the 
temples towards tlie south of Kandy, and the Asgiri over those 
lowHrds the north ; but in some instances I have noticed that the 
priests of adjoining villages belong to difiercnt establishments. 

The unauthorised regulation of Kirtti SrS naturally produced great 
diasaliafaction among the inferior castes. There is a caste called the 
chali*. or hnl^gama, the members of which aflirm that they came 
originally from India for the purpose of weaving cloth of gold, 
though by others a different origin is ascribed to their race. In 
more recent timei they were employed by the successive European 
govcrnmentii of the island in cutting cinnamon and preparing it for 
exportation, which being a |>rofitabIe source of revenue, gave them 

Aidenble iDduence and iraportoDce. The; are an enlerprisiug 
race, with more of daring in their character than the rest of the 
Singhalese, and are strong in their attachment to BudbUm. About 
the beginning of the present century, Ambagahapilya, a priest of 
this t»4te, accompanied by five other Baman«ra«, tisiled various 
coantries wherein Budhism is professed, with the intention of re- 
ceiving ordination, that he might have the power to confer thi* 
jtrivilege upon other members of the same caste on his return to 
('eyion. From the obserTations that he made in the course of hia 
travels, he inferred that Budhism was professed in the grc«test 
purity by ttie Burmans, which induced htm to remain in that 
country until he had qualified himself for ordinution. It is said 
that he was well received by the king of Burma and by the priesUi ; 
and on his return, in 1802, after he had succeeded in the object of 
his wixhes, he was accompanied by five Burman priests and by the 
■Amaneras, all of whom had become npasompada. These envoy* 
had with them a sandesa,* or missive, tionk the principal pHcst to 
Burma to the songha raja of Ceylon. 

These priests, on their arrival, began to exercise the power tbey 
had received;,hy which means another community was established, 
in contradistinction to the Malnatta and Asgiri cstablinhmenla of 
Kandy. At first it was not joined by any but the chalias ; but it U 
now more extended la its influence, and includes priests of all 
castes. The more ancient establishments arc called tho Siom 
society, from the succession having been received from thai country, 
whilst the other is called the Amarapura society, from its having 
Dtiginatcd from Burma. "The two parties thus formed," says a 
native writer, " are great competitors, and deny nirwana to each 
other ; and as much animosity is to be eeen among them as ij to he 
found between two sects of any other religion. Their antmouty ]m 
so great that they do not salute each other when they meet, and call 
each other duk-silayas, or priests without sanctity. The object of 
of the Amarapura priests is to bring back the doctrines of Budhtsm 
to its pristine purity, by disentangling them from caste, polytheism, 
and othur corruptions to which it has been subject for ages ; and 
these priests, how difficult soever the task may be, have made a 
considerable progress in this reformation in the low countries, but 
especially in Safiragan, which may at present be regarded as the 

[ESTHOOD. 339 

seal of thia rcformalion. and where the difference in the tenets and 
principles of the two sects ia greater and wider than anywhere 
else.''* The same writer observes that the Amampuroa differ from 
the others on the followinu points: — 1. They publicly preach 
aguinst the docttincs of Hinduism, and do not invoke the Hindu 
goda at the recitation of piril. 2. They give ordination to all castea, 
associating with ihem indiscriminately, and preach against the 
secular occupationa of the Siameae priests, such as practising physic 
and astrology. None of their fraternity are allowed to follow such 
practises on puin of excommunication. 3. They do not acknow- 
ledge the authority of the royal edicis, that they have anything to 
do with their religion ; neither do they acknowledge the Bud- 
hist hierarchy, nor the sanctity of the simas connected with the 
Malwatia and Asgiri wihuras, as they ordain in any sinia provided 
it i? set up according to the precepts of Budha. 4. They do not 
follow_lhc observances of the Pase-Budhaa, unless sanctioned by 
Ootnma. They do not, therefore. recil« a benediction at the re- 
ceiving of food or any other offering, 5. They do not use two 
Hcnls uor employ two priests when bana is read, nor quaver the 
voice,^aa not being authorised by Budha. 6. They expound and 
preach the Winaya to the laity, whilst the Siamese read it only to 
the priests, and then only u few passages, with closed doors. 7. 
Tiicy perform a ceremony equivalent to confirmation a number of 
years after ordination, whilst the Siamese perform it immediately 
uflcr. 8. They lay great stress on the merits of the p^n-pinkama, 
or feast of lamps, which they perform during tlio whole night, with- 
out any kind of preaching or reading ; whereas the Siamese kindle 
only a few lamps in the evening and repeat bana until the morning. 
9, The Amarapuraa differ from the Siamese by having both the 
shoulders covered with a peculiar role of rube under the armpit, 
and by leaving the eyebrows unshorn. As I'ali literature is very 
aasidiiously cultivated by the Amarapuras, in order that they may 
cxpoM! the errora and corruptions of their opponents, it is exjtected 
tliat the bteacli between the two sects will become wider as time 

Another sect aro«c about the year 183G, originating in a discus- 
sion that wa> carried on between n priest at Bentotte, called .\tta' 
dassa. and a few followers, on the un« side, and the miyority of 
both the Slam and AmarnpUTB fratcniitiea on the other. The prin- 
• Hr..VihuiiilrSllvK: l.VyUm I^-nd.Sent. 11145. 

380 kadtkiin nov.vciiism. 

cipal object of dispute is respecting the day of the month on which 
the ceremony called wass ought to bo commenced; reminding ua of 
the controversies that existed In the fourth and sixth centuries rela- 
tive to the mode of reckoning Easter. There is bIho some difference 
of opinion about the sanghika d»na. The Benlottc priest puzzled 
his adversaries by his superior aslronomicul knowledge ; but he haa 
few supporters. 

With these diversities of opinion and practice as exhibited by tlie 
Budhists belonging to one of the smallest among the nations of tlie 
world, we may infer th»t greater differences will exist between the 
Budhisra of one country and that of another. There appears to be 
a general similarity between the religions of Ceylon, Burma. Siam, 
and Chinu ; but about the Adi Budhas of Nepaul, the l^mas of Tibet, 
or the dairis of Japan, the Budhism of Ceylon knows nothing. 

Throughout Burma monasteries are seen near every village, how. 
ever nnaU. and generally in situations that are beautiful or romantic 
in their character. Thevc secluded sites may have been chosen by 
the priests as favourable to study and meditation: but Crawford 
saw many sacred places that had been abandoned, and was told 
that it was on account of Ihe numerous ganf^s of robbers, who paid 
little respect to the priests. At the time of his visit there was no 
crime more frequent among the Biirmans than sacrilege, though it 
was frequently followed by the infliction of a cruel death. 

The Budhism of Burma, as illustrated by Sangermano, Buchanan, 
and Judson, appears to be identical with that of Ceylon in its prin- 
cipal rituals and ceremonies ; hut there are a few observances to 
which I have met with nothing similar in the customs of the Sin- 
ghalese priests. One of the novices carries a piece of leather for 
the priest to sit upon when he goes abroad, whilst in Ceylon a piece 
of while cloth is always provided for this purpose by the people. 
The priests are obliged almost every moment to go through the 
ceremony called akat. which signifies a presentation or oblation. 
Thus, whenever one of them has occasion for anything, he says (o 
the novice. " Do what is lawful ;" upon which the novice take* 
up the thing he may want, and presents it to him, saying these 
words, " This, sir, a law ftil," The priest then takes it into his own 
hand, and cats it or lays it by. as may suit his convenience. In 
performing this ceremony the priest must stand at the distance of a 
cubit from his disciple, otherwise he is guilty of a sin ; and if what 
he receives be food, he commits as many sins as hr receives mouth- 


fuls. Aflrr covering their hands with a handkerchief, the prieBta 
hfire no Bcmple in rceeiving very large Bums in gold and silver ; 
and they are anid to be ihgatiable in their lu^t after riches, and to 
do Utile ehc than ask for them. The prohibition not to touch a 
wonian eslenda lo the priest's own mother ; and even if it shonld 
happen that she fails into a ditch, he may not pull her out; but, if 
no other aid be near, he may offer her his robe or a stick ; ut the 
same time he must imagine that he is pulling out only a log of 
wood. He may not caress a female child, however young, nor may 
he touch a female animal. 

Eastward of Ramrcc there is a considerable sect, the members of 
which maintain that there ia one eternal Ood, who has manifested 
himself in the different Budhas. They deny the doctrine of trans- 
migration, and affirm that at death the future stale of every human 
being is eternally fij:ed. They worship images of Ootama, merely 
na images, to remind Ebem of deity. Tbey have, however, temples 
and priests, and conform to all the Burman usages ; hut they are 
rejected as heretics by their countrymen.* 

In Arrakan candidates for the priesthood are received without 
any icgard to their country, caste, or previous religion. If the age 
of the postulant does not exceed fifteen years, he is appointed to the 
pi^rri>mutncc of menial duties, and gradually instructed about the 
duties ho will afterwards be reijuired to attend lo. until he arrives at 
20 years of age, the period nppointcd for ordination. It is not unusual 
for young men (□ enter the order for a limited period, that ihey may 
acquire merit or expiate some crime. The children of the laity are 
educated nt the monasteries, no distinction being made between the 
rich and poor ; and no remuneration i» received by the priests be- 
yon<l their usual allowance of alms. Some of (he boys are allowed 
10 go homo to their meals ; but they arc obliged to sleep in the 
monastery, as the lessons they have learnt during the day are re- 
peated in the evening, or at daybreak on the following morning. 

About fifty years ago a riaas of metaphysicians arose in Avo, 
called PoramBls, who respect only the Abfaidharmma, and reject 
the othfT books that the Budhisis consider as sacred, saying that 
ilicy are only a compilation of fables and allegories. The founder 
of the sect, Kman, with about fifty of his followers, was put to death 
by order of the king. 

For an account of tht Budbiam of Nepaul wc must turn lo the 
■ Uoward ]ilalcDm'*l>a*iiUui Bouth-EaitLtn Ai»n, 

writings of Brian Houghlon Hodgson, b.c.b., a gentleman to whose 
varied aequiaitions, unwearied 2,eal, and munificent liberality, the 
inlereBts of oricnial lileratxire and zoology are laid under the most 
weighty obligations. The following description appears in a small 
volume printed at Setampore, in 184], entitled " Illualrations of the 
Literature and Religion of the Buddhists.'' It was written by an 
old man resident at Patna, in answer to the qucBlion, " How many 
castes arc there among the Banras ? " the word banra being defined 
as a corruption of bandya, " the name of the Buddhamargi sect 
(because its followers make bandana, i. e. salutation and reverence 
to the proficients in bodbljn^na)." "According lo out Puranos,'* 
says this venerable authority, " whoever has adopted the tenets of 
Buddha, and has cut off the lock from the crown of his head, of 
whatever tribe or nation he be, becomes thereby a bandya. The 
Bholiyaa, for example, are bandyas, because they follow the tenet* 
of Buddha, and have no lock on their heads. The bandyas arc 
divided into two classes ; those who follow the Vahya-charya, and 
those who adopt the Abhyantara-charya — words equivalent to the 
Grihaalha fisram and Vatragi 4aram of the Brahmanas. The first 
class is denominated bhikehu ; the second, vajra acharya. The 
bhikshu cannot marry; but the vajra Scharya is a family man. 
The latter is sometimes called, in the vernacular tongue of tb« 
Newors, gubhal, which is not a Sanskrit word. Besides ihb dis- 
tinction into monastic and secular orders, the bandyas arc again 
divided, according to the scriptures, into five classes : first, arhad ; 
second, bhikshu ; third, srawaka ; fourth, chailaka ; fifth, vajra 
4charya. The arhan is he who Is perfect himself, and can give 
perfection to others ; who eats what is offered to him, but never 
asks for anything. The bhikshu b he who assumes a staff and 
beggar's dish (^khikshari and pinda patra) sustains himself by otoka, 
and devotes his attention solely to the contemplation (dhyana) of 
Adi-Budha, without ever intermeddling with worldly aSair?. The I 
chailaka is he who contents himself ivilh such a portion of dotbea 1 
(chilaka) as barely lufKces to cover his nakedness, rejecting every ' 
thing more as superfluous. The bhikshu and chailaka very nearly 
resemble each other, and both (and the arhoa also) are bound to 
practise celibacy. The vajra acharya is he who has a wife and 
children, and devotes himself to the active ministry of Buddbiam. 
Such is the account of the five classes found in the scriptures ; bat 
there are no traces of them In Nepaul. No one follows the rules of 

tliat class to which he nominally beloaga. Among the BhotiyRa 
there urc'many bbikshus, who never marry ; and the Bhotiya Lamas 
are properly arhans. Bui all the Buddhamirgis are married men, 
who pursue the business of the world, and seldom think of the in- 
j unctions of their religion. The TantraH and Dharanis. \i hich ought 
to be read for their own salvation, ihey read only for an increase of 
their stipend, and from a greedy desire of money. This division 
into Ave classes is according to the scriptures : but tliere is a 
popular dirision according to the vihars, and these vihars being 
very numerous, the separate congregations of the bandyas have 
been thus greatly multiplied. In Palan alone there are fifteen 
vihars. A temple to Adi-Budha, or to the five Dhyani-Budhas, 
called a cbaitya, is utterly distinct ^m the vihar, and of the form 
of a slieaf of dhinya. But the temples of Sakya and the others of 
the Sapta Buddha Manushi, as well as thoue of other chief leaders 
and aninis of Buddhism, are called vihars. ... In shorl, if taij 
bandya die, and his son erect a temple in his name, such structure 
may be colled such an one's (after his name) vihar. With this dis- 
linction, however, that a temple to an eminent saint is denominated 
maha vihar. one to an ordinary morlal simply vibfir." 

To this account Mr. Hodgson has appended the following note : — 
" Of course, therefore, the Bauddhas of Nepaul have not properly 
any diversity ^of caste; that is, any indelible distinction of ranks 
derived from birth, and necessarily carried to the grave. Gmuiiie 
Budhism proclaims the equality of all followers of Buddha ; seems 
to deny to them the privilege of pursuing worldly avocations, and 
abhors the distinction of clergy and laity.* All proper Bauddhu 
arc bandyas ; and all bandyas are equal as brethren in the faith. 
They are properly all ascetics — some solitary, mostly ccenabitical. 
Their convents are called vihars. The rule of these vihars is a rule 
of freedom ; and llie door of every vihai is always open, both to the 
entrance or new comers, and to the departure of such of the old in- 
mates as are tired of their vows. Each vihar has a titular superior, 
whoso authority over his brethren depends only on their voluntary 
dcf*rcnce to his superior learning or piety. Women are held equally 
worthy of admission with men, and each sei has its vihars. The 
old Bauddba scriptures enumerate four sorts of bandyas, named 
nrhan, bhikshu, irivuka, and chailuka, who arc correctly described 
wliy ht doc* 

in Ihe tcit. and from that description it wiU be aeen Ihat there is no 
eBSentiol distinction between them, the arhan being only segregated 
fram the rest by his superior proficiency in bodhijnan. Of these, 
the proper institutes of Budhism, ihere remainti hardly a trace in 
Nepaul, The very names of arhaa and chailaka have passed 
away — the names, and the names only, of the other two exist; 
and out of the gradual, and now total, disuse of raooastic institutes, 
an exclusive minister of the altar, denominated vajra 4ch&rya, bms 
derived bis name, office, and existence in Nepaul, not only without 
sanction from the Bauddha scriptures, but in direct opposition to 
their spirit and tendency. Nepaul is still covered with vihars ; but 
those ample and comfortable abodes have long resounded with the 
hum of industry, and the pleasant voices of men and women. The 
mperior ministry of religion is now solely in the hands of the ban- 
dyas, entitled vajra acharya, in Sanskrit ; gubhal, in Newnri : the 
inferior ministry, such bhikshus as still follow religion as a lucrative 
and learned profession, are competent to discharge. And these 
professions of the vajra acharya, and of the bhikshu, have become 
by usage hereditary, as have all other avocations and pursuits. 
whether civil or religious, in Nepaul. And as in the modem cor- 
rupt Buddhism of Nepaul there are exclusive ministers of religion, 
or pritth, so are there many Bauddhos who retain the lock on the 
crown of the head, and are not bandyas. These improper Bauddliu 
are called udas ; they never dwell in the vihars, look up to the 
bandyas with o reverenUal respect derived from the misapplication 
of certain ancient tenets, and follow those trades and avocations 
which are comparatively disreputable (among which a/oreyn com- 
merce) ; white the bandyas, who have abandoned the profession of 
religion, practise those crafts which are most esteemed. Agri- 
culture is equally open to both ; but is, in foci, chiefly followed by 
the udaa, who have thus become, in course of time, more numcrutu 
than the bandyua, notwithstanding the early abandonment by the 
bandyas of those ascetical practices which their faith enjoins. th9 
resort of the greater part of them to the active business of the 
world, and their usurpation of all the liberal, and three-fourths of 
the mechanical, arts of their country ; for the bandyas have (be 
exclusive inheritance of thirty-six professions and trades ; the udu, 
that of seven trades only. The rajra achurya and bhikshu are the 
tellgiouH guides and pnests of both bandyas and udas. All b«n- 
dyas. wbatevet be the profeasion or trade they hereditarily exercisOi 

are still equal ; tliey intermarry anil communicate in ali the social 
offices of life — and the like is true of all udas — but between the one 
class and the olher grotring superatitioa has erected dd Inauperable 

The Budhism of Tibet is a still greater departure from the ob- 
ser%'ancea of the original institute. It was introduced into this 
country in the seventh century. The superior priests who are called 
lamas, arc regarded aa incarnation') of Budha, and possess so large 
a share of political authority that they can depose the sovereign of 
the country, and substitute another in his stead. It is said that 
formerly they were themselves the supreme rulers of the country, 
until one of the royal family, at the death of the principal lama. 
declared that the spirit of the deceased hierarch had entered into 
his body, by which he regained the power that had been usurped 
by the priests. The dress of the grand lama is yellow ; that of 
other lamas of superior rank, red ; and aa these dignitaries wear 
broad-brimmed hats, their costume closely resembles that of the 
cardinals of Rome. In addition to the existence of monastic estab- 
lishments for both sexes, the acknowledgment of a supreme in- 
fallible head of the whole religious community, and the adoption of 
pageantry in public worship, stiil further assimilate the Budhism of 
Tibet to thccharacteristicsof the Romish church. Under its restrain- 
ing influence the terrific Moguls and other Tartars are said to have 
been comparatively a mild and peaceable race. Celibacy is equally 
professsd by the lamas, who are regarded as the secular clergy, and 
by the gelums, or monks, and anis. or nuns. The number of eccle- 
sias^cs and recluses bears an enormous proportion to the bulk of 
the community. Moorcroft (Trans. Hoyal As. Soc, 1824) states that 
nearly two-thirds of the productive lands are appropriated to the 
•upport of the priesthood.* A writer in the Athen^um, who re- 
cently visited this country, says: — "Tlie sacred cradle of Sbamenism, 
Tibet, is governed by an hierarchy poasesaed of the most absolute 
away, and supported by an army, not of soldiers, but of monks. In 
CTery habitable spot throughout the country monasteries and nun- 
neries rear their heads in stately grandeur ; while the mass of the 
inbabitAntfl seem contented with the honour of contributing towards 
the support of Ibis priestly system. A life of laziness is looked on 

OM the bigheiit bliis; labour for daily bread is a disgrace The 

capit&l of Tibet. Lhasga, the principal residence of the dalai 14ma, 
• Tlionilun'a OaMttivr, srt, Ladskh. 

336 ii\MTi;BK MoNAcmsii. 

with a population of 30.000 souU, containa manj' splendid monastic 
establishmenls, and is a place of considerable commercial Impor- 
tance." Caoma Korosi, who died of fever at Darjeeling, in Nepaul. 
in 1 842, explored Great Tibet, and published a mass of iiiformntion 
relative to ila liieralure and religion, principally in the Journal of 
the Ajiiatic Society of Bengal. " The different syatemit of BudhiHm 
derived from India, and known now to the Tibetians," says this 
most enterprising traveller. " are the following four : — VaibhashikB, 
Saatriniika, V6g4charya,and Mcdhyamika. The first consists of four 
principal classeR, with its subdivisions. They originated with Sha- 
kyas four disciples, who are called in Sanskrit, Rahula, Kaxhyapa, 
Upali, and Katyayana : — 1. The followers of Ilahiila were divided 
into four sects, and wore on their religious garb from Iwcnty-fivc to 
nine narrow pieces of cloth. The distinctive mark of this class was 
a water-lily jewel and tree-leaf, put together in the form of a nose- 
gay. 2. The followers of Kashyapu, of the brahman caste, were 
divided into six sects, and wore on their religious garb from twenty- 
three to three pieces of narrow cloth. They carried a shell or 
couch aa a distinctive mark or their school. 3. The followers of 
Up^li, of the sudra tribe, were divided into three sects. They wore 
on their religious garb from Iwenty-one lo five pieces of narrow 
cloth. They carried a sortsika Qower as a mark of their school, and 
were styled ' the class which is honoured by many.' 4. The fol- 
lowers of Katyayana, of the vaisya tribe, were divided into three 
sects, and wore the same number of narrow pieces of cloth as the 
former class. They had as their mark the 6gure of a wheel, and 
were styled ' the class that have a fixed habitation-' " I am not 
aware that the existence of these sects in known to the Qudhists of 
Ceylon. They probably arose from some local dispute upon the 
subject of cast«.* 

The most interesting account of the priests of China that 1 have 
met with is presented in Bishop Smith's "Missionary Visit to Chitui, 
1844-46." From this source we learn that many of the priests of 
that country are fugitives, outlaws and bandits, who have been 
driven by want or fear to seek an asylum in the monasteries ; though 
may have been led to seek solace 
of life, prompted by a purer mo- 
Cunton, oic generally a low net 

it is probable that some of ihi 
in these retreats froi 
live. The priests of Hi 


mates of the monasteries are only bound to a life of celibacy bo 
long as they remain attached to the sacred community- For the 
most part they adhere to this mode of life from necessity, as they 
have no other mode of obtaining a livelihood ; yet it is considered 
disreputable for them lo return to the world that ihey profess to 
have abandoned. They may be seen standing at the entrance of the 
temples, leading au idle, sauntering life, " distinguished more by 
their hare shaven crowns, than by their manners or demeanour, 
ftom the surrounding crowds of idlers.'' An old priest, above 
eighly years of age, who resided at Teen Tung, confessed that the 
priests who came thitJier from a distance had almost invariably fled 
from home on account of the commission of some crime. " Here," 
says the bishop, " these wretched specimens of humanity live to- 
gether in idleness. No cuinmunity of interest, no ties of social life, 
no object of generous ambition, beyond the satisfying of those wants 
which bind them to the cloister, help to diversify the mouotonous 
current of their daily life. Separated by a broad demarkation from 
the rest of society, and bound by vows lo a life of celibacy and 
asceticism, they arc cut off from the ordinary engagements of our 
world, without any well-founded hope of a better life."' A gentle- 
man who recently visited the temple of Koo Shan, near Foo-chow- 
foo, thus describes the manners of the priests in a more northern 
district of the celestial empire : — " I was led," he says, '* to the 
kitchen and dining-room. When it is remembered that upwards of 
100 priests get their meals doily here, it may be easily imagined 
that these places ere worthy of a visit. The dining-room is a large 
square building, having a number of tables placed across it, at 
which the priests sit and cat tlieir frugal meals. At the time of 
my visit they had just sat down to dinner. They appeared a strange 
and motley assembly. Most of them had a most stupid and unin- 
telleclual appearance — these were generally the lower orders of the 
priesthood. The abbot and those who ranked highest were intelli- 
gent and active looking men ; but all had a kind of swarthy pale- 
ni'SB of countenance which was not agreeable lo look on. Many of 
them rose a» I entered their dining-room, and politely asked me to 
■it down and eal rice. The wonders shown the visitors in the kit- 
chen are some uncommonly large coppers in which the rice ia 
boiled." • 

The Budhism of Japan, in having ■ nsible representative of Gu- 
AihcnBUm, Oct. 20, IMT. 


Uma, pusseBsedof unlimilcd power, Teacmblea that of Tibet. There 
b another resemblance in the facl. that as in Tibet tlie four sects 
there esistcnt are siipiiosod lohnvc had their utigia from men of four 
diircTunt cnstcE, so in Jupon it is Gupposcd lUut the four fir^t pon- 
tiffs, aflcr the deaih of Giiluma. belonged to the four arcat ca&les 
of Inilia in ihcir regular order. The Icgcnils knonn 1o the Japanese 
evince lliot the hisloiicol pmtions of ilieir sacred rcriivds have been 
derived frum the same sources aa the Budhism uf Ceylon and the 
conlinenlal naliims profcsKing the same faith ; hut beyond this I 
have no means of ascertaining the idcniily of ibdr respective tenets. 
The pslace i.f Ihe dniri, or supreme pontiff, in the spiritual metro- 
]>olis, Mial:o, u said to form in iiaelf a town of considerable si/e. 
The lemplpH are uxtrnmuiul, being built upon eminences that com- 
mand itic most (Iclighlful prospects. In the largest, called the 
temple of Dai Bud, or the Ui' Budh.t, resting on nincly-six 
cuhunns, there is ii gilL statue of the sage, of the usual form and 
appearance, but so immensely large, that according to the Japanese, 
" six persons can Equal, ivilhout incunvcmcnce, on the pulm of his 
hand." and liia shoulders reach from pillar to pillar, a space nxea- 
fiurJng fiom 30 to 32 feet. 

Ilie Bunnuns, Siamese, Nepaulcse, Tibetans, Chinese, and 
Japanese, are the jirincipal nations, in addition to llic Singhalese, 
who now profesH Budhism. Once iiredomiuant throughout India, 
it is now nearly unknown in that vast region, except as seen amuog 
tlie Jaiiios, ^ho appear to profess either a spurious BudhisDi, or a 
kindi'ed faith derived from the bamc original source as the tenets of 
Gutama. It doce not comport with tlie plan of this work la enter 
njion the historical, the psychological, or even the ethical teaturea 
of tliis great Kystem ; but as the character of the priesthood cannot 
he righlly understood, without a dcejier insight into the gencnti 
system than It \a possible to derive from the statements contoinod 
in the preceding pages, a few additional remarks are here presented, 
for the information of any reader who may l«j unaccusiomed to 
oriental research. 

All that we can now know of the doctrines of Budha is from in. . 
direct sources, as he left nothing in writing ; and the works thjifc J 
pvofcM to record his discourses commonly include legends tliat cms 1 
have only a very slight foundation in truth. Thus it is utterly im- 1 
possible that Budha htmself can have laid claim to the wondctlnl 
powers that are ascribed to him by his followers ; unless we wtp- 

XXIII. THE UODESN rRie;NTnooi>. 339 

pose that he vrss eiUicr labouring unilcr an aberration of inlellect 
or that he was a wilful deceiver of the people. Tlie miracles with 
which his nuiie is connected, have heon. tluring many ages, one 
priiict]>al support of the sjatom ; but when it comes to be philoso- 
phically consiilcreil, tlicy will prove one of the readiest means of its 
dtslrutUon. We inut>t mject almost entirely the accounts we have 
of the personal histiry of Budha, in all perhaps but the bare outline 
of his life, such as his family, the age in which he lived, the names 
of his conlcmporarieg, and the places of his residence. All the rest 
is cither allegory, bb hia bailie with Mara ; exaggeration, as the 
accounts of the honours he received and the acta he performed ; or 
absolute faisohoud, as the fable of his journey, at throe steps, to the 
dewB-lutuk or Rckra, The doctrines he taught, apart from the cflects 
tlicy ore said t<i have produced, may have hecn handed down with 
greater jirocisiun, as there was here less temptation to jwrvert the 
simple trulli. 

The driclrines now current under the name of Budha, are essen- 
tially atheistic, in tlie usual acceptation of the term. There is a 
supremo power, but not a supreme Being ; or if Budha is regarded 
as supreme it is only in a modified sense, as thLs is not the name of 
a sinijlo entity, but of many entities ; not indeed exiatent, at least 
in their full pokntiality, at the same period ; but all rcGcmbling 
each other in a much mure perfect manner than is possible under 
the orilinary circumstances of men. The supreme power is karma, 
l)ie merit and demerit of intelligent existence. It is this that con- 
trols all things, sometimes acting in an aggregate capacity, as in the 
general economy of ttie universe ; but more clearly seen in the 
eSeclH il produces upon the individual being. From its conse- 
quences tliere is no escape, except under peculiar circumstances ; 
and even the blessings confcried by Budha were declared to be 
the effvct of merit produced in previous stages of existence. It was 
this merit that placed the different persons who became his disciples 
in a situation farouroltlc for the reception of hia assistance : and 
unlna there was this prenous merit the advantages that he could 
confer wore comparatively small. 

The Badhisls teach llial when G6tama Budha ceased to exist, 
near the city of Kusin4ra, ho did not enter upon a future state of 
being : his existence was not renewed in another world ; at that 
time he for ever ceased to be, as really and truly as the light of a 
lamj) ceases to be when its flame is extinguished. He ia therefore 
X 2 


in no sense tm object of peisonal trust or confidence ; the affections 
cannot be placed upon hiro; his guidance cannot be sought, nor his 
sympathy received ; and when his name is invoked, it is under the 
supposition that by some latent process, which cannot be explained, 
the prayer addressed to him will be answered, without the inlerren- 
Uon of an intelligent cause. This will be more clearly seen when 
it is remembered that in the threefold protective formulary called 
the tun-sarana, Budha is placed in exactly the same position 
as his doctrines and the associated priesthood. The second class of 
this series can in no wise be intelligent, nor can we conceive of tile 
third as exercising an influence apart from Ihc members of which it 
is composed. Yet this is the only rcufge of the Budbist ; a being 
annihilated ; a law non-intelligent, and an idea non-existent, > 
mere abstraction. 

The doctrines of Budha relative to the individual man partake of 
the same character of withering scepticism. There is no such thing 
as an immortal soul. Every being, until nirwana, or extinction, 
is attained, necessarily produces another being, unto whom are 
transferred all the merit and demerit that have been accumulated 
during an unknown period by an almost endless succession of 
similar beings, all distinct from each other, never con tempotxiieous, 
but all bound by this singular law of production to every individual 
in the preceding link of the chain, so us lo be liable to suffer for 
their crimes or be rewarded for their virtues. Yet though tbe 
effects of karma are infallible as to the consequences thej- produce, 
they arc hy no means ceriain us to the period or person upon wbont 
they fall. A man may be the inheritor of the foulest crimes, coiru 
milled during the three or four generations of being immediately 
preceding ; and yet on account of some virtue performed by the 
being preceding him in the fifth generation, he may live in happi- 
ness, without a cloud to darken his prosperity during any part of 
bis present exUlence, and may leave the consequences of the»e 
crimes, and his own added to them, to be endured in all their bit- 
terness by the being ho himself will produce, or by some more dis- 
tant being in the same series. We think that no one can deny 
these inferences who has had the opporinnity of studying Uie 
■yslern, although it must be confessed thut the popular notion upon 
the subject approaches rather lo transmigration, as that ides U 
nsuolly received. 

With these errors at the foundation of the system, no parity in 
its moral code con be of much avail; but as the subject is onp of 

gteftt importance, we will pursue it a little further, and brieflj exa- 
mine that part of Budhism which is supposed to coiutitute ita 
greatest eicetlencc. It is evident at once that the denial or an in- 
telligent consen-alor of the universe shula out the posslbilit}' of 
the eiislcnce of one great class of virtues, and these ihe noblest 
that arise in the human breast. Other virtues are by the same 
means entirely changed in their character, though the name may be 
retained. As an instaace, we may notice submission ; in the be- 
liever, a confession of the righteousness of the dispensations ap- 
pointed by the Supreme Being, even in the utmost extremity of 
human agony, with an acquiescence in their infliction ; but in the 
sceptic, mere stoicism, a sullen endurance of that which cannot be 
prevented. Again, obedience in these two different persons must 
be an act essentially dissimilar in all its aspects. In the one case, 
the law is considered as paramount in lis claims, from the supTemacy 
of (lie Being by whom it is promulgated ; in the other, there can 
properly be no law, and the transgression of what is so called is 
merely an error or inconvenience, not accompanied by guilt. Hence 
there can be no right sense of " the exceeding sinfulness of sin," 
nor any true contrition. Yet we have taken law under ita lowest 
character ; and have not considered that the law of revelation is 
not only promulgated by a Being supremely great, but by One who 
Ls also, infinitely just and good, and to whom man in particular is 
laid under unceasing obligations for the reception of countless 

It is not the name alone that is lo be regarded, but the interpret 
tation that is put upon the several terms. For instance, almsgiving 
in itself is a most excellent virtue, but by the Budhists it has been 
convened into a mercenary act. and its purpose has been entirely 
viliaicd; inosmtich na Its obligation and rewardableness rise in mag- 
nitude, nut with the wretchedness of the person lo whom the gift 
is imparled, but with the elevation of the recipient individual in the 
•cale of Budhisticnl excellence. Why should the destitute be suc- 
cQurcil. when they are only reaping the reward of their crimes, and 
any aid granted to them would only be like sowing seed upon the 
rock ? 

^^'faalove^ man Is, he baa made htmsolf, according to Budhism, 
by his own unaided energy ; he is the maker of his own fortune ; 
ho is indebted to no ono for his present position. All that be now 
ei^oys is the result of merit be ha* acquired in previous ages and 


birlhs. But in the prosperous man thta idck roust necessarily lead 
to pride, of a kind that cannot possibly be cntcrUtincd bj a belicTCT 
in an intelligent Supreme Cause ; and in Uic unfortunate man it 
must lead to despair, as he sees that he has no rcsoorce in binuelT. 
and that it Is in Tain to look fur it elsewhere. 

It will be Bald, perhaps, that there are the mural prccepla. almost 
word for word the same as those of the d(.'calogue, and that h«rct at 
least, Budhi&m is to be regarded in a more favourable light. To tbU 
we again reply, that it is not the simple command thiit is to be 
taken ; but the interpretation that is put upon it by anthiirised cx- 

The first of the dasa-sO, or ten ordinances binding upon the priest, 
prahibita the taking of life. As all life is homogeneous, we should 
infer that it niTist be an e(]ual crime to kill an animnl ns to kill a 
man ; but the proportion of the ofTcnce rises according to tlic merit 
of the being whose life ii) taken. Now we shall ever liiid thnt in all 
cases sinular to this, wlicre the eqiiipriisc of truth is lost, and a hitr 
is carried beyond its right limit, coitscquences arc produced the verj 
rererse of whut was iniendeil. Thus, when the life of a man and 
that of an animal are in any way regarded aa of similar value, it will 
not occur that the animal is raised IVom its natural level to be cqiial 
with the man, but that the man will be depressed from bis real dig- 
nity to an e<]uality with the brute. In all countries where ihcse 
sentiments are prcTnlcnt, there is great recklessness relative to 
human life ; and if it were not lliat they arc usually accompnnicd 
by a timidity with regard to personal sulTering, consequences the 
most deplorable would be the result of this law. which at first taaj 
appear to be more excellent than the simple priitiibition uf murder. 
It will be aeon, by even a slight attention to tliis subject, thai when 
tha existence of a Supreme Deity is denied, and the doctrine of 
transmigration is believed, scarcely one of the curamon argnmcntji 
against murder is of any power. 

The third of the dasa-sil entirely forbids all sexual intercounej 
but this precept does not apply to tlte householder, he being only 
prohibited from approaching the woman who ia the property of 
another, which includes married women and wards. In the case of 
the priest, there is the same unnatural strictness that wc have no- 
ticed relative (o Uie Lsking of life : but in the a|)|)liuation uf the 
precept to the great mass there is a lunientable dufeetivenesa in its 
requirements. As among the Orecks and Komans, it is not the act 

PBiEsmooD. 343 

that is in itself a crime ; its criminality arises rrom the injury it 
dOQB to another person's property. The injury thnt tlio ironian 
herself sustiuna n|ipcnrs to be regarded as nothing, unless she have 
a protector. Budha was married, and hud a son boni on the day 
he left Ilia family and became an ascetic ; but besides tlie priiiceis 
Yas''idhara-d6wi he had many thousimds of concubhies, accoifUng 
to the exa^^ralcd legends of his life ; nnil his father, SudhMuna, 
king iif Knpila-wastu or Kimhulwat-giura, was married to two sisicrs 
at tliQ same time, this being a common custom of the Sakya race 
from its eomnionccment. The practiees of the courtcxan did not 
incnpacilate her fmm receiving the highest pririlegos liclJ out by 
Budba to his followers, nor did he require, in oi'der tu their reccp- 
tion, a previous course of penitence ; indeed these practices are, in 
some instnncoB, regarded as meriturioiis. 

The other precepts are all, in a similar manner, cither of too rigid 
a character to secure llie jioBsibilily of oliserrai^co ; ur are so loose 
in their rcqnircments, as defined in other parts nf the system, that 
they are dqirivcd in n great measure of the claim they ivoitld other- 
wist) have uiHin our regiird. I'hcy all, in a (greater or less dogr«e, 
bear evidence of the oBrthlincsB of their origin, and arc nilUcr an 
ineffectual attempt tu teach men the way of rectitude tlian a perfect 

Another defect in tiudhism is its principle of selfishness, whilst at 
the aomo time it hn« the appearance of great benevolence. The 
ascetic !s taught to exercise this wish. " Slay all the superior beings 
in the nnivcrno be happy ; may thej all be free fmm sonow, disease 
and e\il desire ; may all men, whether they be priests or laics, oil 
the dtwos and bmhmaa, alt who are suffering llic pains of (he hells, 
be happy ; may titey all be free from sorrow, disease, and eriJ 
deaire ! " A wish most enlarged and benerulcnt ; but not an effort 
is the ascetic required to make towatils its accomplishment. Tliere 
ore many iieautifiJ sentiments, set forth with a child's simplicity, 
yet full oT the most touching poolry, by which tlie excellence of 
ei|uardm!ty is taught; but when taken in connexion with other 
porta of tlio system, with whicli they must necessarily be conjoined, 
it will he seen that they are either mere rcrbiage. or Uial the prin- 
ciples they inculeatc are little more than indiffenince to all things, 
tliv good aa well at the ovU. wliatevcr may be the meaning of a few 
sentences detached from tlie more enscntiul doctrines. 

It is the aim of Budliism to otctcume all emolions, all preAir- 


enceti, all that would disturb the quiet repose of the miod. It seeks 
to destroy the passionii, not to regulate ihem. But bowever im- 
perfect it may be aa a Bystem, wlien compared with other religions 
it will be seen that there are parts of it entitled even to praise. We 
thiak that mucli caution is required as to the terms in which Chris- 
tians speak of it, especially when conversing with the natives by 
whom it ia professed. Wben we say to a Budhisl, in just so manjr 
worda, " Your religion is false ; '' his mind, if he be a man of any 
thought or information, will instantly reflect thus ; — " How can that 
be, when there are so many things in it exactly the same as in the 
Bible ? Does not my religion abo teach me not to steal, or to lie. 
or to commit murder ? If my religion be false, Christianity must be 
false as well." We must therefore carefully explain to him ihst 
there are certain principles common to all religions, in a greater or 
less degree, without which they would not be received as such by 
mankind ; but that only one of these religions can have been 
taught by an all-wise Being. This one religion is to be received 
by all, implicitly, in its entirety ; and other religions can only be 
BO far true as they approach towards this standard. When, there- 
fore, we say that Budhism is a false religion, we do not mean to soy 
that every part of it is equally false, but that It is not divinely in- 
spired ; it was formed by a man or men, who were liable to err, and 
have erred, in innumerable instances ; consequently it cannot teach 
the way of purity or peace, or save from wrath and destruction. 

The doctrines of Budhism arc not alone in the beauty of many of 
their sentiments, and the excellence of much of their morality. 
" It is not permitted to you to render evil for evil,'' waa one of the 
sentiments of Socrates. One of the triads of Druidism was to this 
effect: — " The three primary principles of religion are. Obedience 
to the laws of God, concern for the welfare of mankind, suffering 
with fortitude all the accidents of life." Confucius taught thai 
men should " treat others according to the treatment which tbey 
themaelves would desire at their hands.'' Similar extracts might 
be multiplied to an indefinite extent ; but it may suffice to repcM 
the caution, though it be well known, made by Sir Wdliam Jones, 
in 1794, in the Eleventh Discourse delivered before tlie .Untie 
Society, '• On the Philosophy of the Asialics." — " If the conversion 
of the Pandits and Maulavis in this country shall ever be attemplvd 
by Protestant missionaries, they muat beware of asserting, white 
(hey teacb the gospel of truth, what tho»e Pandits snd Maularis 

xxiii. iHK MooBatr pHitsTiiuoD. 345 

would know to be fabe : the former would cite that beautiful Arya 
couplet, which was written at least three cenluries before our era, 
and which pronounces the duty of a good man, even in the moment 
of hia destruction, to consist not only in forgiving, but even in a 
desire of benefiting his destroyer, as the sandal tree, in the instant 
of its overthrow, sheds perfume on the ase which fells it ; and the 
latter would triumph in repeating the verse of Sadi, who repre< 
sents * a return of good for good' as a slight reciprocity, but says to 
the virtuous man, ' confer benefits on him who has injured thee ; ' 
using an Arabic sentence, and a maxim apparently of the ancient 
Arabs. Nor would the Mussulmans fail to recite four distichs of 
Hati/, who has iUustrated that maxim with fanciful but elegant 
allusions : — 

' Ijcam ftom yon orient shell to love thy foe, 
And ttoTC with pearls the hand that bringi thee woe : 
Free, like yon rock, (rom baae vindictive pride, 
ImbLue with gems the wriat that tears thy side ; 
Mark, whore yon tree rewards Iho slony show'r 
With fruit nectareouii, or the bslmy tlow'r : 
All nature nils aluud ; Shall man do Ins, 
Than heal the emitcr, and the Toiler bless r' " 

We oidy slop fur a moment to notice the expresaion, " 1/ the con- 
version of the Pandits and Muulavb m/ioII crer he atlrniplrd by 
Protcnlant missionaries !*' It strikes upon the ear like a sound all 
strange ; but what an interesting comment iiiigbt be made on the 
events that have taken place since it was written ! 

It would have been well if Budhism, in aiming at too much, had 
gone to the furthest limit of possible good ; but that this has been 
accumpliahed no one can assert. Its inherent defects have pre- 
vented il from reaching the end it has seen in the distance, but baa 
never been able to approach. How could it bo otherwise, when 
man is left to his own unaided cH'oTts in the great work of freeing 
himself ^m the delilemcnt of evil ! It is like the throwing of a 
pebble iitto the Ganges to arrest its mighty stream. The Dudbiat 
knows nothing of an atonement ; bo reels under the weight of his 
sin, but ho cannot rid himself of the burden. The voice that pro- 
mises him rest is only a sound ; it has no living existence, no sub- 
stantiality. In the wilderness to which he is driven no cross does 
be sec, no riter of blood, no fountain of life with the cheering words 
in^rribrd upon the rock that overhangs it, " Whonoevcr will, lei 


him come, and drink freely, nnd live !" He bears of salvation, but 
he discovers no Saviour. Thus mocked with dcliuivc promises, his 
disappointment is severe ; the best alTections of his heatt are de- 
stroyed ; and if he stiil pursues the system, he is converted into a 
harmless being, silent, and full of abslract thouglit tliat seeks its 
own annihilation, bk (hat even of thought there may be none. 


It has long been known that monachism was rife in the caal. 
some ages previous to its adoption in Europe ; but the history of 
its origin was invulved in the same olwcirrity as the sonree of the 
mighty streams ixyma the bonks of which the first asceiics com- 
menced tlie practice of their austerities. By some of the fathers it 
was thought that its most intense numifestation was pcculinr to 
Christianity. " VHiQ is there," asks Allianasius, " but our Lurd 
and Saviour Christ that has not deemed this virtue (r>f virginity) to 
be utterly impracticable (or unattainahlc) among men; and yet he 
has so shown his dt\ine power us t« impel yoiitlis, as yet under age, 
to profess it, u virtue beyond law i " " None of llie ancients, none 
before the tune of Christ," sqjs ChrysoBtom, " were able to uldlct 
themselves to the ascetic praclica of \-irgiiii:y. " • But that these 
sentiments were utterly incorrect is abundantly [irovcd by the fwts 
recorded upon llic preceding pa.ges ; unless the fathers intended 
simply tu assert that the pretensions of the barbarians to purity 
were vain and unfounded. 

It is not in my power to pass the veil that shrouds from obserra- 
tion the origin we wish to trace ; but we are able, now, to make 
nearer approaches towards it than were possible before the history 
of Btidhism was known. That Gotama Ijudlia efTvclcd a grost 
change in the social polity and religious instilulions of the inlubi- 
tants of India caniiot be denied ; but how much of the system tluu 
bears his name was originally propounded by himself, or how mudt 
of tliat which he really propounded was the product of his own 
unaided intellect, will remain an unanswered problem to the end of 
time. It is maintained by the Budhlsts that he was entirely 
auToCiiaKTOs. The wisdum that he manifested was the outbcnjning 
• Taylor'* Aacitnt Chrisiisnity. 


of a* sdf- enkindled flame, not an inspiration from any exterior 
source ; nur was U the result of any process of thought or reaoon. 
To whatever object he directed his intt'Ilectual vision, wlielhcr 
it were near or remote, whcUier past, present, or future, ho saw it 
in a moment, inluilively, and yet in n manner the most absolutely 
perfect.* Though the sratnanaB beliove that there has becn.nnd erer 
will be, an endless succesdion of Uudhas, Ihey maintain that jire- 
riiius to the manifestalinn of a Builhn, all knowled^^e of [he former 
BuiIJLas, and of the doctrines ihey Inujlit, is cniirely lost, and that 
all we now know of the BaUbas previous to Qolama has been dis- 
covered by the iiituitiiin of the sage and that of his disciples. By 
these unwarranted assumptions a mystery has been thrown around 
the real charnct«r of Qnlama, which flcfenln the aim of the historian 
who would examine it by the comma of truth. 

At llic <icty onset of our researches, we meet with difficulties of 
the most formidable description, as ihere is Utile co-eval li^tht from 
any other source than the sacred hooka of the Itudhists ; and these 
reeiinls abound so much with ahsurditieg, that in many instances it 
would require the [lowers of a ralmt to separnlc tiie true from the 
false. yVe may, however, collect from Ihesc venerated documents 
that tiicrc were both recluses and societies, communities, or schools, 
previous to the age of Ootama. But the recluses were not in com- 
munities, nor did the commtmilics practise tlio austerities of the 
recluse. The originality of GoUmn's system of discipline appears 
to have consisted in the mine perfect combination of the two classes 
into one order, so tliAt in tliis resjKrct he railter rOscmhled the Pa- 
chomiiis than the Anthony of the w^st. In the legends of the Bud- 
bists there are numerous allusions to other societies, comlsting of 

* " The omnutdimce of Budlisis nnt the knoirlodge of oU (hin)^ but the 
puwcT of knoH'iuK whatever fac wUbv* to know. In opposition tn other 
tcachofa. wb" ilwluoe their doctrine* from certain previoiul j assumed prinoi- 

gct, and wbo may prr either ia the dnta, or in the doduttioiui liuiu thcin, 
luUui aflirmsof hunsrlf that the complete ttelil of truth i* before hira, that the 
eye of wudoin to pciuuive It was obtained by him whca be beramc a Budha ; 
and whatever be desirtw to know he iHtrveives perfectly, and at one Klancc, 
without any reiuoninK pnicesa." — Eev. D. J. Qoircrly, Ceylon Frieni The 
fiill'iwinuexIraotUfnilo P. Jdoliniciu de Q^nit. Dei, quoted by Ilnwc, Uleas. 
Ki:{IiI. t-jp. S. " A man, cunvtaienllf placed in tome cnuni.'nt station, nu; 
[Mn-Uily IU.1', atone view, all tlie nuccensivc noita of a glidini; iitream ; but he 
lliiil hIih by thf walci's aide, not changing hu plaucwwi the same parts, only 
iHu-misc thvy succeed ; and thww that puH, maka way fur them that Dillnw, 
to come unilrr bis eye : •□ dnih a Icanicd iiuin ilwrrlbr the uiwucrmivD 
kiitiwlcddc of God." I have soniu iccnllnctltin of having seen a siinibw 
figure applied to the knowlodge of lludha, but cannot at proent rofor lo the 


men and women who were leagued together for S' 
pose ; but in those instances in which religion ia cODcerocd there 
appears to be Lttle more than the usual bond between the master 
and his disciple ; and whenever we sec evidences of a. closer union 
the character of the association appears to be coUegiale and not 
coenobite, philosophical and not religious. The tirttakas were the 
most formidable rivals of Gotama; but we are not sufficientljr 
acquainted with the facta of their history to decide in what degree 
their discipline approached to the regularity of a monastic order. 

Further researches may cause these conclusions to be modified. 
But if it he ao, if it be proved that there were other monastic order* 
in existence, and that Gotama was not the institiilor of the system, 
it will place in a more striking view Ihc greatness of his genius, in 
having established an order that has long survived all contempo- 
raneous systems; and that now, more than two thousand yean 
after its promulgatiou, excercises a potent influence over many 
millions of the human race, in regions at a considerable distance 
from the source of its dissemination. No philosopher of Greece 
WBs able to secure for his sect so decided a pre-eminence ; and 
although in on age of darkness Aristotle maintained a paramount 
sway in the halls of the schoolmen, it was only as an instrumen- 
tality by which mistaken men hoped to illustrate more clearly the 
system that had emanated &Dm Israel. 

The practice of auateriiies is so interwoven with Brahmaniam, 
under all the phases it has assumed, that we cannot realise its ex- 
istence apart from the principles of the ascetic. At an early period 
of the present era of manifestation, Dhruva, the son of UltanBp4d«, 
the son of Menu Swayambhuva, who was " bom of, and one with. 
Brahma," began to perform penance, as enjoined by the sages, on the 
banks of the Yamuna. '* Whilst his mind was wholly absorbed In 
meditation, the mighty Hari, identical with all natures (took pos- 
session of his heart). Vishnu being thus present in his mind, ibc 
earth, the supporter of elemental life, could not sustain the weight 
of the ascetic. As he stood upon his left fool, one hemisphere bent 
beneath him ; and when he stood upon his right, the other half of 
the earth sank down. \Mien he touched the earth with his toes, 
it shook with all its mountains, and the rivers and the seas wcr* 
troubled, and the gods partook of the universal agitation. 

"The celestials called Yamas, being excessively alarmed, tfara 

sxiv. rax toicb or thb past. 


took counsel wilh Indra how they should interrupt the devout eier- 
cisea of Dhruva ; and the divine beings tenncd Kushmandas, in 
company with their king, commenced anxious efforts to distract his 
meditations. One, assuming the semblance ofhismother SunJti, 
stood weeping before him, and calling in tender accents, ' My son, 
my son, desist from destroying thy Blreiigth by thia fcurrul penance. 
I have gained thee, my non, after much anxious hope ; thou canst 
not have the cruelty to quit me, helpless, nlone, and unprotected. 
on account of the unkindness of my mol. Thou art my only re- 
fuge ; I have no hope but thou. What hast thou, a child but five 
years old, to do with rigorous penance ? Desist from such fearful 
pmclices, that yield no beneficial fruit. First comes the season of 
youthful pastime ; and when that is over, it is the time for study ; 
then succeeds the period of worldly enjoyments ; and lastly, that 
of austere devotion. This is thy season of pastime, my child. 
Hast thou engaged in these practices to put an end to existence? 
Thy chief duty is love for mc ; duties are according to time of life. 
Lose not thyself in bewildering error; desist from such unrighteous 
actions. If not, if thou wilt not desist from these austerities, 1 
will terminate ray life before thee." 

" But Dhruva, being wholly intent on seeing Vishnu, beheld not 
hia mother weeping in his presence, and calling upon him ; and the 
illusion, crying out, * Fly, fly, my child, the hideous spirits of ill are 
crowding into this dreadful forest with uplifted weapons,' quickly 
disappeared. Then advanced frightful rakshasas, wielding terrible 
arms, and with countenances emitting fiery flame ; and nocturnal 
fiends thronged around tlic prince, uttering fearful noises, and whirl- 
ing and loBsing their threatening weapons. Hundreds of jackals, 
from whose mouths gushed flame, as they devoured their prey, were 
howling around, to appal the boy, wholly engrossed by meditation. 
The goblins called out, ■ Kill him, kill him ; cut him to pieces ; eat 
him, eat him ; ' and monsters with the faces of camels and croco- 
diles utd lions, roared and yelled with horrible cries, to terrify the 
prince. Bui all these uncouth speeches, appalling cries, and Ihreut- 
ening weapons, made no impression upon his senses, whose mind 
was completely intent on Govinda. The son of the monarch of the 
earth, engrossed by one only idea, beheld uninterruptedly Vishnu 
seated in his soul, and saw no other object.* 

* ThU nsnslivp would luit llie liutury of almnt any mluiw. in anjr sgc. 
If, opsn frum the influmoe of the cvmm, all men arc ctm to be mode oar, it 
miul be by asciitiriani, u no other principle et prejudice cnn at all c( 

with it ir 

M powtTS of I 


" All ihcir delusive fltratagems being thus foiled, the gods were 
more perplexed, than ever- Alarmed at their disco mfiturc, and 
afflicted by the devotions of the boy. they assembled and repaired 
for succour to Mari, the origin of the world, who is wilhont be- 
ginning or end ; and thu!^ addressed him : ' God of gods, soTcrei)^ 
of tlio world, god supreme, anil infinite spirit, distressed by the aus- 
tcrilies of Phruva, we have come to thee for protection. Aa the 
moon increases in his orb day by day, so this youth advances inces- 
santly towai'd^ Huperhtiman [xiwcr by his dc%'olion8. Terrified by 
the ascetic practices <if the son of Utlanapuda, we have come lu lhe« 
for succour. Do thou allay the fervttur of his mcditalions. We 
know not to what station he aspires : to the throne of Indre, the 
regency of the solar or lunar sphere, or to the sovereignly of riches 
or of Ihe deep. Have oompasaion on os. Lord ; remove tliia afflic- 
tion from our brcasle ; divert the son of Ultonapada from persever- 
ing in hia penance' Vishnu replied to the g(Hla: 'The lad de- 
sireth neither the rank of Indra, nor the solar orh, nor Ihe suve- 
rcignty of wealth, or of the ocean : all that he solicits I will grant. 
Ueturn, therefore, deities, to your mansions as ye list, and be no 
mure alarmed : 1 will put an end to the penance of the boy, whose 
mind is immersed in deep contemplation.' 

" The gods, being thus pacified by the supreme, saluted him res- 
pectfully and retired, and, pieceded by Indra. relumed to Ihdr 
habitations : hut Hari, who is all things, assuming a shape with 
four arms, proceeded to Dbruva, being pleased with bis identity of 
nature, and thus addressed him : ' Son of Utlonapidi.. he pros- 
perous. Contented with thy devotions, I, the giver of boons, am 
present. Demand what boon thou dcsirest. In that thou bust 
wholly disregarded eslcrnal objects, and fixed thy thoughts on me, 
1 am well pleased with thee. Ask, therefore, a suitable reward.' 
The boy, bearing these words of the god of gods, opened his eyva, 
and beholding that Hari whom he had before seen in bis medita- 
tions, actually in his presence, bearing in bis hands the shell, tb* 
discus, the mace, the bow, and scimelor, and crowned with n 
diadem, he bowed his head down to earth ; the hair stood erect an 
hia blow, and bis heart was depressed with awe. He reflected haw 
best he should offer thanks to the god of gods ; what he could ssy 
in his adoration ; what words were capable of expressing hia praiae : 
and being overwhelmed with perplexity, he bad recourse for con- 
aolatton to the deity. ■ If,' he ciiclaims, ■ the lord is contented with 



ward, tliftt I may know how to prmse 
1 child, pronounce his pruises, whose 

my devotions, iel lliis be my n 

him as 1 wish, Itoiv can I, i 

aboJe is unknown lo Brahma and to others learned in tlie Vcilus 

My heart b ovcrflouing wilh devotion to t)iee : oh, lord, grant me 

the fucully worthily tu lay mine adorations at thy feet." " 

From Ihii nairalive «c learn that ihc practice of asceticism is 
supposed hy iho Brnhmans to have commencMid at a very early pe- 
riod ; and that it leads to Ihe possession of an enei^y the most 
mighly. The Hindu aseelics of more recent times are in many in- 
stances those who have fulfilled their supposed destiny as men, and 
then relire into the wilderness, that instead of assuming another 
form Bt ihclr death they may be prepared for rc-absorptitm in the 
supreme essence. In absluiiib^ from animal food the Brahmana 
are atriclcr than the Budliisls; hut the followers of 06lama never 
knowingly lake life, and therefore regard the posuyajnn or aswa- 
medlia, a sacriftcc supposed by the Brnhmans to be higldy effica- 
cious, with great abhorrence. 

The principal aUusions to India that are found in the fatlicrs of 
the church have been collided by Cave, in his Life of I'anltrnus. 
catcchist of Alexandria, who was sent to thesi: regions as a mis- 
sionary, alxjiit the and of the stcond century-. " Having arrived in 
India he set himself tu ptoot the Christian fuilh in those parts, espe- 
cially conversing with the Brpchmsns, the sages and philusophcre 
of liiocc countries, whose principles and way of life seemed more 
immediately to dls|iose (hem fur the enlurtainnient of Christianily. 
Their children as soon as born ihey committed lo nurses ; and then 
lo gniirdians, according to ihcir different ages, who instructed them 
in principles according to their capacity and improvement; they 
were educated with all unuginatilo severity of discipline, not suffered 
so much as to speak, or spit, or cough, while their masters were 
discoursing to them, and this till they were seven and thirty years 
of age. They were infinitely strict and abstemious in their diet, 
cat no flesh, drunk no wine or strong drink ; feeding only upon 
wild acorns, and such rooU >s nature furnished them withal, and 
ciuenching their thirst at the next spring or river ; and as sparing 
of all other plcaaures ami doUnhls. They adort-d no images, but 
sincerely womhipped Ood. lo whom they continually prayed : anil 
instead of the custom of those ei^tcrn nations of turning to the 
cast, they devoutly lift up their eyes to hcnvnt ; and while itiey 
drvw nrar to Ood took a particular care to keep themselves from 


being defiled with any vice or wickedness, spending a great part of 
both night and day in hymns and prayers to God. They accounted 
themselves the moat free and cirluous people, having linrdened their 
bodies against all eslemol accidents, and subdued in their minds all 
irregular passions and desires. Gold end silver tbey despised, as 
that which could neither quench iheir thirst nor allay tlieir hunger, 
nor heal their wounds, nor cure their distempers, nor serve any 
real or necessary ends of nature ; but only minister to rice and 
luxury, to trouble and inquietude, and set the mind upon racks and 
tenters. They looked upon none of the accidents of this world (o 
be either good or evil ; frequently discoursed concerning death, 
which they defined to he, a being bom into a real and happy Ufe- 
In short, they appeared in moat things to conspire and agree with 
the stoics, whom ihercfore they esteemed of all sects to be ihe most 
excellent philosophers." * The ancients who wrote of India seldom 
made a proper distinction between tjic Brahmans and Budhisls. 
Of the above description, some parts will apply to the former clasM, 
and others to the latter. Too high a character is here given of the 
religious life of the Hindus, but their customs would appear pro- 
foundly impressive to a. Christian who had imbibed the ascetic 
principles that were even then in existence ; and when it is retncm- 
hered that Pantcnus was the preceptor ol Clemens Alexandrinus, 
and taught in the school at Alexandria after his mission to the east, 
it will be seen that his visit to India may have produced a greater 
influence upon the church than bos yet been given to it by the his- 
torians who have written of that period. 

In the extensive regions between India and Syria, where stood 
the mighty cities of Nineveh and Babylon, and along which th« 
tide of conquest was rolled by Dionysus, Osiris, and Sesostris, the 
trnces of asceticism arc few. It might be said that the people were 
too strong in their attachment to jdeasure, and hod too many of lis 
appliances within tbeir reach, to be readily induced to Bbandon the 
world ; were it not that an excess of luxury ftequently genentcs 
the ascetic clement, by the principle of antagonism that manifesia 
itself in the working of all human instituilous. 

" Cave's lives at the most Kminent Fstbers of the Churcli- His authori- 
ties am : — De Brarhman. Morib. et instil, vid. inter nlios Alexand. Poljrb. de 
Beh. Indie, ap. Clem. Aloi. Stromat. I. iU. c. 7. Slrab. Geop-. 1. i». p. 1008. 
BardeMn. Syr. 1. de (at, ap. Euscb. Pnep. Evang. I. Ti. c, 10. Plutat«]i d* 
vil. Alcxand, Ponihvt. iTfp- diroKqc- 1. tv. a. 17, 18. Pollad. deBn^UBB, 
Tract, de Orig. ot Morib. Brachman. inter Ambrusu opcr. ad Calc. Suid. In 
*oc. Bpajyians. Euieb. Hiat. Ecd. 1. v. e. 10. Hiet de Script. 


It has been noticed, retati re lo ttie Greeks, that "the centtny 
between fi50 and 500 n. c. appears to have been remarkable for the 
KtBt ditfusioD and jiotent influence of distinct religious brotherbooda, 
mystic ritca, and expiatory ceremonies, none of which find any re- 
cognition in the Homeric o[iic.'' * Thiij was precisely the age of 
Uotaina ; and the coincidence is striking. The Greeks were as free 
from the ascetic element as any people we ciin name, but even 
among them there was one nation that was apart from the rest ; 
and if we examine the causes of its idiosyncracy we «ha11 see that 
they arose from tbe more powerful development of ihis jirinciple, 
II is said thai Lycurj^s, in his wanderings, penetrulei! as far ua 
India ; and we can discover many puinia of resemblance between 
the proccptjt promulgated by Oo'.ama and the lawB of the tipartona. 
The submission of tlic young was strictly cnrorcvd in tbe code of 
the Spartan legislator, and great respect was paid to the aged ; 
iheri? wo* a community of property ; nearly all distinctions of rank 
were abolished ; the educulion, dress, and fuud of all classes were 
[lie same ; the diet was of tbe simplest kind ; the use of gold and 
nilver was forbidden; ointments were ncit allowed; only one gar- 
ment was used ; the beds wore of reeds, from tbe banks of the 
Eurutas; all were taught lu endure the greatest hardships unmoved; 
theatrical exhibitions were discountenanced; commerce was prohi- 
bilcil. and even agriculture ; and there viaa a public mess. The 
yoimg were set free from the restrictions under which they had 
prcriuusly laboured when twenty years old. the same age at which 
ihc s4man^ra novice was admitted to ordination. But the Spartan 
annihilated self that he might become a patriot ; the Budhist 
uncctic, that he might become non-exisieni. 

The Orjibic brotherhood tasted no animal food but the flesh of 
tbe consecrated ox, and wore white linen garments. The Urpheo- 
tolists used to come before the doors of the rich, and promise to re- 
Icniic ihcm from sin ; but it was by songs and sacrifices. The 
Cytlia^oronns had a community of goods ; tliey took tbeir meals in 
common, and were strictly tcmgwralc ; they forbore the use of 
■nmptnous gunioDtSt and restrained anger, miuntained a constant 
scrcuity, and cultivated })owcrs of cndurencc. As neither Pytha- 
goras nor Lycurgu* committed his laws tu writing (another resem- 
blance toGuiaina). their history is involved in too deep an obscurity 
to allow of much reliance being placed upon any exhibition of thcii 
■ Grnte'i Hisiory of OiNWt iii. 114. 


cliaracter ; yet there b a unity about our accounts of the uistitutiona 
bearing their name that pleads for Iheir consistence with tniUi, 
either as the result of previous influences upon the individual or u 
produced by the gradual development of events. The Cynics, when 
in the strictness of their first severity, appear to have more ocariy 
resembled the ascetics of the east. Antisthencs wore oiJy a coane 
cloak, full of holes; he carried a wallet; and confined himoclf to 
the simplest diet. The expression, " I had rather be mad than KO- 
Bual,'' would not be out of place in the mind of a Budhist ; bot the 
snarling propensities that won for him the name of " The Dog '' 
would have been entirely discountenanced by Gotama. The pro- 
perly of Diogenes consisted in a cloak, a wallet, and a staff; he nle 
his meals in public, and slept in bis famous tub or tlie porticos of 
public buildings. He too sought to annihilate the body, but lite 
means he took for this purpose were not such as Budhjsm approves, 
nor would this system hold in any estimation whatever a roan who 
revelled in filth and practised indecencies, 

Tbc vow of the Nozatitc was the only ascetic cnstoro of whtch we 
have any notice in the sacred Scriplurcs, as existing among the 
children of Israel ; and, as in the case of blood-revenge, the icgubt- 
tions given by Moses may have been intended rather to rcatreia the 
pernicious effects of a custom already established, than to introctoce 
a new principle among the people of God. It was a sacrifice of tbe 
whole man, body and mind, to the Lord ; and as the procreation 
of children appeared to the Israelites to be a duty, and not a degra- 
dation, there was no inconsistency in the mother of Sampson be- 
coming a Nazarite that she might have a son. The Rechabitce. 
who ore called by Jerome " patres monachorum," re&ained ban 
wine and the erection of substantial dweUings, but the aim of thnr 
observances appears simply to have been, to maintain their nation- 
ality and independence. 

The first order of recluses, for the knowledge of whose practices 
we have to go exclusively to the records of extra-Indian liicTBtoie. 
is that of the Essenes. The Pharisees were more nearly ntUcd to 
the Brabmans of India, whilst t)ie Sadducees partook of the seepli, 
dsm of the Budhists, and the Essenes of their asceticism. The 
Esicnes gave themselves up to a contemplative mode of life, 
avoided the ordinary pleasures of existence, and repudiated mar- 
ris^ ; they despised riches, and had odc common fund ; ceia- 
merce was avoided ; they took their meals in common, each pcnoo 

having a loaf of bread set before him, wilh n single plate of one 
kind of food, and thej drank only water ; iheir garments were not 
renewed until worn out ; they abstained from conversation on or- 
dinary topics, endearoured la maintain a perfect tranquillity of 
mind npon oil occasions, and were unmoved amidst the most cruel 
tortures ; a noviciate of three years was required before any one 
could enter into the order, after which they took an oath that they 
would obey the commands of the elders, and conceal nothing fVom 
the community ; they had villages of their own, or when in cities 
lived apart from the rest of mankind ; and they rejected sacrifices. 
offering only gifts or self- consecration at the temple. Like other 
communities of a similar kind, they were frequently joined by those 
who were siiffcrinfj from remorse of conscience, by those who were 
disgusted with the vanities of the world, and by the aged. Xeai 
Alexandria, on the shores of lake Mocris, resided an order of recluses 
called Therapcutae, who arc supposed to have been a branch of the 
Esscnes ; but this opinion is controverted. They were shut up in 
separate cells, lived on bread and water, and ate only in the 

The earlier bcretict, in many instances, distinguished themselves 
by the course of self-denial they enjoined upon their disciples. Of 
this kind were Satuminus, hlarcion, Bardisanes, Tatian, Sevcrus, 
ManichaeuB. and Hieras. The followers of these misguided men 
macerated their bodies by repeated austerities, and shunned every 
kind of indulgence with rigid pertinacity. They denounced wed- 
lock, as being a great hindrance to the Christian principle ; and 
held abstinence and meditation in high esteem. The followers of 
Talion substitnted water for wine in the administration of the 
eucharist. They were called encratitae, the temperate, and hydro- 
paraslatae and acquarii, water-ofTcrers. It was supposed by Sevcrus 
thai wine and women wore produced by the evil principle, as they 
are the cause of the chief miseries of man. The Marcionites 
ndmitlod none to baptism who were married, and none to the 
cuchatisl who did not renounce wedlock. On the other hand, 
Eliai despiacd continence, and obliged his followers to marry. The 
Hbionitcit. who were supposed to be so called from their poverty, 
with aome other of the heretical sects enumerated above, held Iliat 
it was wrong lo posaeM anything beyond that which !■ nboolulcly 
necessary for daily sobsistonce, v> the present world, in its very 
nature, apart from ita aboic. ia the excluaive possesaion of Satan. 

and theiefore aU 
with Bin. 

But, although the principal ascetics of beathendom and hcTcsy 
have now passed under our review, all their mortifications und sb- 
stiactions appear to be feeble and efiet^, when compared with the 
manifestations of the same principle that arc seen among tho 
myriads of India, The system towered to the loftiest height in the 
place of its birth ; and it was here that it assumed the most fomti- 
dable majesty and exerebed the most exteuded influence. 

There ie in all men a yearning after something that in beyond the 
limits of the visible world ; and although this feeling may too 
generally be oterpowercd by [he pressure of toil and the sirife of 
passion, there are times when the solemn thought will present itaelT 
that a higher destiny is intended for man than that which he now 
inherits. By some minds, a divinity is comoiimicated to the sim- 
plest objects of creation ; and a pebble, a flower, a cloud, or a rill, 
becomes an iiislrumcnt of music from which are seut forth straliM 
of sweet harmony or lofty measure ; this type of mind forma iko 
poet. In other minds there is dissaiisfaction with the commoQ 
afihirs of Ufe. a moodiness which scowls at all ihat is connected 
with refinement and luxury, and would torn away from the Bt){lit 
of the brightest gem that ever adorned a coronet to conlemplato the 
lack-lustre sockets of a skuU : this type forms the recluse. By 
other minds the attention is directed to voices unheard by the bosj 
multitude ; they realise the objective presence of some superior in- 
telligence, to whose influence they implicitly resign themselves, or 
they lose their own consciousness in the mute contemplatioD of ita 
more glorious attributes : this type forms the mystic. And there 
are other minds that seek only to dive into the mysteries of the 
future, or to gain poasessioo of miraculous energies, either by ui 
increase of their own inherent powers or by allying themselves with 
the spirits of other spheres : this type forms the soothsayer utd 
the magician. 

All these types of mind are united in the roclusc of India ; but be 
has thoughts and syuipatbies llmt are peculiar to his own artln. 
When be would become a poet, he makes liis pebble into a muuD* 
tain and bis rill into a sea ; when a recluse, be rejects not only tbe 
pleasures of earth, but tbe enjoyments of heaven ; wb«n a niysUc, 
be would loke his t ery being, as well as his consciousness ; and 

IXIV. Till. VOIOK or THR P\iT. 367 

viiten a soolhsayer or a tnagiciu). he invokes not the aid of other 
intetligeDCCs. as he can stretch forth his band and the universe be- 
comes plastic to his touch, and be can summons eternity to present 
ilHcIf to bis vision. Though the thoughts he loves best to cherish 
are vast even to utter eilravaganee, he altows not the tranquillity 
of his mind to be ruffled by their presence ; in ita inner depths his 
spirit is still placid ; thus resembling rather the thick-ribbed ice of 
the Inke, which the rock that has toppled from the summit of tbe 
overhanging mountain cannot move, than its limped water that the 
gentlest breeze will ripple. Hence, when he would assume to him- 
self a supernatural power, he utters no spell ; he seeks no voice of 
incantation ; he asks for no mystic stnin from the minstrel's borp. 
A clod of earth or a basin of water, and deep silence, arc all that 
he requires to enable him to work tbe mightiest miracles. Even 
ttiDsc simple signs can be dispensed with, when he proceeds to the 
higher stages of the esercise. In the twenty-second chapter of the 
Viihtiu Purina we have a representation of one mode of dhyana, 
in which the conception of a thing is attempted to be rendered 
more definite by thinking upon its types ; or in which, at least, tbe 
thoughts are more readily concentrated by being addressed to a 
sensible emblem instead of an abstract truth. Thus the yogi snys 
to himself, " I roeditjte upon the jewel on Vishnu's brow, as the 
■oul of the world ; upon the gem on hia breast, as the first prin- 
ciple of all things," and so on: and thus through a perceptible 
KubotnDce proceeds to an imperceptible idea.* But the rahat only 
need* tho emblem in the preparatory rite ; nben once be has re- 
ceived an inner evidence that the power he seeks it gained, he can 
ever arterwarda exercise it by an act of volition, without any super- 
numerary aid. 

The entrance of the spirit of asceticism into the Christian church 
was afToctcd at an early period. Its progress was at first slow. 
Thune who have seen tho approach of the lion know well that every 
limb of tbe animal's body, and almost every hair, seems to be in - 
«iinct with a separate life, the object of which is, to deprive its 
advance of all appearance of motion ; anil then there U the bound, 
the seixnre, and tbe coniiacst absolute. Thus stealth}', and thus 
fatal, was the approach of the aMotte spirit ; nnd it was this that 
enabled it to gain a hold so mighty upon the early prufeasura of the 
• WUmd's X'ubau Purina. 


faith. Satan became transfonned into a sj'lph of light, very beauti- 
ful in appearance, and too diminutive to be supposed capable of 
working hatm. By this means the capitol had been token before 
the enemy was discovered ; and the principle in question was too 
congenial to human nature to allow of nny prolonged resiataace 
when its evils became apparent. 

At an after period, when the advocates of the system were calleil 
upon to defend it from the attacks of its opponents, precedents were 
sought iu the Scriptures. Jerome (£p. 49) cited EUas and John 
the Baptist as the futhers of monachism, and referred to the sons of 
the prophets, who dwelt in the fields and solitudes, and " erected 
for themselves tabernacles near the Jordan ; '' and also to the Re- 
chabitea, " who drank no wine nor strong drink, and dwelt in 
tents." It was supposed, from a misconstruction of Esod. slit. 2, 
that the first-born who were sanctified to the Lord embraced per- 
petual virginity, and that Mary was one of the temple virgins thus 
consecralcd. The Carmelites were so specific in their assertions ks 
to maintain that Elias was the first of their own order, and that he 
was called " bald-hoad " because he had adopted the tonsure. l)y 
some writers it was argued that there was a regular succes»uon of 
hermits upon mount Carmcl from the sons of the prophets to th« 
time of Christ ; and that these hermits, having at an early period 
embraced Christianity, continued the succession to the twelfth cen- 
tury, when the order was introduced into Europe. The community 
of goods, for a time adopted by the apostolic converts, was adduced 
in defence of another branch of their peculiariiiea. 

As the ascetic principle is universally prevalent in the heart of 
man, aud requires scarcely any encouragement to call it forth to 
activity, it is in vain lo enquire how it arose in the church of Cbriot. 
or in what form it was first manifested. There are many Tiitoea 
essential to t^e evangelic life, that, if carried to excess or perverted 
from their original intention, would each do something towards the 
advancement of this specious delusion. Of this kind arc humility, 
the non -resistance of injuries, chastity, fasting, prayer, almsgiving, 
abstraction from the world, and communion with Ood. Therv is 
not one of these graces that the recluse does not imagine he folfila 
in a better manner than other men ; and upon this he founds his 
claim to superiority of holiness upon earth, and to a greater dc^rM 
of glory throughout eternity. 

The high estimation in which celibacy was held by mouy tnom- 

' THE r.\s 


bcrit of tUc primilive church was probably of sponUDOOUH origin. 
It would ul first be cominciiiled by Ihuse pastora of the church in 
whom there huiI been a departure from the simjilc doctrines of the 
l^ospul, as enunciated by the apostle Paul, Rom. iii. 3$. Among 
thoEo who liHtened to their instruclionB would bo many who had 
received aa much light as was necessary to enable ibem to discover 
their own wretchedness, but not enough to lead them to the cross 
118 the source of brighter eipcct«tions. 'ITiesc mislaken neophytes, 
glad to discover any course [hat held out a pruspect of delivcrnncc. 
would be ready to embrace the ascetic principle, and put it to the 
lest. The pastors, receiving these convictions as the evidence of a 
divine attestation to the truth of their words, would be induced to 
give greater prominence to this principle in their public addresses ; 
and the multitude, ever ready to look at the outward and visible 
form, rather than the inward and spiritual grace, would begin to 
regard the celibate with peculiar reverence, causing a class of per- 
sons to arise whose pernicious influence upon the church was like 
ihal of the palmer-worm among the vine-leaves or the locust in the 
cultivated vale. The order of development might be thus: — 
Occasional continence, 1 Cor. vii. 5, would pass into perpetual ab- 
uegalion ; and chastity would pass into cellbucy. The motive 
would be at tirst concealed, then avowed, followed by the npplauKes 
of the crowd and the sanction of ihu church. The avowed celibates 
would cling to each olber from similarity of position ; in their 
mutual intercourse certain observances would be regarded, and 
tlicn B code of laws would be formally drawn up, and an association 
known by some particular name would be organised. In the b«- 
glnning. admission would be open to nearly any candidate what- 
ever ; but a period of probation would afterwards be appointed and 
restrictions would be placed upon the privilege of membership. 
The members would at first carry on their own concerns ; and 
then the rulers of the church would interfere. There would, at 
tlic commencement, be a simple acknowledgment of llie excellence 
of celibacy ; and then vows to maintain it inviolate, at first whiUt 
connected wtlb the aasodatiun. and then until death, would be made. 
No change in the mode of dress would at first be insisted upon ; 
but in proccNs of lime a particular habit would be adopted. Instruc- 
tion might at first bo given to the celibates or virgins at separate 
hours, after which a »eparate place would he ossigncfl to them in the 
churches. Tht- nest step was, (u leave entirely the babilaliona of 

men. and [(laiilc in tbe wililcmeas: and at laal, tu erect n)ona>tteric9, 
in which llic recluseR could be assembled, whether trotn the city or 
the forest, and be leagued togdht-r as one family, apart from ibu 
world. The wuy to the desert had l>een previouoly thrown open, 
by men who fied thilher frum persceutioo, and who, from the ad- 
vaMngea ihey found in a life of retirement, were induced to make 
it their permanent abode. 

By common consent, the title of the father of monachism (among 
Chriiiliiin!i] is given to Anthony, who in the Decian persecution 
took refuge in the mountotnii of ^ypt, and there adopted a coune 
of tlie moat rigid self-denial. After Uiing twenty years in eolitu4c. 
umidst Lhe vivid associations that could nut fail to be preranted by 
the ruined tower in which he dwelt, he bei;an a mote active career ; 
and procluming to others the privileges of the anchoret, he estab- 
linhed two settlements to which many resorted for tlie love of Ood. 
Itut llie institutor of the conventual life wa;$ PachomiuF, wliu 
founded the first cloister in the iBUind of Tabennii, on the banks of 
tbe Nile, A. D. 340. Until this period each monk performed bis exer- 
cises alone, not far fiom his own village ; but Pachomius gave U> 
the iccluseH by whom be was juiced a syatem of rulea, and sub. 
jccied them to control, by thit means forming the aasociationa that 
hod formerly e sis ted without discipline or inspection into a reguUtly 
conatituled order. These examples were soon followed in other 
parts of Christendom. The names of Ainmon, Paul the Simple, 
Hilarioa, and Simou Stylitcs will ever be ri-nowned, unless the time 
■bould corae when men will have loo many object* of present inle- 
rest to allriw them to conlcinplate the follies of the past, l^usebius. 
bishop of Vercclli, about .i.. n. 350, retained the clergy of hia dio- 
cese in his own dwelling, that he might instruct them in the dutin 
of their profession, and by this mt^ana introduced a form of miinasiic 
ubscrvunce that ijt supposed to have given origin to the institutioa 
of regular canons.* Basil, an eloiiuenL writer, and one of the mtMit 
eminent men of his age, introduced monochibm into Pontiis and tlio 
neighbouring provinces, a. d. 378. By Athaaasius, It wus intro- 
duced into Home; by Benedict, into the other porta of Italy : by 
Murtin and Cnssian, into Uaul ; and by Boniface, into Oermany. 

* Tho connnn wen? s middle order bctWL-cn ihe mnnlis mid vo'iilnf clcrKy. 
'Hivy nilnplGil thu miiiuwtif diHciulinc and mannct of life, hiiviu); ■ iHimnMD 
■IwHiiii); iiud iiil-m i bill Uii,-]- ibil not take upon lliciusrlviii any Vows. Thry 
wrTi> ii]i|iciinli-il t" ilipichftTBP iiiinixtiiial fimrtionx in i-i-rliiiri rhurehe*. la 
m-inv iiioiiwitiirin Uiere were both canon* and nionks. 

The atron^ hold ihat monacLism, about the Btune perUKl, gained 
upon the chinch, muy be inferred from the eminence of Its aup- 
pcrrtcr», and the wide expanse over which they were spread. 
Anions; ita advocates, in addition U) the nameB already mentioned, 
were Ambrose, in Italy; Gregorj- Nazianzen and Chrysoslum, in 
Constaniinople ; Jerome, in Syria ; Eplphaniu^, in Cyprus ; and 
Augustine, in Italy. It is said* tbat Pachomius had 130(1 monku 
in one convent, and more than 7000 in other places, under his in- 
Hpectiun. In another convent, in the Thcbais, there were SOOO 
monkti, and in the single city of Nilria there were fitty convents. 

The priests of the different countrica where Budhism is professed 
appear to have a greater resemblance to each other than we see 
among the various orders of Chrislendom ; and llitre has been in 
{general less departure from the precepts of the instituior of the 
Bystem. Tlie monks not having, like the liudhista, a code of laws 
that they regarded as given by inspiration, any one wa£ at liberty 
lu esUbliah a fraternity and give to it whatever laws be plcaaed. 
The anomalies prei>cnled from thia source were nowhere more 
apparent than among our own countrymen. Without mentioning 
the differences between the British, Scotch, and Koman monks, 
there were the various rules ut 8t. Fatric, Si. Cungal, St. Coluinb, 
St. Molvu, St. Columban, &c. among the Irish and Scotch ; and 
St. David, St. Asnph, St. Cuthbert, St. Adhclm. &c. among the 
Itritims and Saxons. Even in Alfred's time (here were " divctsi 
generis monachi ; '' and after the conquest, at the general visita- 
tion uf the houaes. a. d. 1233. there were not, among ibc Bene- 
dictines, two moQastvriea tlutt lived after the same manner. t The 
dilTcrcnl gradations of authority that now exist in tbe nionaBtiv 
hierarchy wore formerly unknown ; its provincials, generals, 
chapters, and congregations, are comparatively a recent addition to 
the in*tiiutc.J tjich founder of a monastery Icgiataled for his sub- 
jcciK, uncontrolled by ttie opinions or commands of u aupcriiir. 
AlLluiugh tluN diversity of operation was generally [nmentcd, Ber- 
nard pleaded that tlie principle was correct, as " there must be in 
tbu cliurch a variety In external furnis and modes of life, in order 
to adapt il to tlie variouj neceosttiea and circumstances of mankind ; 
but that atnce the screnil member* were united by (lie spirit of love, 
ibime diflcrvnces could be no cause of schism.*' J But innovation* 
* Uiwlir'aTfKl Rook. t Tannur'* NoUiia M'mMliin. 

; Idni^rd'it Auglo-KHton (liurcb, 
t JfiNUidcT'* Lib of St. BvmanI, hy Matilda Wrvnrh. 

did not cease with the foundation of the convent, as cuch succeeding 
abbot modified, by addition or retrenchment, the discipline previoualy 
established, sometimes borrowing from the rules of other monaste- 
ries, and sometimes framing new constitutions in hia own right. 
By this means the peace of the fraternity was sometimea destroyed, 
although in other cases the authority of a definite rule would be » 
great advantage. About 1223, a contention having arisen between j 
the abbot of Evesham and the rest of the community, relative U>-\ 
some almost obsolete regulations, all the ancient customs, before { 
traditional, were collected and written down by the abbot, and 
afterwards submitted to the pope for his approbation.* The great 
number of different orders that arose rendered it necessary that ft 
stop should be put to the practice, and Innocent III. decreed that 
no new order should be established. Gregory X. issued a similar 
decree relative to the mendicants. In the index to Hospinian's 
valuable work on tlic monks there arc the names of 203 different 
orders, and some account is given of each order in the text. The 
interference of the popes, however, was sometimes exercised in s 
pernicious manner, by relaxing the severity of the original rules j j 
and by glosses and explanations further changes were effected, 
through which more rapid Btrides were made towards corruption. 

The diversities of practice among the monks present themselvM 
under almost every form to which we may direct our attention. 

Ky some fraternities ignorance was accounted as a virtue, and tfl 
others we are indebted for the preservation of nearly all we know ol 
antiquity, including the record of divine revelation. The drak 
monks being laymen would almost necessarily be ignorant, uid 
from Iheir previous habits would despise all kinds of liteniluiqj 
whether sacred or secular. Thus, the monks of Citeaux, leading Kt 
ascetic life, in silence, prayer, and manual labour, were rcgardleeJ 
of literary occupations ; whilst those of Premontre, who were oearh 
coeval in their foundation, combined with these exercises ivn aavC 
duous attention to intellectual pursuits.! There was in Ilely | 
particular order calling themselves Brothers of Ignorance, who alfl 
took an ooth not to know anything or Icam anything. " AU tbs 
monks, in reality," said Luther, " belong to this order." That 
earlier priests of Budha were ignorant we may infer from ibo fi 

" Tindttl'* Hiitory of Eve«hatn. 

t Bcrriugtun'a Literary Iliatory of the Middle Age*- 


Ihiit their sacred institutes were not committed to nritii^ until up- 
wards of 500 years after the death of their founder ; and if they 
had been men of general intelligence if would not have been pos- 
sible- to palm upon ihem so great a mass of absurdities and incon- 
aislencics as is contained in the records tbey profoundly venerate. 

The changes that took place throughout the Roman empire soon 
after Chtistiauily was generally received have been too esclusivclf 
referred to the inroads of the barbarians. The reading of the 
ancient classics would be discouraged by the pastors of the church, 
Icat they should lead the young student to admire with pernicious 
intensity the system that a little time before had held in the same 
regions an unlimited sway. Wo who are of more recent tiroes can 
peruse the myth or the legend ; we can listen to the tythra that has 
never been surpassed in the pleasantness of its cadence, or to the 
(icriods that are unequalled in the majesty of their roll ; we can con- 
[emjilato the manifested conceptions before which the mightiest 
•ages have bowed down in lowly reverence ; and tbe only effect 
they produce is one that is trstbetic, and not religious. But it was 
not so in the earlier centuries of the Chtistton era. The student 
then beheld around him the monuments of a superstition that 
might yet have some hold upon hia afiections; here was the mighty 
shrine, still beautiful, that had been erected by his own ancestors ; 
there the very statue, 

"which, if made 
By human hands, ntm'd not of human thought." 
before which his mother or some other beloved relative hod been 
accustomed to worship ; from his playmates in the country or the 
slaves with whom he nm most familiar among the domestiis at the 
city reaidenoo of his parent, he would bear many a tale of nymph or 
of dryad ; and the barbarous words or pleasant echo of many an 
ancient invocation would be impressed upon hla memory, as he 
listened to it over the blazing faggot or in the sLillneasof the moon- 
light. Hence it came to pass that the scholars in the medi-teval 
monastic establishments were cummaudcd to look upon all heathen 
uuthon with suspicion ; tlie only use to be made of them being to 
learn therefrom " the rules of grammar, the quantity of syllables, 
and the laws of metre." In some foundations, aa in that of Isodore, 
the perusal of heathen authors was entirely forbidden. Justinian, 
liy an edict, imi>osed a perpetual silence upon the schools of Athens, 
under the idea tliut heathenism waa still inculcated in the leutures 


of its professors.* Nor let it be said that these fears were ground- 
less. We may sec the power of EDcicnl associations, even whert the 
tenets of a better faith arc profossed. in the bardic poetry of our own i 
country, and in tlie great number of old cintoras having a pagao | 
origin that are alill clung to with a tenacity [hat proves theit I 
strength, when even the death-struggle has long been carried on. ' 
There Is also, in countries where heathenism is ittill professed, K 
danger lest the toil of the student or the care of the controvenialist 
should be received as an act of homage to the excellence of the 
works over which they pore. When these dangers had pasMd. J 
away, the monks of some of the fraternities embraced the advno- 1 
Uiges of their position, and freed themselves from the trammels, ] 
now become comparatively useless, by which their predecessors luid 
been properly bound. Basil and his companions. In their r«lire- 
ment on the banks of the river Iris, spent a considerable portion of 
tbeir time in the study of the Scriptures, in which they arailod 
themselves of the assistance of the commentators, and especially of 
Origin. Benedict enjoined his disciples to read, copy, and coUeci 
books. In the sixth century the recluses of both sesca were en-, 
joined by the founders of the monasteries in which they lived tOi 
employ a certain portion of their time in reading the worka of Uu 
fathers. Libraries were established, and to the more feeble of tlui' 
monks was assigned, although not to them exclusively, the duly of 
copying manuscripts. In the next century the limes for study were 
regularly appointed, and public examinations and discussions were 
held, that it might be seen whether the students had turned to good 
account their opportunities of acquiring knowledge. 0pon the 
character of the abbot much would depend, both as to the tuttute 
of the studies, and the diligence of the transcribers. John Wheb- 
hanisted. abbot of St. Albans, caused more than eighty books to be 
written during his abbacy ; and by the care of one of the abhola of 
Olastonbury fifty-eight were written. In 1305 the monks of Bolton 
gave thirty shillings, the price of two good oien, for the Book of 
Sentences, by Peter Lombard; "but," says Dr. WTiitaker, thnr ] 
hintorian, "I can only discover that they purchased three books h 
forty years." The library of tbo Grey Friars, London, built by 8 
Kichard Whittingdon, was 129 feet long, and 31 feel brosd, ■ 
was well ailed with books. There were 1700 MSS. in th«j librsryij 
al Peterborough Ingulf tells us thai when the library at Croylend ' 
* Ilatlom's LiuiratuTC uf Euri>i>c. OinUcr's Tcx.l-Iii>(>k. 

tbeir I 


XXIV. THK vorcE 


was burnt the munks lost 700 books. The cccli'siartica were some- 
times assisted by the munificence of lajrmen. William, son of 
Richarit de Perei, gave [hteo ox-gaofirs of land, with five tofls, al 
UuncBley, lo Iho chuuntor of ihe abbey cburch at Whitby, to make 
BDd write books for the church ; and iUchurd de Paston granted a 
rent-charge of twelve pence per annmn to the convent at Bromholm, 
lo keep their books in repair. Two «oler mills were assigned to 
llie precentor of Bury Abbey lo find parchnieat and ink for the 
convent. The literary labuura of some of the monks, since the 
invention of printing, more particularly of those forming the con- 
gregation of St. Maur. are too well known to require more specific 

The priests of Ceylon ore entitled (o a sliare of the praise re- 
ceived by the western recluses When the literature of the island 
was nearly annihilated by the mvages of the continental Kings, tliey 
Bel themselves to copy and translate the principal works connected 
with their religion, which they procured from Burma and Siam. 
But they have written very few original works ; and those they 
possess abound so much in TCpetiliouii Irom each other, that it be- 
comes a tedious exercise to read them, after uue or two of the more 
celebrated have been perused. 

The ndvuncvmeul of Christianity will Imve an cflccl uj>on the 
literature of Asia, similar to that which was produced upon the 
study of ilie classics, when the gospel first began to grapple suc- 
Gcesfully with the ancient religions of Greece and Home. In India, 
the supreme power being in the hands of ClmHtlans, the native 
pundita receive comparatively little encouragement ; the pastors of 
the church discountenance the reading of the ancient books by their 
converts, unless it be by a few. for the purpose of refuting iheir 
Hrgiimenta or exposing their absurdity ; and in u Ultle time, mure 
especially with Pali literature, the most active of ita atadenla will 
he men of another land and a different creed. And as the oriental 
scriptures, when their contents arc known, possess no such fascina- 
tion as that which will ever attract men of taste lo the perusal of 
the relics of Oroccc and Rome, it is not improbable that many of 
tlic books written in Soiukrit and Pali will in time be eatirtly un- 

* Nmndur'a BtTnonl. noDom'* UtcratuiF. Bunington'i Utcrarr His- 
tory. Ilurt<m'> Muiiasliom. Tsylur*! Inilex Uuiu*ticiu. Whilnkor r HLi- 
Imy of WlisUiy. Turner'* NotiUa Uonastica. Wlutaki-t's Historjr of 
Cnvm. Uiwpiniiuint d> Uunooliia. 


read, and perhaps their style unintelligible. This process of decay 
ia already apparent in Ceylon. There being no outward stimuliia 
to exertion, the prieata eshifait no entliUBiBsni of study, and many 
of them are unable to rend at all. In China these effects are still 
more apparent, aa it in aaid that few of the priests in that country 
understand Pali. Its peculiarities preclude its being written with 
alphabetical accuracy in the Chinese character, so that it degnieratea 
into a cornplete jargon, wherein the sound is hut imperfectly pre- 
served, and the sense no! at all. But the people of the east have im- 
mense advantages over those of the west when in the same state of 
transition. Our forefathers did not fight merely for the settlement 
of local institutions, however wide their immediate influence may 
extend. They wrote, and spoke, and bled, for the establishment of 
principles. These principles and institutions, with all the improve- 
ments that experience has taught us are necessary, are taken to the 
inhabitants of India, and in the vigour of their energy are at once 
presented for their imitation, or authoritatively promulgoted for ibcir 
adoption. They may sometimes mistake our meaning, as when the 
people of some parts of the Company's territory, at the time trial 
by jury was introduced among them, complained that, after they 
were compelled to give the government so many lacs of rupees an- 
nually for the administration of justice, they should be obliged, 
after all, to administer it themselves. But it requires only a little 
experience to enable them to sec the greatness of the boon they 
have received. As their language will remain unchanged, they 
have another advantage over the west. It was in the period when 
the Latin language became unintelligible to the mass of the people, 
and the modem languages were not fully formed, that the toq»r 
was presented which seemed to paralyse the powers of the intellect 
to so great a degree that, during several ages, there was Utile im- 
provement in cither art, ■Science, or the literature connected with 
sacred truth. 

The monks were not all bound by an inviolable oath ; aa »inffng 
the priests of Budha, the obligation to further obedience was aoiBe. 
times a voluntary act. In the number of recluses addressed by 
James, of Nisibis, there were some who had dedicated themselTce 
to continence by a vow. and others by resolution. Philip Neri 
forbade any of bis disciples to bind themselres to the commumty by 
oath or vow. The bond of union was to arise from mutual afloctioQ 
and respect. The French Oratorians. founded by Peter de Bemllc. 


are a congregation of priests who live in voluntary poverty and 
obedience. They can of their own accord leave the coDgrcgnUon. 
On this account they are said not to be " religious men ;" but their 
title to belong to the order would have been allowed in more an- 
cient limes. 

There was no uniformity in the practices of the various orders of 
mnnka. as to the nature of their employments, or the manner in 
which they spent their time. Upon some of the monks manual 
labour was enjoined as a duty. In the Regulations ascribed to 
Uosil (Basil. Rcgula, c. 37), there is this declaration: — "Since 
our L«>rd Jesus Christ says not generally that every man, but that 
the workman is worthy of hU meat, and since ihc apostle directed 
us to work with our own bands, in order that we may give to him 
who hath need, it followcth, that to work honcstJy is a manifest 
duty. For we should neither make use of religion as a pretext for 
iillcnoss, nor as a means to escape labour." Basil said aUo, that 
those IradcB should he preferred that did not interfere with a tran- 
quil and peaceable life, that occasioned little trouble either in pre* 
paration or UispoBal, that require little intercourse with others, and 
that did not ministcT lo vanity. Chrj-sostom relates that the monks 
of Egypt imitated the 7«b1 of the apoatloa. passing the night in 
sacred hymns and vigils, and the day in prayer and the work of 
their hands. Cassian tells us that the monks laboured in order 
that they might support those who were suffering from famine, 
and those who were in prison. Augustine records that the monks 
of Syria and Egypt, from the produce of their labour, sent ships 
hiden with provisions to distressed districts. Among the trades 
that wore followed wo see smiths, weavers, builders, &c., who de- 
voted the avails of iJieir labour to relieve the indigent,* The fol- 
lowers of Anthony and Pachomius made mats and baskets. The 
patriarch of the western monks ei^oined his followers to devote at 
least seven hours a day to manual labour. But this command was fol- 
lowed with less exactness when the circumstances of the church had 
become different m tlieir character. The accession of wealth rendered 
labour unnecessary as the means of obtaining a suhaiatcnce ; and 
the loner motive for its continuance having passed away, (he higher 
one soon followed. It was seen that the monks could employ 
themseWes moru pleasantly, aa well as more usefully, in literary 
punuita. The language employed in the exorcises of religion had 
* Ncandcr'a Ufr of Chrymloin, by SUjiliitaii. 


ceased to be spoken in the lands where it was nnce the most power- 
ful testimony to the greatness of the Roman power; and even in 
Rnme itseif it was fast giving way to the mellifluous dialect by 
which it was succeeded. The priests of Budha have never exer- 
cised any trade, or become artisans. All kinds of manual labour, 
except agriculture, are regarded in the east with great contempt; 
and it would be far easier to persuade men of the higher cosies to 
undergo a severe penance, than to induce them to saw a plunk, or 
forge a nail, or weave a web. The sacred books being wiiitcn in 
Pali, the name necessity existed among the sramauas to study this 
language that there was among the monks relative to Latin ; and 
the assiduity with which they have set themsclvea to this task is 
seen in the number and extent of the grammars they have written, 
and in the glosses and comments by which they have explained the 
text of their scriptures. The obligation they are under to seek 
their food by carrying the almS'bowl from door to door, frequently 
gives employment to nearly the whole of the morning ; and tliey 
afterwards teach the novices or write books upon the leaf of ihe 
talipot. In the practice of medicine they sometimes employ their 
time to a good purpose, though this course i" not sanclianed by ibe 
institute. From some of the emploj'ments that engaged the stien- 
tion of at least the higher orders oF the monastic fraternity thp 
priesia of Budha are entirely free. The yellow robe has never been 
covered by the coat of mail, nor has the voice of the sramana been 
heard amidst the din of the battle. In 1075, William the Con- 
queror ordained that no abbot should Judge any man to the loaa of 
life or limb, or give his vote or countenance to any others for Uutl 
purpose; but in 1264, sixty-four abbots and thirly-six priors ««t 
in the English parliament.* The disciples of Ootamn have soom^ 
times been engaged in intrigues, both at Ihe court of the monsrdt 
and at the hall of justice; hut they have never became judges or 
legislators. In their temples tlieie are no chantrieM, " iniititut«d 
and endowed with possessions, that masse might there bee aongo 
for the sowlc of the founders and their kindred," nor were lands 
ever granted to them " to saye masse and oder service for ever, for 
ye (donor's) sowle and for fader and moder, and for all christen 

Relative to diet, there was also considerable diversity of practice. 
By some orders animal food was entirely prohibited. whiUt the 
* Uunoa't iiouatticon. Taylur'* Index HunacticUH, 


CKCCM of good cheer enjoyed by othorn of the monks brought llie 
Hyslem into gencrni diBrepute. Even in t)ie same age the raonkii of 
one country diflereJ from those of unollicr in their dietetic observ- 
unccK. When in Witlemberg. the usual food of Lutlicr and his 
brelhrcn was bread and herrings ; but when he arrived on the banks 
of the Po, in his journey towards Home, the consequences of which 
were so momentous, he beheld the table nt the Benedictine monns- 
lery covered with every delicacy ; and though he said indignantly 
thai the church and the pope had forbidden such things, his re- 
proof produced no reformation. The averat;e consumption of food 
in ibf abbey of Wlialley, when in the zcni:h of its prosperity, waa 
-200 quarters of wheat, 150 quarters of malt, 8 pipes of nine, 132 
oxen and cows, 120 sheep, 60 calves, and 30 Iambs, ihree-fiftha of 
which appear to have been expended at the abbot's table, and two- 
fiftha at the Inferior tables and in alms-deeds. The resident popu- 
lation of the monastery amounted to 120 souls, delusive of viaitoffs 
und mendicants, who were daily partakers of the monastic hospi- 
tulily. In 1381, the estabishment at Sallay abbey consumed 70 
b?ud of cattle annually, or nearly a beast to every pcr»on. The 
establishment at liotton consisted of a prior. 15 canons and 2 con- 
versi, besides certain armigeri ; 30 free sen-ants inter curiam, from 
70 to 80 servants extra curiam, and a number of domestic alaves, 
of whom more than 20 must have been attached to the abbot ; in 
nil mure than 200 jiersons. In one year they consumed, wheat 
flour, 819 quarters; barley meal, 112 quarters: oatmeal for pottage, 
BO quarters, and for dogs, 39 quarleri«: provender for horses, 411 
qiuirtera ; oats malted for ale, tiSG quarters : barley. 80 quarters. 
Btstdea vcntaon, fiih, poultry, &c., they slaughtered annually 64 
oxen, 35 cows, I steer, HO sheep, and 69 pigs; and conaumed 
113 stones of butter; with apiceries in abundance, viz. 2Utilb. 
almonds, 721b. ricc (for which 9i. were paid), I91b. pepper (for 
which Sit. Id. w(>re paid), 41b. saffron. 261b. cummin, maces 1 
quartern, figs and raisins 1 rase. And in one year they purchased 
I BOO gallons, or at leant 8000 bottles of wine.* Were a bill of fare 
t<i be presented from any of tlic eastern pnnsals. lliough it were 
one in which the priests were not remarkable for tlieir abstemions- 
ncM, it would bear a very different aspect, as its items would be 
almost exclusively confined to ric«, fruit, vegetables, and spicc"). 
Rut we are not from this to argue their 'Upcrior sanctity, as little 
• VrWtiAW. IQnorim of WhalUy and leaven. 

else than i 
they live. 

i used by the people » 

In other arrangements there has been a greater similarity among 
the laws and cuatoms of the different orders of ascetics. 

The Pythagoreans were commanded, before (hey arose in the 
morning, to call to mind the actions of the previous day. Thejr 
were lo try to remember the first action of the day, and then to go 
on through each succeeding period ; and to call to mind the nature 
of the conversations they had held, and with nhat persons. Upon 
many of the monks a similar exercise was imposed ; and the no- 
vices among the Budhisls are enjoined Id be very particular in their 
attention to this duty. Ephrem, of Edessa. advised his disciples to 
examine themselves strictly every morning and night, as the trader 
casta up his losses and gains, fiut the disciples of Gotama have 
no acts of worship similar to the canonical hours of the monks, as 
in the rule of Benedict." who, in allusion lo Psalm cxix. 62. 164, 
appointed the horae canonicae to be (he noctumae vigilae. mntn- 
tinae, tertia, sexta, nona, vespera, and completorium. 

In the fourth century the jioaioi are mentioned as wandering 
about in companies. About 8I>0, the Messalions appeared, wan- 
dering beggars, who imagined that prayer alone was necessary fo* 
the blotting out of sin, and despised all public worship. Benedict 
mentions (Reg. c. 1) a kind of monks called Gyrovagi, "aeraper 
vagi etounquam stabiles," who committed great excesses; and says 
that it is better to be silent about them than to speak of their 
iniquities. They were worse than the Sarabitae, who are mentioned 
by Jerome (Ep. 22) in terms similar to those usually employed in 
describing pretenders to piety ; he lelU of their " coarse garmenta 
and abundant sighs.'' not forgetting " the detraction of the clergy. ** 
Both monks and nuns are mentioned by Augustine ( Dc Opere Mo- 
nach. c. 28) as leading an unsettled hfe, at one time stationuy, 
and at another wandering ; some sold the relics of martyrs, uwl 
others imitated the Pharisees in the ostentation of their itrcas.t U 
was not unusual with the monks of the middle ages to travel ev«n 
to distant countries, with the professed object of finding a suitabla 
place in which to live secluded from the world ; but in many tn- 
slances it was the mere love of adventure that led to these perilons 

nanderingi. llieTe is extant a poem called (he ]>ilgTiinagc of St. 
Brandon. This ecclesiastic, with a number of mooka, set out in 
quest of a place of retirement, wKere lliey could carry on their de- 
votions unmolested. In the couree of llieir memorable vofa);;e they 
visited an island supposed to be one of the Canaric". Among the 
Mahomedans there are itinerant dervishes, Sayyat, the most re- 
markable of whom are the Calendars, who are bound not to remain 
long in one place. Many attempts were made to checJc the wan- 
dering propensities of the monks. By both popea and synods they 
were forbidden lo leave the monaster}' without the abbot's consent, 
or to ramble from one monnatery lo another. In 1478, thirty-one 
monks «ere allowed lo make eicursiona from the abbey of Wlialley; 
and in 1521, only five, on account of the expense. They were also 
charged not to leave the congregation to which they belonged, and 
out of vanity or ambition to seek a new cell, or commence a frater- 
nity. In nome instaoces there was a communion of privilege be- 
tween different monasteries, as between those of Malmsbury and 
Evesham, by virtue of which, if any one, by the suggestion of the 
devil or his own depraved will, should leave his proper residence 
without leave of absence, he was lo he allowed refuge in the other; 
and if he afterwards repented and made satisfaction, be might be 
reconciled to his own foundation and restored to it, unless bis fault 
wero Buch as deserved deprivation."* It was natural for them to 
wish to indulge their curiosity relative lo the world without ; and 
to preserve them in patient obedience to the ordinations of reatrainl 
was a work of difRcutly. It is naid, in a petition presented to 
Henry VI. by the monkn of \Vhalley, that '■ dyrers that been 
ancborea and recluses aforetime contrary lo theyre own oth and 
[irofeisyon have broken oule of the plase where ihcy arc reclusyd 
and departyd therefiom wyihout any roconsilyaiion ;" and they 
especially complikin of one Isold of Ileton, who was not " willyng 
nor enlendyng to bo rculoryd agayu, and so Hvyng at her own liberie 
by this two yore, and more like as she had never bin piofessyd." f 
Among the injunctions to the nuns of Nun Applclon, in 1489, 
were theae : that none of the sisters use the ale-house, or the water- 
aide, where the course of strangers dally resort ; and that " the 
prioresa licenae no uater to go a pilgrimage, or visit their ftirada, 
withont a great cause, and then lo have a companion." J In some 

instances, however, the opposite principle was caTricd to exIniTa- 
gancG. Speed and Stow relate (hat at the burning of the city of 
Meux, by Wilhnm the Conqueror, there was an anchorite reading 
within the walls of the Church of Our Lady, who preferred to suffer 
martyidom, rather than break the vow he had made never to quit 
the place of liia retirement.* 

In the eather recorda of the Budhials there are fteqnent instaneoa 
of \acge numbers of pricats wandering about from place to place, 
generally in search of some convenient aput in which to perform 
the cetcmonieB of their religion that require aolilude and secluaiao 
for iheir proper exercise. The spread of Uudhiem into different 
countries was facilitated by this spirit of restlessness, and it would 
appear that some of the regions that are situated at a distance ftom 
the birth-place of Qotama are indebted to it for their knowledge of 
hia doctrines. To the travels of Fa Hian we have frequently 
had to refer. Accompanied at first by a number of companions, 
but afterwards penflitted to pursue his journey atone, he travellccl 
about 1200 leagues by land, and more ihan 2000 by sea, and visited 
thirty kingdoms. In 502, Soung-yun and Hoei-seng traversed 
mtkny of the same rcgiona, and about a century afterwards Ilinaa 
thsang visileJ almost every part of India. In 964, the emperor of 
China sent forth 300 priests to collect relics of Budha and copies of 
the sacred books. f From other countries similar pilgrimages have 
been commenced, and embassies of almost equal magnitude fa^ve 
been undertaken. Yet the priests have not been prompted to ihcae 
extended wanderings by the restraints of the wih&ra. as they ore 
under an obligation to pass its limits everj' day, and they may be 
seen abroad at almost all hours. I have aomelimea been visited by 
them at night ; but it was regarded as contrary to rule to be abscBl 
from the monastery at such a lime, unless it were for the purpose 
of reading bana upon some public occasion. " The intimate coo- 
nection," says Humboldt, in his Cosmos, ■' which existed amongst 
the different Budbist sacerdotal establishments contributed its in- 
fluence to diffuse a great variety of vegetable forms. Temptes, 
cloisters, and burj'ing- places were surrounded by gardens, adorned 
with exotic trees, and covered by variegated flowers of different 
forms. Indian plants were early diifuscd over China, Corea, end 

• Tsvlor'slnilcx. 

t Bjira'n Notm on tlie Slate of Anricnl India, JoumiJ RopU An. 8oc. 

xsiT. TRF. VOICE OF rne rxsT. 373 

Nisaon. Siebold was the first to draw attention to the cause of the 
mixture of the flowers of remotely eeparatcd Budhiat lands." This 
mtercsling result is strictly in accordance with the habiliities of the 
priests, in all ages of which we have any record ; and if the native 
works were more Bpecific in details of a similar kind, it is probable 
that we should lie able to trace many other eJiisting aSinilies to the 
same source. 

WTien the Hindu yogis are about to perform dhy^na. they are in 
the firtjt inslancc to reduce the appetites of the body by medicines. 
I have not met with any custom of this kind in the works 1 have 
read, as practised by the Budhists. There are many regulations 
relative (o the sick diet of the priest ; but they are to he observed 
in times of disease, and not as a moral appliance. The spare food 
of the priests, and their rule not to eal anytiiing solid after mid-day 
(though liquids may be taken without a breach of the commaml), 
preserves them in the enjoyment of health, and they frequently live 
to a great age. But in the west there has been a greater tendency 
towards the practice of the Hindus, rendered necessary, we may 
suppose, by the gross diet and uncleanly habits of many of the 
monks. The monks of Citeaux wore obliged to submit to a regular 
bleeding, in Fehrunry, April, June, and September, for (he purpose 
of subduing the flesh more effectually; and the aum of £6 ISi. in 
silver HKjney was granted to Hic monastery at Evesham to be an- 
nually and for ever divided among ihove monks "who ore let blood, 
for defraying their espencea in blood-letting.'' • 

In nearly all the monastic orders, to whatever religion they may 
belong, there arc persons of various grades, upon whom obligations 
ore enforced in pro|Hjrtion to the sanctity of the class. In some 
orders, us in llie tertius ordo de Facnitentia of Francis, tlicre were 
mcmhi-rs who observed the rules without withdrawing from llie 
world. In tlio monasteries there were monachi laici, who formed u 
middle order between the clergy and laity, the position in which 
(he monks themselves stood until the tenth century. Even aflcr 
the monks rtccived ordination, the distinction was kept up with 
the utmost strictnea* between the regulares and the clcrici snccu- 
larcs. who were prlesta with the cure of BonI>'. Stephen, n noble- 
nian of Auvorgno, instituted a new species of monastic discipline in 
1073. His fullowcn were divided into two classes, clerks and con- 
verted brclliii-R. u|ion the former of whnni he imposed the obsen- 
* Ncandei'a Reniard. Tindal's liwtory of Kvntuni. 


•■ uonAQBiau. 

aace of an uninterrupted Hilt'iicc. Attached lo the muie celebrated 
orders there were individuals called fratres adscripti, amon^c whom 
were mnny nobles, and even monarchB, who thereby received the 
right lo assume the monkish habit at the approach of deatli. The 
Jesuits, after a noviciate of two years, take llie aimplu vow of Bcbo- 
lars, binding themselves to chastity, poverty, and obedience, in the 
presence of the domestics of the establishment in which they reside. 
The professed Jesuits, when their studies are completed, make 
their tows again, in public, after which they cannot be dismissed 
but by the order. There is another vow, to undertake any mission 
enjoined by the pope, which is taken by some, but is not binding 
upon all; in this case they are called spiritual coadjutors; but 
when the fourth vow is not taken, temporal coadjutors.* In Bud- 
hism there are properly only the samanera novices and the upa- 
sampada priests. All arc required (o observe the ten obligations 
and the precepts of the Palimokkhan : but in addition to these, 
there is a great multitude of observances that ore represented ratlier 
as being beneficial than as absolutely binding ; and as each iodi- 
vidual is permitted to practise as many of them as he chooses, there 
may be an almost endless variety of classes. It was the adopting 
of a distinction of this kind that first led lo the idea that there ar« 
gradations of merit in the church, which was foUowed by the still 
more fatal error of works of supererogation. 

The exhibition of u republican spirit is another feature in which 
nearly uU orders of monks are agreed. The doors of the monastery 
have ever been open to all who were willing to enter ; and from the 
aids presented by the system, many a low-born peasant has worked 
his way lo the honours of the abbacy or the episcopate. By the rule 
of Benedict, the superior of each monastery was chosen by the mf> 
frages of its inmates. In the establish nienla belonging lo this order 
no distinction was shown to the novices or monks on account of 
birth or rank ; all the residents were equally required to pnctiae 
the severities of the rule, and take thctr share in manual labour. It 
was the granting of exemptions to respectable indiriduols, under 
the pretence of health, that first caused a relaxation of monsslie 
discipline. The monks of La Trappe not only obey Ihc superiors, 
but also the lay brethren, although they know that they are In the 
wrong. Thus, n monk having an imperfect model cet before bim 
that he ivns to cojiy, followed the model implicitly, though bo knew 
* .Uhui BuIIoi'b Livis. 


that by eo doing he set the music of all ihe church books wrong. 
The abbot of Evesham waa required to preserve entire the number 
of monks, and was neither to receive nor to reject ftnj one, either 
for a tinie or for n perpetuity, without consent of ihe convent, or of 
its greater and wiser part, assembled in chapter ; nor was he to 
confer any estates, or dismiss the tenants and huabandmcn, without 
Ihc consent of his brethren. The same principle iit acknowledged 
in India. The missionary Rheni us says in his Journal. "There 
are four candidates for the office of high-priest .among the Jainas) ; 
one of whom the people are now assembling to elect. This 
election of priests by the majority of voices, is a curious circum- 
stance. The Jainas appear to be thorough republicans, not in 
religious mailers only, but also in civil." Among the Budhiste 
there ii> an almoat unlimited admission of postulants ; nor are any 
to be rejected, unless, a* we have noticed, the candidate be deformed, 
dineased, or the servant of another. When admission has been ob- 
tained, and the rile of ordination been passed through, there is 
perfect equality among oil the members, as regards the reception of 
privilege and the exercise of power. It was a mighty achievement 
that was accomplished by Ootama, when in India, where the fetters 
of caslo are riveted with the greatest strength, he successfully iu- 
■liluted an order that sets its restraints nl open defiance, and joined 
the r^'a. the brahman, the sudra, and the outcaste, in one common 
brotherhood. Among the persons who were first admitted to the 
priesthood by Gotama, according to an ancient legend, were several 
princes of high rank- Upon a festive occasion they stole away Iu 
a private place, having previously agreed upon ihc course they 
would puniur, and taking off llieir ornaments gave them lo the 
barber Upali.* Th« barber reflected that if it would be a gain to 
the princes lo become recluses, it must be a much greater advan- 
tage to him to embrace the some mode of life ; and he at once n- 
solved to follow their example. The princes consented that He 
•hoold accompany Ihem, and when ihcy came to the village in 
which Hudha wna rcaiding nt the time, ihcy requested, as a mark 
of th«ir tiucerity, that the barber should be ordained iirst. They 
thought that, as they would have to worship him because of bis 
prior ulmiKsiDn, their return to the world would be thereby pre- 
vented. OS it would be impossible for them to brave the ndlculc ot 

their relalivec 

worBblpped tlie barber?" tiudha approvlDg of tbeir deiigii, ihi 

buber was admitted tlrst to ordination, and weu worshipped by 


There is no order among the BudhislB distinct From that of 
presbytery, the sanghn b^ing u congregation of tb^os, or etdef^ 
presided over by a moderator, who is etriclly primus inter [ 
Whilst maintaining tiie necessity oF a succession, the puwer is re« 
garded us being resident in tiie asBocIatiun, and not in the inditit 
dual. The idea of a successiua is not lightly treated by thfl 
Budhists, inasmuch as they consider that there can be no trofl 
sangha utiless its members have been odmitlcd tu the order by §( 
previous eangha, of legal constitution ; and carrying liack the saras 
thought another step, they do not consider any sangha to be lej^lly 
constituted, uoless there has been, in the same manner, a succesMoa 
of regular appointments, from tlie commcneement of the orderal 
When in any country the succession has Licea lost, no attempt buM 
been made to create a spontaneous sangha. When better timoM 
have come, application has bceu made to aome other country for • 
renewal of the authority. And even when certjiin classes hare 
been illegally shut out from the reception of the order, they have 
in no instance that has come under my notice regarded tbeineelve«| 
as forming a perfect church, uniil the succession was legally re*J 
ceived. The confession of sin being made to the priests urhem 
assembled in chapter, and not to an individual, b another proof oVi 
tiic jtopular spirit that runs through the system. It is also worthy 
of remark, that if all the priests in any given temple or district, 
though regularly ordained, were to be guilty of some misdemeanonr 
requiring absolution, it would be out of their ]x>wer to hold 
sangha. until they had been absolved by some priest who was fi 
from the same impediment ; and although the absolving priest w< 
to be guilty of some other, and even greater misdemeanour, it woi 
be no bar to his exercise of the power of absolution. In the 
church confession was made opeuly to the whole assembly of 
failh/ul ; but as this course led to great evib, the power lo 
confession was confined to the clergy, by which the exercise uf dts- 
cipline was in time {>erveried from its legitimate uses. Tlie >trugg|a 
• fdjftwuli 

XXIV. THE vou-r. ov tHK PAST. 377 

for superiority that we nee among all classes of men was exhibited 
in this particular. After the commencement of the mendicHni 
orders, a controversy arose as to whether it was lawM to confess to 
any other tluin the pariah priest, as it waa declared by many that 
even ibe pope himBclf bad not this power uitliout ibc priest' >< con- 
sent. Hut fionifacc VIII. decreed that application should be made 
to the bishop, when it was desirable that any friar should administer 
the sncrainent of pcDOQce; and if the bishop refuited the requeai, 
Hpplicalion might be made to the pojic, who, if he thought fit, 
might grant it " by the plenitude of his power," 

Among all ascetics there is a tendency to superstition, which in 
wi-aker minds generalcti the conic ijtienceH that arise from melan- 
choly and fear, and lends gtrun)i;er or more daring minds to form 
unnarranlcd it^sumplions relative lo the powers (but may be ac- 
ijuired by means of the |>ri%-i]ege!> of their position. When a school- 
boy 1 had Humctimcs lo pass the abbey of Kiikslall, at night, and 
alone; and from the impression then made upon my mind, 1 can 
easily suppose in wliat manner the ancient monasteries might be- 
come the birth-place of unearthly ima^nations and supposed sapcr- 
nalural appearances. There would be the hooting of owls, ihc 
beating of the air by ihe bat's broad wing, and the cry of the rook 
ua the biwt of the storm shook the tree to which its nctit was ut- 
tacUed; noises would be heard in every part of the edifice, now in 
the roof, ftnd now in the crypt, as the wind rushed through the 
apertures of the tower and along Ihc aisles ; the passage from the 
dormitory to the chapel, when the monk was jusl aroused from 
sleep, and then the wild ajipearance and tremulous intonations ol' 
some of the more fervent of the brethren, would render bin) aus. 
cnptihte of the most agitating impressions; the images and pictures 
of the naints would sometimes seem to smile, and at other times lo 
weep, a.! the mooiiboam or the dim light from the waxen taper fell 
upon their features ; when the banners above were moved by the 
breciu-, U would seem like the rushing of the wings of spirits come 
to watch thorn at their orisons ; in inslancss not a few, deeds of 
darkncs* would ha*c been rtnno by one or other of Ihe inmates, or 
upon thu vsrae spot; near tlic altar would be relics; the monu- 
ments uptm Ihe waUa would tell that the dead were near, and the 
reiiieiery would add ita BJHM>ciattons to incrcuve thu force of tJtese 
terrors. By [hoc agencies tbe iraagiualivn would be most power- 


fully wtought upon; wliibt in such places there would be litlle of 
the ligbt of science or of scriptural truth to prove the unrealitj of 
the fears that had been raised ; and in the silence and solitude of 
the cloister ample time would be afforded for dwelling upon these 
ideas in iheir sternest form. To many of the^e phantoms l>ie re- 
cluse of the forest is u stranger ; but there ie no scene upon eurtb 
that the darkness cannot people with '■ the children of an idle 
brain." Abroad there may be the screaming of the bird of prey, 
the roar of the wild beast, as he seeks his "rictim or rejoices in its 
blood, and the mystic voice of the waterfall ; and in the shade of 
the rock, or the gloom of the cave, when the silence is broken only 
by the dull fall of the water-drop that has percolated through the 
roof, or the overhanging branches assume to themselves shapes of 
gibe and threat as they wave in the breeze, the spirit of even the 
bravest will not be entirely immored. The trees too hare a voice, 
only to be equalled in its terribleness by the ocean's roar ; and there 
are times when (he storm seems to stir the very depths of the 
forest in its anger, and every blast is like the shout of defiance from 
some invisible power preparing itself for the falal onslaught. 

But in India an influence is presenlcd that can exist in no other 
region of the world to the same extent ; and it is this that givea to 
the asceticism of the Hindus a congruity, and invests it with • 
dignity that cannot be obtained in other lands. The warmth of tlie 
climate enables the recluse to remain abroad nearly the whole of 
tlic year with comparatively little inconvenience. Other associa- 
tions are produced besides those that turn the mind back upon 
itself, and make its thinkings an eating into its own vitality. The 
smile of the moon, the twinkling of the stars, the span of the nun- 
bow, and the gathering of the clouds, seem here to assume even 
more than their wonted magtiihcence. It is unnecessary to ttate, 
tliat in many places the expanse of the horizon in almost Umitlcs* 
to ihe east, the west, and the south ; and that towards the north tl 
is bounded only by the most sublime range of mountains upon 
which the eye of man ever rested. We may learn from Ilumboldl 
the nature of the inspiration inhaled in such a scene. It was wh«n 
wandering ** amidst the Alpine landscapes of tropical America and 
the dreary steppe-lands of Northern Asin." that the mind uf this 
great man, whose science I venerate, but over whose rpligious sen. 
tiinents 1 deeply mourn, wns led to determine to write n work lluU 
■houM elaborate his view of created things, whether on earth or in 


celcstiul space. We need not wonder, thererore. at tlie vaatness of 
tbe idens presented in the religioua Bfst«ms that have emonted troin 
India. The starveling recluse of Europe bears & similar relation to 
his elder brother of India, that the stunted cuotic does to the 
gig;antic tree in iis primitive forest, rich in foliage, but wanton in 
its wildne»s and terrible in the mnjeBty of Its presence. 

To aid in the perfecting of a system like that of the Vedss or the 
I'itakiut. India presents other advantages. The system of caste, 
with all its evils, has bad one favourable result ; it has prevented 
much bloodshed. The people of the lower castes are comparatively 
indificrenl as to what government they live under ; if it be benefi- 
cent, it brings to them no boon : if it be oppressive, no addition&l 
eurse. Tlie village in which thoy reside is frequently surrounded 
by the abodes of men of other castes, with whom they have little 
intercourse; and political intrigue is no more to them than to the 
timid fawn that croHscs their pathway as they traverse tbe forest. 
The great events of the age are disregarded, or perhaps entirely un- 
known. It is recorded of India, by Robertson, that whilst hostile 
armies have been fighting a battle in one field, the peasants of the 
country have h«en ploughing or reaping in the next field. This 
statement is not to be received liternlly, but in it-i main feature! it 
agrees with fact, and confirms the view I have given of the social 
position of the Hindus. The yogi, in consequence, lives within a 
world of hie own; the aspirations that have been awoke within 
him are the result of his own thoughts, and he gives them to one 
■ingle object. Robert Hall says, that " the power of fixing the 
attention is tbe most precious of the intellectual habits; " and it has 
been said by Archimedes, that " he had the power and habit of in- 
tense and persevering thought, without which other intellectual 
gifts are comparatively useless.'' For the acquirement of this power 
of mental insulation the Hindu has pre-eminent advantages ; and 
his thinkings have an intensity, a continuity, and an amplitude that 
arc peculiar to himself. Were he willing to set out hom some 
Hmple truth oa the starling point, and then to pass on by regular 
induction to other truths, his uninlcrruptedncsa of thought might 
lead to results of anspcakable benefit lo mankind ; but instead of 
this, he lets his imagination only tak« wing, and bids all his other 
faculties remain in abeyance that they may silently natch ile flight 
into the outer darkness. 

It wiu from these cause* tliat th« extravagance of prdcnMun put 


forth by lie Hindus oiiginiitcd. " According lo tlie SArikya 
system,'' we are told by Colebrooke,* " power is eight-fold : con- 
«iatin(; in the faculty of shrinking into a minute form, lo n-hicb 
everything is pen-ious; or enlarging to a gigantic body; or *»- 
Burning levity (rising along a aunbeam to the solar orbj ; or posMui- 
ing unlimited reach of organs (as touching the moon with the tip of 
a Snger); or irresistible will (for instance, sinking into the e^ith, 
as easily us in water) ; dominion over all beings, animutc or inani- 
mate ; faculty of changing the course of nature ; ability to accom- 
plish anything desired One of the four chapters of Palan- 

jali'a Yoga-snslra (the third) relatea almost exclusively to this sub- 
ject, from which it takes its title. It is full of directions for mental 
and bodily exercises, consisting of intensely profound meditation on 
special topics, accompanied by suppression of breath and restraint 
of the senses, white steadily maintaining prescribed postures. Uy 
such exercises, the adept acquires the knowledge of everything poet 
and future ; remote or hidden ; he divines the thoughts of others ; 
gains the strength of an elephant, the courage of a lion, and thit 
swiftness of the wind : flies in the air, floats in the water, dives 
into the earth, contemplates all worlds at one glance, and performs 
other strange fcals.'' The powers attributed to the rfthals aru 
equally wonderful ; far greater than any that the wizards, the sor- 
cerers, or the genii of other lands have dared to assume ; and th« 
silent abstraction of the sage is mare potent than all the circles